Burkinabé parliamentary election, 2012
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Parliamentary elections were held in Burkina Faso on 2 December 2012. They were the first elections held since the National Assembly dissolved the National Electoral Commission in 2011, following fraud allegations concerning the 2010 presidential elections. Municipal elections for over 18,000 councillors were held simultaneously. The elections were held amidst a period of political uncertainty, following protests against President Blaise Compaore's regime.
The 2010 presidential elections were criticized by opposition leaders and independent observers for various missteps in democratic practice. Reported issues included the inappropriate influence of traditional leaders, ballot and voting card shortages at polling stations, inaccurate electoral lists and a misappropriation of resources by the state for Compaore's re-election campaign.
The 127 members of the National Assembly were elected for five-year terms, of which 111 were elected in 45 multi-member constituencies ranging in size from two to nine seats, with the remaining 16 elected in a single nationwide constituency. The elections were conducted using closed list proportional representation. Individual candidates won seats based on their position on the party list, the order of which was decided by each party’s leadership.
Opposition parties criticized the government's inability to reliably determine voter eligibility. In response, the government created a biometric voter identification system, and the National Assembly dissolved the existent Electoral Commission. Pryce and Nascimento noted that these steps, along with government campaigns to encourage women's involvement in politics, mark a movement towards sounder political practices in Burkina Faso.
Around 3,000 candidates ran in the 45 provincial constituencies, with 74 parties and electoral alliances competed for the 16 national seats.
The CDP was supported by the Alliance for Democracy and Federation – African Democratic Rally, which was still considered an opposition party. The Union for Progress and Change (UPC), formed by a CDP defector, gained attention as a possible challenger to the CDP prior to the election as it protested he party's attempts to lengthen President Compaore’s term via a constitutional amendment that aimed to remove presidential term limits.
Other minor parties emphasized ideological connections to Thomas Sankara, Compaore's predecessor, with four parties considering themselves Sankarist, including the National Council for Rebirth–Sankarist Movement, Pan-African Union for Sankarism–Progressive Movement, Union for Democratic Rebirth–Sankarist Movement and the Union for Rebirth / Sankarist Movement.
According to domestic and international observers, efficiency and legitimacy improved in the 2012 elections after the government introduced electoral reforms, though opposition forces claimed the ruling party used state resources in its campaign. The elections were observed by 37 parties, all from 21 members of the African Union. There were also a small number of domestic observers, most associated with non-partisan non-governmental organizations, including the Centre for Democratic Governance and the Independent Observatory of Elections.
Bernard Makuza, head of the African Union electoral observer mission, declared the elections free and fair, though he decried public apathy toward the elections, especially in the cities. However, the UPC claimed there was vote rigging in Kadiogo Province, following a delay in reporting ballot counts. UPC campaign director Nathaneal Ouedrego declared his intention to "give proof of fraud and irregularities in Kadiogo in the next days in order to demand pure and simply the cancellation of elections in that province".
Just under 76% of eligible voters participated in the elections, the highest turnout since multi-party politics was reintroduced in 2002, possibly due to the perceived viability of opposition to the CDP. Support in some electoral districts shifted from the CDP to the UPC, leading to a notable decrease in the CDP's popular vote count, although it only lost three seats. The UPC secured as many votes as the ADF–RDA, and more votes than any other opposition party. Overall, thirteen parties won seats.
