Buried penis

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Buried penis on a circumcised 30 year old male not due to obesity
Buried penis in a circumcised 40 year old male due to obesity

Buried penis (also known as hidden penis or retractile penis) is a congenital or acquired condition, in which the penis is partially or completely hidden below the surface of the skin. It was first described by Edward Lawrence Keyes in 1919 as the apparent absence of the penis and as being buried beneath the skin of the abdomen, thigh, or scrotum.[1] Further research was done by Maurice Campbell in 1951 when he reported on the penis being buried beneath subcutaneous fat of the scrotum, perineum, hypogastrium, and thigh.[2]

A buried penis can lead to obstruction of urinary stream, poor hygiene, soft tissue infection, phimosis, and inhibition of normal sexual function.

Buried penis is different than micropenis, which is an abnormally small, normally structured penis with a stretched penile length of less than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean for age or stage of sexual development of the patient.[3]

Causes[edit]

Congenital[edit]

Congenital causes can include the maldevelopment of the penile shaft with a lack of attachments of the shaft skin to the penile shaft. While rare, it can include an abnormally large pubic fat pad and firm tissue that pulls the penis inward.[4]

Acquired[edit]

Obesity[edit]

While not every obese male has the buried penis condition, 87% of men that received surgical treatment for buried penis were reported to be obese. Significant overlying abdominal fat can also create an environment that encourages bacterial and fungal growth. Obesity can also increase the likelihood of the development of type II diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by increase susceptibility to infections, making it difficult to successfully and promptly manage the buried penis condition. Such recurring infections can also lead to scar contracture, which can cause the prepubic skin to shift over the shaft and glans, thus invaginating the shaft's skin and leading to a buried penis.[5][6]

Penoscrotal lymphodema[edit]

While an uncommon cause, penoscrotal lymphodema causes a deformity of the shaft and scrotum, resulting in a buried penis.[7]

Overly aggressive circumcision[edit]

In some cases of circumcision, too much foreskin is removed or the suture line constricts, causing cicatricial scarring, which can trap the penis in the remaining foreskin or push the penis into the suprapubic area and lead to a buried penis.[8]

Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO)[edit]

BXO is a chronic inflammatory dermatological process that causes sclerosis of the glans, shaft, prepuce, or urethra. This can result in a cicatrix of the distal penis and its entrapment.[9]

Dysgenic dartos[edit]

Dysgenic dartos is a condition characterized by a lack of dorsal support together with the hypermobility of the ventral skin and the lack of proper attachment between the dartos and the penis. This can enable the penis to "telescope" into the scrotum, thus creating a buried penis.[10]

Treatment[edit]

Adults with a buried penis will either live with their condition or undergo weight-loss programs. However, weight-loss programs are slow and often do not "unbury" the penis; furthermore, poor hygiene from pooling of urine can lead to soft tissue infection.

While the condition may resolve itself without any intervention in very young children, patients may eventually need definitive reconstructive surgery and more urgent surgery if infection is present.[11][12][13][14][15][16] Surgeons who manage this condition are either reconstructive urologic surgeons or plastic surgeons.[citation needed]

Surgical options could include the detachment of the ligaments connecting the base of the penis to the pubic bone; the performance of skin grafts to cover areas of the penis requiring additional skin; liposuction using catheters to suck out fat cells under the skin from the area around the penis; an abdominoplasty in which excess fat and skin from the region are removed; an escutheonectomy in which the pad of fat just above the pubic area is removed; or a panniculectomy in which the panniculus, excess tissue, and skin that hangs over the genitals and thighs are removed.[17] In a video demonstrating the use of a panniculectomy in the repair of adult buried penis, Dr. Bryan Voelzke and his colleagues emphasized the need to tack the suprapubic fat pad to the periosteum of the symphysis pubis as well as the importance of not pulling down the peno-scrotal junction and peno-abdominal junction just in order to further expose the penis.[18]

King IC, Tahir A, Ramanathan C, Siddiqui H developed a modified treatment algorithm employing a single surgical technique consisting primarily of scar release and the mobilization of the skin of the penis.[19]

