Burgas Airport

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Burgas Airport
Летище Бургас
Burgas airport logo.png
Burgas Airport 01.JPG
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerFraport
OperatorFraport Twin Star Airport Management
ServesBurgas, Bulgaria
LocationBurgas, Bulgaria
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL41 m / 135 ft
Coordinates42°34′13″N 027°30′55″E / 42.57028°N 27.51528°E / 42.57028; 27.51528Coordinates: 42°34′13″N 027°30′55″E / 42.57028°N 27.51528°E / 42.57028; 27.51528
Websiteburgas-airport.com
Map
BOJ is located in Bulgaria
BOJ
BOJ
Location of airport in Bulgaria
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
04/22 3,200 10,500 Concrete
Statistics (2017)
Passengers2,982,339 Increase3.6%
Aircraft movements21,466 Increase2.8%
Source: Bulgarian AIP at EUROCONTROL

Burgas Airport (IATA: BOJ, ICAO: LBBG) (Bulgarian: Летище Бургас, translit. Letishte Burgas) is an international airport in southeast Bulgaria and the second largest airport in the country. The airport is located near to the north neighbourhood of Burgas, Sarafovo, which is located approximately 10 kilometres from the city centre. The airport serves Burgas and seaside resorts of Bulgarian south coast and is a major destination during the European summer leisure season. In 2017, the airport handled 2,982,339 passengers, a 3.6% increase compared to 2016.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

On 27 June 1937 the French company CIDNA (now part of Air France), chose the area of Burgas Airport to build a radio station and signed a contract with the Bulgarian government for its use. The contract expressly stated that the staff of Burgas Airport would be Bulgarian.

On 29 June 1947, Balkan Bulgarian Airlines began domestic flights between Burgas, Plovdiv and Sofia, using Junkers Ju 52/3m aircraft. In the 1950s and 1960s the airport was expanded and modernized by building a concrete runway. In 1970, the airport became an international airport serving 45 destinations.[1]

Development since the 2000s[edit]

Burgas airport has been subject to heavy traffic following the growing tourism industry in Bulgaria and was in need of major investments to expand and handle projected passenger traffic. In June 2006, the Bulgarian Government awarded Fraport AG Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide a 35-year-long concession on both Varna and Burgas airports in return for investments exceeding €500 million.

Fraport entered into partnership with Varna-based company BM Star. The concessionaire has vowed to inject 403 million Euro in the two airports during the lifespan of the arrangement. Fraport will pay 60% of an investment of EUR 403 million over the 35-year concession. The investments will be made in new terminal facilities, vehicles and equipment and expanding apron areas at the airports over the life of the concession

On 18 July 2012 a bomb exploded on a passenger bus transporting Israeli tourists at the Burgas Airport. The explosion killed seven people and injured thirty-two (see 2012 Burgas bus bombing).

Facilities[edit]

Aerial view of Burgas Airport

Terminals[edit]

In December 2011 construction work began on the new Terminal 2. The new terminal was planned to have a capacity of 2,700,000 passengers and an area of 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft). The new terminal building was designed so that it can be easily upgraded to further increase capacity, if necessary. Construction of the new terminal was completed in 2013, and has been operational since December 2013.[2]

Terminal 2 replaced the older Terminal 1, which was built in the 1950s and expanded in the early 1990s, and now handles all of the airport's passenger traffic. The terminal is equipped with 31 check-in counters, three boarding-card checkpoints, nine security lanes and eight departure gates. The arrivals area (divided into Schengen and non-Schengen zones) has 12 immigration stations and four baggage carousels (one 120 metres (390 ft) long and three 70 metres (230 ft) long carousels). Passenger amenities include 800 square metres (8,600 sq ft) of space dedicated to shopping and 1,220 square metres (13,100 sq ft) for food and beverage (F&B) services. There is also a 550 square metres (5,900 sq ft) outdoor courtyard.