|Congress for Democracy and Progress||1,467,749||48.66||8||62||70||–3|
|Alliance for Democracy and Federation – African Democratic Rally||338,970||11.24||2||16||18||+4|
|Union for Progress and Reform||334,453||11.09||2||17||19||New|
|Union for Rebirth / Sankarist Movement||131,592||4.36||1||3||4||0|
|Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba||118,713||3.94||1||1||2||0|
|Union for the Republic||92,935||3.08||1||3||5||0|
|Convention of Democratic Forces||72,299||2.40||1||2||3||0|
|Organisation for Democracy and Labour||62,479||2.07||0||1||1||New|
|National Union for Democracy and Development||43,795||1.45||0||1||1||+1|
|Rally for the Development of Burkina||29,164||0.97||0||1||1||–1|
|National Rebirth Party||26,125||0.87||0||0||0||–1|
|National Alliance for Development–Social Justice Party||23,719||0.79||0||0||0||–|
|Rally for Democracy and Socialism||23,504||0.78||0||1||1||New|
|Social Forces Front||22,090||0.73||0||0||0||–|
|National Convention for the Progress of Burkina||13,505||0.45||0||1||1||New|
|Rally of the Republicans||11,989||0.40||0||0||0||–|
|African Movement of the Peoples||11,702||0.39||0||0||0||–|
|Rally of the Ecologists of Burkina||11,539||0.38||0||0||0||–|
|Party for Democracy and Progress / Socialist Party||11,316||0.38||0||0||0||–2|
|Patriotic Party for Development||9,360||0.31||0||0||0||–|
|Party of Independence, Labour and Justice||8,139||0.27||0||0||0||–|
|Union for the Democratic Renaissane/Sankarist Movement||7,769||0.26||0||0||0||–|
|Independent Party of Burkina||7,512||0.25||0||0||0||–|
|Patriotic Movement for the Renewal of Burkina||6,913||0.23||0||0||0||–|
|Party for National Unity and Development||5,093||0.17||0||0||0||–|
|National Democratic Convention||4,976||0.16||0||0||0||–|
|Rally for Independent Forces/Party of the Youth of Burkina||4,883||0.16||0||0||0||–|
|Alternative Burkina–Party for Socialism and Reformation||4,783||0.16||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Centrist Forces||4,623||0.15||0||0||0||–|
|Alliance for the Renaissance, Democracy and Integration||3,897||0.13||0||0||0||–|
|African Progressive Movement||3,805||0.13||0||0||0||–|
|Alliance of Revolutionary Democrats||3,726||0.12||0||0||0||–|
|Alliance of Progressive Forces||3,519||0.12||0||0||0||–|
|Burkinabé People's Party||3,406||0.11||0||0||0||–|
|Movement of the People for Socialism–Federal Party||3,243||0.11||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Patriots for Development||2,997||0.10||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Democrats for Social Progress||2,807||0.09||0||0||0||–|
|National Convention for Reform||2,468||0.08||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Progressive Forces||2,436||0.08||0||0||0||–|
|Alliance for Democracy of Faso||2,091||0.07||0||0||0||–|
|Pro-Democratic Organisation for the Defence of Nature||2,062||0.07||0||0||0||–|
|Republican Party for Total Independence||1,962||0.07||0||0||0||–|
|Party for the Rebirth of Democracy in Faso||1,740||0.06||0||0||0||–|
|Unified Socialist Party||1,470||0.05||0||0||0||–|
|National Union for Independence and Solidarity||1,401||0.05||0||0||0||–|
|Party for Progress and National Renewal||1,391||0.05||0||0||0||–|
|National Council for the Renaissance–Sankarist Movement||1,315||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|National Party of Social Democrats||1,313||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Pan-African Movement of Faso||1,297||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Union for the People's Movement||1,283||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Social Union of Burkina||1,186||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Party of Patriotic Progressives||1,102||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Convention for Democracy and Liberty||1,077||0.04||0||0||0||–|
|Union for the Democratic Rebirth of Burkina||936||0.03||0||0||0||–|
|Movement for Progress and Reform||870||0.03||0||0||0||–|
|People's Council for Action||849||0.03||0||0||0||–|
|Patriotic Movement for Alternation||810||0.03||0||0||0||–|
|Party of Pan-African Patriots||791||0.03||0||0||0||–|
|Patriotic Front for Reform||715||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Greens of Faso||680||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Party for the Protection of the Environment/Nature Conservation||678||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Patriotic Rally of Salvation||671||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Pan-African Union for Sankarism–Progressive Movement||658||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|People's Movement for Democracy||656||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Union for Democracy and Development||510||0.02||0||0||0||–|
|Alliance for the Republic and Democracy||402||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|Patriotic Movement of Democratic Youths||379||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|New Political Rally||363||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Democratic Forces of Burkina||359||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|Centrist Party for Democracy and Progress||353||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|National Union for Democracy and Progress||338||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|Union of Democratic Forces and Progressives||281||0.01||0||0||0||–|
|Source: CENI, Adam Carr|
- Burkina Faso Awaits Election Results Voice of Africa, 3 December 2012
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