Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605)

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Burmese–Siamese War (1594-1605)
Part of Burmese–Siamese wars
Siam Invasion of Burma (1594-1600) map.jpg
Map showing Siam forces' advance towards Burma:
Red: Siamese invasion in 1594
Brown: Siamese invasion and retreat in 1595-1596
Yellow: Siamese invasion in 1599-1602
Datec. March 1594 –November 1605
LocationSouthern and central Burma (Myanmar)
Result Siamese victory
Territorial
changes
Siamese controlled the entire Tenasserim coast
Lan Na becomes Siamese vassal from 1602–1614[1]:145–179[2]
Belligerents
Toungoo Dynasty (Burma) Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam)
Commanders and leaders
Nanda Bayin  Executed
Minye Kyawswa II (Viceroy of Ava)  Executed
Nyaungyan Min
Minye Thihathu (Viceroy of Toungoo)
Thado Dhamma Yaza III (Viceroy of Prome)
Natshinnaung
Nawrahta Minsaw
Saming Ubakong
Samin Phataba
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Naresuan
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Ekathotsarot
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Chakri
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Prakhlang
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Sri Saiyanarong
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Theparchun
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Ram Khamhaeng
Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Phraya Si Salai
Units involved

Royal Burmese Army including:

Toungoo Army
Prome Army
Ava Army
Dawei regiment
Tenasserim regiments
Lan Na Army

Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Royal Siamese Army including:

Flag of Thailand (Ayutthaya period).svg Mon Volunteer
Strength
300,000[citation needed] 250,000[citation needed]

The Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605) (Burmese: ယိုးဒယား-မြန်မာစစ် (၁၅၄၈); Thai: สงครามพม่า-สยาม พ.ศ. 2091 or สงครามสยามรุกรานพม่า, lit. "Siam invasion of Burma") was the war fought between the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma and the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam. The war was the culmination of Siam's move towards independence following subjugation after the Burmese–Siamese War (1584–1593). The war ended with a victory by Siam, which seized the cities of Dawei or Tavoy and Tenasserim, and laid siege to two major cities of the Toungoo Dynasty.[2]

Background[edit]

Ten years of defensive wars were fought since King Naresuan declared independence in 1584. Siam gained its independence with the death of Mingyi Swa, Burmese Maha Uparaja at the hands of Naresuan in the single combat on elephants, during the Battle of Nong Sarai in 1592. Naresuan then moved forward with plans to capture Dawei, Tenasserim, and assist the Mon people in their revolt against the Burmese. By 1595, according to Damrong Rajanubhab, "every Siamese was conscious that the Burmese had come and pillaged Siamese territory very many times" and they should "repay the Burmese in the same coin."[1]:148–149

Mon State campaign[edit]

Battle of Dawei and Tenasserim city (1592)[edit]

In 1592 King Naresuan sent two different forces to the cities of Dawei and Tenasserim. The first, under the command of Phraya Chakri, had 50,000 troops to attack Tenasserim. The second unit, under the command of Phraya Phra Khlang, had 50,000 troops to capture Dawei. Dawei and Tenasserim were cities in Thailand during Sukhothai period, which the Burmese had captured. However, the Governor of Tenasserim learned of the Siamese plans and sent an urgent message to the King of Pagu, Nanda Bayin, who ordered an army to oppose the Siamese.[1]:139–140

Tenasserim resisted the siege for 15 days while the siege of Dawei lasted 20 days, before the Siamese were successful in capturing both cities. Both consented to be subject to Ayutthaya as in the past.[1]:140[3][4]

After Phraya Chakri captured Tenasserim city, he captured Mergui and the boats in the port, which included 3 foreign sloops and 150 other boats. He then sent Phraya Thep Archun by sea to Tavoy so as to assist Phraya Phra Khlang if the Burmese advanced that far. Phraya Chakri then marched with a force of 30,000 to Tavoy by land, leaving a garrison of 10,000 at Tenasserim under Phraya Sri Sainarong. Simultaneously, Phraya Phra Khlang sent 100 boats and 5,000 men under Phraya Phichai Songkhram and Phraya Ram Khamhaeng to assist Phraya Chakri.[1]:141

