Burkholderia cenocepacia

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Burkholderia cenocepacia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Betaproteobacteria
Order: Burkholderiales
Family: Burkholderiaceae
Genus: Burkholderia
Species: B. cenocepacia
Binomial name
Burkholderia cenocepacia
Vandamme et al. 2003

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a species of Gram-negative bacteria that is common in the environment, can form a biofilm with itself,[1] is resistant to many antibiotics[2] and may cause disease in plants.

Pathogenicity[edit]

It is an opportunistic pathogen and human infections are common in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease, and are often fatal.[3] In cystic fibrosis, it can cause "cepacia syndrome" which is characterized by a rapidly progressive fever, uncontrolled bronchopneumonia, weight loss, and possibly death. A review of B. cenocepacia in respiratory infections of cystic fibrosis patients stated that "one of the most threatening pathogens in [cystic fibrosis] is Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of a bacterial group collectively referred to as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc)".[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

Originally defined as B. cepacia, the group has now been split into nine species,[5] and B. cenocepacia is one of the most intensively-studied.[6]

Microbiology[edit]

In addition, the strong environmental protection response of B. cenocepacia is attributed to the biofilm formed by groups of the organism,.[2] This biofilm contains exopolysaccharides (abbreviated EPS) that strengthen the bacterium's resistance to antibiotics. The biofilm exopolysaccharides acted as a barrier to neutrophils from human immune resistance systems, undermining the neutrophil defense action by inhibiting chemotaxis and reducing the production of reactive oxygen species[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Magdolna Csavas; Lenka Malinovska; Florent Perret; Milan Gyurko; Zita Tunde Illyes; Michaela Wimmerova; Aniko Borbas (14 November 2016). "Tri- and tetravalent mannoclusters cross-link and aggregate BC2L-A lectin from Burkholderia cenocepacia". Carbohydrate Research. Elsevier. 437: 1–8. PMID 27871013. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2016.11.008. Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative bacterium with the ability to form a biofilm 
  2. ^ a b Nida H. Alshraiedeh; Sarah Higginbotham; Padrig B. Flynn; Mahmoud Y. Alkawareek; Michael M. Tunney; Sean P. Gorman; William G. Graham; Brendan F. Gilmore (22 April 2016). "Eradication and phenotypic tolerance of Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms exposed to atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 47 (6): 446–450. PMID 27179816. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.03.004. B. cenocepacia can spread from person to person and exhibits intrinsic broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance 
  3. ^ Magdolna Csavas; Lenka Malinovska; Florent Perret; Milan Gyurko; Zita Tunde Illyes; Michaela Wimmerova; Aniko Borbas (14 November 2016). "Tri- and tetravalent mannoclusters cross-link and aggregate BC2L-A lectin from Burkholderia cenocepacia". Carbohydrate Research. Elsevier. 437: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2016.11.008. It is recognized as an opportunistic human pathogen causing lung infections in immunocompromised individuals, especially in cystic fibrosis patients, with significant mortality and morbidity 
  4. ^ P. Drevinkek; E. Mahenthiralingam. "Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of virulence". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 16 (7): 821–830. PMID 20880411. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03237.x. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Lipuma J (2005). "Update on the Burkholderia cepacia complex.". Curr Opin Pulm Med. 11 (6): 528–33. PMID 16217180. doi:10.1097/01.mcp.0000181475.85187.ed. 
  6. ^ Mahenthiralingam E, Vandamme P (2005). "Taxonomy and pathogenesis of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.". Chron Respir Dis. 2 (4): 209–17. PMID 16541604. doi:10.1191/1479972305cd053ra. 
  7. ^ Johann Bylund; Lee-Anna Burgess; Paola Cescutti; Robert K. Ernst; David P. Speert (29 November 2005). "Exopolysaccharides from Burkholderia cenocepacia Inhibit Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (5): 2526–2532. PMID 16316987. doi:10.1074/jbc.M510692200. Retrieved 6 January 2017. We showed that EPS from a clinical B. cenocepacia isolate interfered with the function of human neutrophils in vitro; it inhibited chemotaxis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both essential components of innate neutrophil-mediated host defenses 

External links[edit]