Bureau of Investigation and Statistics
The Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (BIS), commonly known as Juntong (traditional Chinese: 軍統; simplified Chinese: 军统; pinyin: Jūntǒng), was the intelligence agency of the Republic of China. It was devoted to intelligence gathering for purposes of national security and defense. It was originally headed by Dai Li, and after 1946 he was succeeded by Mao Renfeng.
The BIS secret police was distributed amongst the Kuomintang's military, police, administration, and transportation agencies, as well as embassies and consulates abroad. It specialized in surveillance, kidnapping, assassinations, and other means of arrest.
During the Sino-Japanese War, the BIS also engaged in a number of intelligence gathering and espionage activities against the Japanese invaders. There are some BIS staff who surrendered to Japan, and many of the secret police in Japanese-occupied areas were former BIS agents.
The BIS was founded in 1927 as the "Military Commission of Clandestine Investigation Section" with the "Special Works Department" set up in 1932. When the "Investigation and Statistics Bureau" was established under the Military Commission, the "Special Works Department" was incorporated into the Bureau and renamed the "Second Division", and is responsible for intelligence collection and personnel training. All of the bureau's affairs were under the direct command of Chiang Kai-shek.
In 1938, the Special Works Department was expanded and took over the "Investigation and Statistics Bureau" to cope with the increasingly demanding tasks of intelligence operations. Dai Li was assigned as the de facto responsibility for running the unit. Dai sought to make the Juntong into an extended family with himself as the stern paternal figure.
Sino-Japanese War period
During the Sino-Japanese War, BIS had orchestrated the assassinations of several key enemy military and government personnels. Various "guerrilla command" and "traffic police" groups under the BIS carried out a wide range of guerrilla activities against the Japanese and Japanese collaborators.
From 1937-41, more than 18,000 BIS official staff lost their lives, and by the end of the war the number has increased to more than 45,000.
Chinese Civil War period
In August 1946, the Ministry of National Defense was established to replace the Military Commission, and the BIS changed its name to the Counterespionage Bureau under the Ministry of National Defense. Mao Renfeng was the director given the de facto responsibility for running the unit.
After 1949 in mainland China
After Nationalist government was moved to Taiwan in 1949, a number of BIS staff remained in mainland China for intelligence activities. The BIS staff were severely repressed by Chinese Communist government during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and were mostly executed by firing squad or received heavy punishment. By end of the 1950s, the BIS staff were largely eliminated on the mainland.
In 1955, the Bureau was again reorganized as the Intelligence Bureau, responsible for early-warning intelligence collection and strategic analysis. Since then, the Ministry of Justice took over the functions of counterespionage and investigation from the Bureau.
On July 1, 1985, the Military Intelligence Bureau was created by merging the Special Military Intelligence Office with the Intelligence Bureau. The Military Intelligence Bureau was subordinated to the Ministry of National Defense under the direct command of the Chief of the General Staff.
- Wen-hsin Yeh "Dai Li and the Liu Geqing Affair: Heroism in the Chinese Secret Service During the War of Resistance" pages 545-562 from The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 48, Issue #3 August 1989 pages 546-547