Runway[edit]

At 3,200 metres (10,500 ft), Burgas Airport has the fourth longest runway in the Balkans, after Athens Airport, Sofia Airport and Belgrade Airport.
In 31 October 2016 begins reconstruction and rehabilitation of taxiways at Burgas airport. The project includes a complete rehabilitation of 3,500 square meters of taxiway "H", complete rehabilitation of taxiway "A", as well as area adjacent to the runway holding point. During this period also the replacement of the control and monitoring system for airfield lighting and approach light equipment will be completed. The total investment of Fraport Twin Star Airport Management in these projects is over BGN 12 million.[3][4]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights at Burgas Airport:

AirlinesDestinations
Aer Lingus Seasonal: Dublin
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo[5]
Seasonal: Saint Petersburg
airBaltic Seasonal charter: Riga[6]
Anda Air Seasonal charter: Kiev–Zhuliany[7]
Arkia Seasonal charter: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion[8]
Azur Air Seasonal charter: Moscow–Vnukovo,[9] Omsk,[9] Perm,[9] Rostov-on-Don-Platov,[9] Saint Petersburg,[9] Tyumen,[9] Yekaterinburg[9]
Azur Air Ukraine Seasonal charter: Kiev–Boryspil[10]
Belavia Seasonal charter: Brest,[11] Gomel,[11] Grodno,[11] Minsk,[11] Mogilev,[11] Vitebsk[11]
BH Air Seasonal: Aberdeen, Belfast–International, Billund, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Copenhagen, Doncaster/Sheffield, Durham Tees Valley, East Midlands, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Humberside, Leeds/Bradford, London–Gatwick, London–Stansted, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norwich
Seasonal charter: Bergen,[12] Harstad/Narvik (begins 11 June 2019),[13] Oulu,[14] Stockholm–Arlanda,[15] Trondheim (begins 26 June 2019)[12]
Bluebird Airways Seasonal charter: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion[8]
Bravo Airways Seasonal charter: Kiev–Zhuliany[7]
Brussels Airlines Seasonal: Brussels
Bul Air Seasonal charter: Moscow–Vnukovo[16]
Bulgaria Air Seasonal: Moscow–Sheremetyevo,[17] Sofia, Varna
Bulgarian Air Charter Seasonal charter: Basel/Mulhouse,[18] Berlin-Schönefeld,[18] Berlin–Tegel,[18] Cologne/Bonn,[18] Dresden,[18] Düsseldorf,[18] Erfurt/Weimar,[18] Frankfurt,[18] Graz,[18] Hamburg,[18] Hannover,[18] Katowice,[19] Leipzig/Halle,[18] Linz,[18] Munich,[18] Nuremberg,[18] Poznań,[19] Rzeszów,[20] Salzburg,[21] Stuttgart,[18] Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion,[8] Vienna,[21] Warsaw–Chopin,[19] Wroclaw[19]
Corendon Airlines Seasonal: Brussels
Corendon Dutch Airlines Seasonal: Amsterdam, Maastricht/Aachen[22]
Danish Air Transport Seasonal charter: Billund (begins 18 June 2019),[23] Copenhagen (begins 18 June 2019)[23]
El Al Seasonal charter: Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion[8]
Enter Air Seasonal charter: Bydgoszcz,[24] Gdańsk (begins 11 June 2019),[24] Katowice,[24] Łódź (begins 14 June 2019),[19] Rzeszów,[24] Warsaw–Chopin,[24] Wrocław[24]
Finnair Seasonal: Helsinki[25]
Germania Seasonal: Berlin–Schönefeld, Bremen, Munich, Münster/Osnabrück, Nuremberg,[26] Rostock/Laage
Germania Flug Seasonal: Zürich
I-Fly Seasonal charter: Moscow–Vnukovo[27]