An article published in August 2019 by Dr. James J. Elist reported that a procedure involving the insertion of a subcutaneous soft silicone penile implant was successful in reversing the condition of adult acquired buried penis.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fahmy, Mohamed (2017), "Phimosis and Paraphimosis", Congenital Anomalies of the Penis, Springer International Publishing, pp. 245–250, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43310-3_38, ISBN 978-3-319-43309-7
  2. ^ Cuckow, Peter M. (2010), "Embryology of the Urogenital Tract", Pediatric Urology, Elsevier, pp. 1–10, doi:10.1016/b978-1-4160-3204-5.00001-3, ISBN 978-1-4160-3204-5
  3. ^ Zenaty, D.; Dijoud, F.; Morel, Y.; Cabrol, S.; Mouriquand, P.; Nicolino, M.; Bouvatier, C.; Pinto, G.; Lecointre, C.; Pienkowski, C.; Soskin, S. (November 2006). "Bilateral anorchia in infancy: Occurrence of micropenis and the effect of testosterone treatment". The Journal of Pediatrics. 149 (5): 687–691. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.07.044. ISSN 0022-3476. PMID 17095345.
  4. ^ "A Subject Rarely Discussed: Hidden or Buried Penis". WebMD. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  5. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  6. ^ Frenkl, Tara L.; Agartwal, Saurabh; Caldamone, Anthony A. (February 2004). "Results of a simplified technique for buried penis repair" (PDF). The Journal of Urology. 171 (2): 826–828. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000107824.72182.95. PMID 14713835. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-24. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  7. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  8. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  9. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  10. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  11. ^ Tang, SH; Kamat, D; Santucci, RA (July 2008). "Modern management of adult-acquired buried penis". Urology. 72 (1): 124–127. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2008.01.059. PMID 18343486.
  12. ^ Chopra, CW; Ayoub, NT; Bromfield, C; Witt, PD (November 2002). "Surgical management of acquired (cicatricial) buried penis in an adult patient". Ann Plast Surg. 49 (5): 545–549. doi:10.1097/00000637-200211000-00017. PMID 12439025. S2CID 31208791.
  13. ^ Crawford, BS (January 1977). "Buried penis". Br J Plast Surg. 30 (1): 96–99. doi:10.1016/s0007-1226(77)90046-7. PMID 836989.
  14. ^ Donatucci, CF; Ritter, EF (February 1998). "Management of the buried penis in adults". J Urol. 159 (2): 420–24. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(01)63939-9. PMID 9649254.
  15. ^ Adham, MN; Teimourian, B; Mosca, P (September 2000). "Buried penis release in adults with suction lipectomy and abdominoplasty". Plast Reconstr Surg. 106 (4): 840–44. doi:10.1097/00006534-200009020-00014. PMID 11007398. S2CID 21513740.
  16. ^ Shaeer, O; Shaeer, K (March 2009). "Revealing the buried penis in adults". J Sex Med. 6 (3): 876–885. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01162.x. PMID 19170865.
  17. ^ "Buried Penis: Causes, Treatment, Incidence, Outlook, and More". Healthline. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  18. ^ Alex Vanni, M. D. (2016-12-07). "Buried penis repair: Videos illustrate aesthetic, functional considerations". Urology Times. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  19. ^ Anandan, Lavanya; Mohammed, Aza (2018). "Surgical management of buried penis in adults". Central European Journal of Urology. 71 (3): 346–352. doi:10.5173/ceju.2018.1676. ISSN 2080-4806. PMC 6202613. PMID 30386659.
  20. ^ Elist, James J.; Baniqued, Matthew; Hosseini, Alireza; Wilson, Steven K. (2019-08-05). "Correction of retractile penis with subcutaneous soft silicone penile implant". International Journal of Impotence Research. 32 (3): 317–322. doi:10.1038/s41443-019-0174-3. ISSN 1476-5489. PMID 31383992. S2CID 199450704.

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