Israir Airlines Seasonal charter: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion[8]
Jet2.com Seasonal: Belfast-International (begins 29 May 2019), Birmingham (begins 6 May 2019), East Midlands (begins 7 May 2019), Edinburgh (begins 11 May 2019), Glasgow (begins 7 May 2019), Leeds/Bradford (begins 8 May 2019), London-Stansted (begins 6 May 2019), Manchester (begins 6 May 2019), Newcastle upon Tyne (begins 8 May 2019)
Jet Time Seasonal charter: Billund,[28] Copenhagen (begins 22 May 2019)[28]
Luxair Seasonal: Luxembourg
Seasonal charter: Belfast–International[29]
NordStar Seasonal charter: Moscow–Domodedovo[30]
Nordwind Airlines Seasonal charter: Kazan,[31] Moscow–Sheremetyevo,[31] Saint Petersburg,[32] Samara,[31] Ufa[31]
Norwegian Air Shuttle Seasonal: Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal charter: Stavanger[12]
Novair Seasonal charter: Oslo–Gardermoen[13]
Pegas Fly Seasonal charter: Arkhangelsk[31]
Rossiya Airlines Seasonal charter: Moscow–Vnukovo[33]
Ryanair Seasonal: Bergamo, Bratislava, Hahn, Kaunas, Kraków, Memmingen, Riga, Rzeszów, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Warsaw–Modlin, Weeze
Ryanair Sun Seasonal charter: Gdańsk (begins 18 May 2019),[24] Katowice,[24] Łódź (begins 14 June 2019),[24] Poznań,[24] Warsaw–Chopin[24]
S7 Airlines Moscow–Domodedovo
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal charter: Oslo–Gardermoen[13]
Severstal Air Company Seasonal charter: Cherepovets[27]
Small Planet Airlines Seasonal charter: Vilnius[34]
SmartLynx Airlines Seasonal charter: Riga[35]
Smartlynx Airlines Estonia Seasonal charter: Tallinn[35]
SmartWings Seasonal: Bratislava, Brno, Košice, Ostrava, Pardubice, Poprad, Prague, Sliač
SunExpress Deutschland Seasonal: Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg (begins 5 June 2019), Hannover, Leipzig/Halle, Munich,[36] Nuremberg, Stuttgart
Thomas Cook Airlines Seasonal: Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, East Midlands, Glasgow, London–Gatwick, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne
Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia Seasonal charter: Helsinki,[37] Oslo–Gardermoen[38]
Travel Service Poland Seasonal charter: Gdańsk,[39] Katowice,[39] Warsaw–Chopin[39]
TUI Airways Seasonal: Belfast–International, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Doncaster/Sheffield, East Midlands, Edinburgh (begins 13 May 2019),[40] Glasgow, London–Gatwick, London–Stansted, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne
Seasonal charter: Dublin[41]
TUI fly Belgium Seasonal: Brussels, Ostend/Bruges
Seasonal charter: Lille,[42] Lyon,[42] Nantes,[42] Paris–Charles de Gaulle[42][43]
TUI fly Netherlands Seasonal: Amsterdam
TUI fly Nordic Seasonal charter: Gothenburg,[15] Helsinki,[14] Stockholm-Arlanda[15]
Ukraine International Airlines Seasonal charter: Kiev–Boryspil[44]
Ural Airlines Seasonal: Yekaterinburg
Seasonal charter: Moscow–Domodedovo[32]
Voyage Air Seasonal: Vienna[45]
Widerøe Seasonal charter: Trondheim (begins 18 June 2019)[13]
Windrose Airlines Seasonal: Dnipropetrosk[46]
Wizz Air London–Luton
Seasonal: Budapest, Katowice, Warsaw–Chopin
Yakutia Airlines Seasonal charter: Moscow–Vnukovo[27]
Yamal Airlines Seasonal charter: Moscow–Domodedovo[27]

Statistics[edit]

Traffic[edit]

Traffic at Burgas Airport
Year Domestic
passengers
Change International
passengers
Change Total
passengers
Change Cargo
(tonnes)
Change Aircraft
movements
Change
1998
16,020
417,004
433,024
6,092
1999
14,734
Decrease 8%
324,563
Decrease 22%
339,297
Decrease 21.6%
5,722
Decrease 6.1%
2000
8,964
Decrease 39.2%
389,051
Increase 19.9%
398,015
Increase 17.3%
73
5,224
Decrease 8.7%
2001
1,993
Decrease 77.8%
592,403
Increase 52.3%
594,396
Increase 49.3%
161
Increase120.5%
5,633
Increase7.8%
2002
1,882
Decrease 5.6%
765,594
Increase 29.2%
767,476
Increase 29.1%
925
Increase474.5%
6,515
Increase 15.6%
2003
1,858
Decrease 1.3%
1,024,179
Increase 33.8%
1,026,037
Increase 33.7%
635
Decrease31.4%
8,136
Increase 24.8%
2004
2,621
Increase 41.1%
1,339,552
Increase 30.8%
1,342,173
Increase 30.8%
899
Increase41.6%
10,692
Increase 31.4%
2005
2,232
Decrease 14.8%
1,553,398
Increase 16%
1,555,603
Increase 16%
122
Decrease86.4%
11,842
Increase 10.7%
2006
1,504
Decrease 32.6%
1,706,695
Increase 9.9%
1,708,199
Increase 9.8%
405
Increase232.0%
13,364
Increase 12.8%
2007
11,346
Increase 654.4%
1,926,279
Increase 12.9%
1,937,625
Increase 13.4%
2,051
Increase406.4%
13,606
Increase 1.8%
2008
15,061
Increase 32.7%
1,905,562
Decrease 1.1%
1,920,623
Decrease 0.8%
1,338
Decrease34.8%
13,794
Increase 1.4%
2009
12,450
Decrease 17.3%
1,671,336
Decrease 12.3%
1,683,786
Decrease 12.3%
2,597
Increase94.1%
11,956
Decrease 13.3%
2010
14,273
Increase 14.6%
1,858,345
Increase 11.2%
1,872,618
Increase 11.2%
5,654
Increase117.7%
13,774
Increase 15.2%
2011
77,789
Increase 445%
2,151,256
Increase 21.2%
2,229,045
Increase 19%
5,991
Increase6.0%
19,215
Increase 19%
2012
69,244
Decrease 11%
2,287,621
Increase 6.3%
2,356,865
Increase 5.7%
2,281
Decrease61.9%
16,961
Decrease 11.7%
2013
44,780
Decrease 34.3%
2,416,868
Increase 2.5%
2,461,648
Increase 4.4%
2,625
Increase15.1%
18,008
Increase 6.2%
2014
36,589
Decrease 18.3%
2,485,730
Increase 2.8%
2,522,319
Increase 2.6%
5,354
Increase104.0%
18,869
Increase 0.8%
2015
30,376
Decrease 17%
2,329,944
Decrease 7.3%
2,360,320
Decrease 6.7%
13,272
Increase147.9%
18,271
Decrease 4.3%
2016
21,104
Decrease 30.5% [47]
2,857,779
Increase 22.7%
2,878,883
Increase 22.0%
10,877
Decrease18.0%
20,873
Increase 14.2%
2017 [48]
Increase
Increase
2,982,339
Increase 3.6%
14,300
Increase31.5%
21,466
Increase 2.8%
2018 (01.01-31.10)[49]
Increase
Increase
3,254,129
Increase 9.9%
6,668
Decrease 47.4%
22,853
Increase 8.2%

Busiest routes[edit]

Busiest routes at Burgas Airport[50][51]
City Airport(s) Weekly Departures
(Summer 2018)
Airline(s)
Russia Moscow Domodedovo Airport
Sheremetyevo Airport
Vnukovo Airport
91
Azur Air, Red Wings Airlines, S7 Airlines, Ural Airlines, Yamal Airlines
Aeroflot, Bulgaria Air, Nordwind Airlines
Bul Air, I-Fly, Rossiya, Yakutia Airlines
Czech Republic Prague Václav Havel Airport
38
Bulgarian Air Charter, SmartWings, Travel Service
Israel Tel Aviv Ben Gurion Airport
34
Arkia, Bluebird Airways, Bulgaria Air, Bulgarian Air Charter, EL AL, Israir Airlines, Ryanair
Poland Katowice Katowice Airport
33
Bulgaria Air, Bulgarian Air Charter, Enter Air, Ryanair Sun, Small Planet Airlines, Travel Service, Wizz Air
Poland Warsaw Chopin Airport
Modlin Airport
26
Bulgaria Air, Bulgarian Air Charter, Enter Air, Ryanair Sun, Small Planet Airlines, Travel Service, Wizz Air
Ryanair
United Kingdom London Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
Stansted Airport
21
BH Air, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Thomas Cook Airlines, TUI Airways
Wizz Air
BH Air, TUI Airways
Russia Saint Petersburg Pulkovo Airport
20
Azur Air, Bulgaria Air, Nordwind Airlines, Red Wings Airlines, Rossiya
Slovakia Bratislava M. R. Štefánik Airport
16
Bulgarian Air Charter, Ryanair, SmartWings, Travel Service
Czech Republic Brno Tuřany Airport
14
Bulgarian Air Charter, SmartWings, Travel Service
Germany Düsseldorf Düsseldorf Airport
Weeze Airport
14
Bulgarian Air Charter, Condor, Eurowings, SunExpress Deutschland
Ryanair
Belarus Minsk Minsk National Airport
14
Belavia
Denmark Copenhagen Kastrup Airport
12
Atlantic Airways, BH Air, BRA, DAT, Norwegian Air Shuttle, SAS, TUI fly Nordic
Germany Leipzig Leipzig/Halle Airport
12
Bulgarian Air Charter, Condor, Small Planet Airlines, SunExpress Deutschland
United Kingdom Manchester Manchester Airport
12
BH Air, Thomas Cook Airlines, TUI Airways
Czech Republic Ostrava Leoš Janáček Airport
12
Bulgarian Air Charter, SmartWings, Travel Service
Netherlands Amsterdam Schiphol Airport
11
BH Air, Corendon Airlines, Transavia, TUI fly Netherlands
Germany Frankfurt Frankfurt Airport
Hahn Airport
11
Bulgarian Air Charter, Condor, Lufthansa, SunExpress Deutschland
Ryanair
Belgium Brussels Zaventem Airport
10
Brussels Airlines, Corendon Airlines, TUI fly Belgium
Hungary Budapest Ferenc Liszt Airport
10
Bulgarian Air Charter, Travel Service, Wizz Air
Poland Poznań Ławica Airport
10
Bulgaria Air, Enter Air, Ryanair Sun, Small Planet Airlines, Travel Service

Ground transportation[edit]

Bus[edit]

Line No 15 (Bus-stop: located at the entrance of the airport area).Initial and final bus stops in Burgas – Burgas bus station "South".[52]

Taxi[edit]

The Taxi Piazza is located in front of the Arrivals Terminal at Burgas Airport. A taxi ride from Burgas Airport to the city takes approx 15 minutes, depending on the traffic intensity.[53]

Parking[edit]

Passengers and guests arriving at Burgas Airport with their personal car can use the commercially available parking lot, located in the immediate vicinity of the main terminal building. The parking lot has 199 car spaces available and is accessible 24 hours a day.[54]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • On 18 July 2012, an attack at Burgas Airport occurred. A suicide bomber boarded a bus which was transporting Israeli citizens to the Bulgarian resort of Sunny Beach located in Burgas, the perpetrator detonated the bomb killing 6 civilians (+ 1 suicide bomber) as well as injuring 32 people. The attack resulted in the closure of Burgas Airport for over 30 hours, resulting in the majority of flights diverting to Varna Airport.[55][56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in Bulgarian) http://cholakovv.com/bg/projects/followme
  2. ^ "New terminal at Burgas Airport opens - Airport World Magazine".
  3. ^ "Burgas Airport To Shut Down October 31 - December 30 - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency".
  4. ^ "News". www.burgas-airport.bg.
  5. ^ "Aeroflot expands network offering in S18". routesonline.com. 2 January 2018.
  6. ^ "Timetable". www.tez-tour.com.
  7. ^ a b "Timetable" (PDF). iev.aero. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Online Flights". iaa.gov.il. 15 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Flights". anextour.com. 24 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Flights map". azurair.ua. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "freight monitor". online.joinup.ua. 9 July 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "Only Flight". tui.no.
  13. ^ a b c d "Flight". apollo.no.
  14. ^ a b "Only Flight". tui.fi.
  15. ^ a b c "Only Flight". tui.se.
  16. ^ "Flight schedule". vnukovo.ru. 24 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Burgas". air.bg. 25 April 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Flight". fti.de. 14 October 2018.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Coral Travel". coraltravel.pl.
  20. ^ "Charter flights". charterflights.r.pl. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Flight". tui.at.
  22. ^ "Ticket Bourgas". corendon.com. 25 April 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Flight". apollorejser.dk. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Charter flights". Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  25. ^ "TIMETABLE". finnair.com. 16 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Timetable". flygermania.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d "Flight Search". burgas-airport.bg. 24 April 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Only Flight". tui.dk.
  29. ^ "Travel Solutions Unveil Luxair for Summer 2018". nitravelnews.com. 6 May 2018.
  30. ^ "Route map". nordstar.ru. 25 April 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Flight Search". pegasys.pegast.ru.
  32. ^ a b "Availability". tui.ru. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Flight schedule". bgoperator.ru.
  34. ^ "Timetable". www.tez-tour.com.
  35. ^ a b "Novaturas Flights en". Novaturas flights. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  36. ^ "SunExpress Germany S18 new routes as of 15NOV17". routesonline.com. 16 November 2017.
  37. ^ "Flight". tjareborg.fi.
  38. ^ "Flight". ving.no.
  39. ^ a b c "air and charter tickets". itaka.pl. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  40. ^ "Flight Timetable". tui.co.uk.
  41. ^ "Flight Timetable". TUI Airways. 7 April 2018.
  42. ^ a b c d "Flights". tui.fr. 28 April 2018.
  43. ^ "TUI Airlines Belgium adds new sectors in S18". routesonline.com. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  44. ^ "ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ПОЛЕТНОЙ ПРОГРАММЫ по БОЛГАРИИ". alf-ua.com.
  45. ^ "Booking – Voyage Air". voyageair.bg.
  46. ^ "Timetable". windrose.aero. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  47. ^ "Главна дирекция "Гражданска въздухоплавателна администрация"". caa.bg.
  48. ^ http://www.fraport.com/content/fraport/en/misc/binaer/traffic-figures/traffic-figures-fraport-group/2017/monthly-traffic-figures/traffic-sheet-en/jcr:content.file/traffic-sheet-2017-december_en.pdf
  49. ^ "Monthly traffic figures" (PDF). 2018.
  50. ^ Flightradar24. "Flightradar24.com - Live flight tracker!". Flightradar24.
  51. ^ "Flight Search". www.burgas-airport.bg.
  52. ^ http://www.bourgas-airport.com/Portals/0/How%20to%20get%20there%20by%20bus%20BOJ_ENG.pdf
  53. ^ http://www.bourgas-airport.com/Portals/0/How%20to%20get%20there%20by%20taxi%20BOJ_ENG.pdf
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
  55. ^ http://www.timesofisrael.com/explosion-rocks-israeli-tour-bus-in-bulgaria Attack Ref 1
  56. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/world/europe/explosion-on-bulgaria-tour-bus-kills-at-least-five-israelis.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all Attack Ref 2

External links[edit]