The Burmese had sent 200 boats and 10,000 men under the command of Samin Ubkong and Samin Phataba. This Burmese flotilla was caught in the middle of the Siamese flotillas advancing from the north and south. Many Burmese boats were sunk, some beached their boats and fled, while the rest sailed away. Saming Ubakong was killed and 500 men were captured.[1]:141–142

Capture of Mottama (1594)[edit]

In 1594, the governor of Mottama, Phraya Lao, suspected the governor of Mawlamyine of being in league with the Siamese. At that time, the chief of the Mon people lived in Ayutthaya. The governor of Mawlamyine defied Phraya Lao, and sent an urgent request to Naresuan for help. Accordingly, Naresuan sent 3,000 men under Phraya Si Salai. The Burmese garrison at Mottama ran away. The King of Pagu then ordered the viceroy of Toungoo to suppress the revolt, but that force was defeated by a combined Siamese and Mon army. The Mon provinces then became subject to Siam.[1]:145–147

Invasion of mainland Burma (1594–1602)[edit]

King Naresuan entered Pegu, mural painting by Phraya Anusatchitrakon, Wat Suwandararam, Ayutthaya.

First siege of Pegu (1594-1596)[edit]

In December 1594, King Naresuan led an army of 12,000 men towards Pegu,[5] adding Mon auxiliaries at Martaban. Naresuan laid siege to Pegu for three months, before learning the viceroys of Prome, Toungoo, and Ava were coming to the assistance of the city. He then retreated, taking many prisoners of war.[1]:148–150

Second siege of Pegu (1599-1600)[edit]

In 1599, Naresuan decided to invade Pegu with an army of 100,000 men,[citation needed] but this time, he allied himself with viceroys of Rakhine and Toungoo. However, the viceroy of Toungoo, Minye Thihathu, feared that if Naresuan captured Pegu, he would still be a dependent kingdom. So, the viceroy of Toungoo plotted with the viceroy of Rakhine, to take Pegu ahead of Naresuan's army. The result was the viceroy of Toungoo collected all of the valuable property in Pegu and transported it to Toungoo, including the King Nanda Bayin. The army of Rakhine then looted and burned what remained. When Naresuan finally arrived, he found an empty and burning city.[1]:151–162

Siege of Toungoo (1600)[edit]

Siamese army laid siege to the city of Taungoo.

When Minye Thihathu, viceroy of Toungoo refused to give Nanda Bayin, the fallen king of Pegu, to Naresuan, Naresuan decided to attack Toungoo. Naresuan laid siege and dug a canal to drain the city's moat. Yet, after several attempts, Naresuan was unable to take the city. After two months, he decided to retreat, lacking sufficient food to continue the siege.[1]:162–166

Aftermath[edit]

Natshinnaung killed Nanda Bayin and Minye Kyawswa while they were held captive in Toungoo. Nyaungyan Min then crowned himself as the King of Ava to counter the viceroys of Toungoo and Prome. Siam was then free of a Burmese threat for four years until the King of Ava went on a campaign to subjugate the Shans. When he advanced as far as Theinni, this caused Naresuan to raise an army of 200,000 men[citation needed] to counter the threat to his kingdom. He advanced as far as the Fang District of Chiang Mai Province before falling ill and then died after three days. His brother King Ekathotsarot became his successor as king.[1]:173–180

According to Damrong Rajanubhab, "The kingdom of Siam at that period was widest in extent, opulent and redounding in glory."[1]:178

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rajanubhab, D., 2001, Our Wars With the Burmese, Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd., ISBN 9747534584
  2. ^ a b Fernquest, SOAS, pp. 51–52
  3. ^ สมเด็จฯ กรมพระยาดำรงราชานุภาพ, Page 118-121
  4. ^ พระราชพงศาวดารกรุงศรีอยุธยา ฉบับหมอบรัดเล, Page 147
  5. ^ Maha Yazawin Vol. 3 2006: 95–96

References[edit]

  • Rajanubhab, Damrong (2001). Our Wars With the Burmese. Bangkok,Thailand: White Lotus. ISBN 9747534584. 
  • Kala, U (1720). Maha Yazawin Gyi (in Burmese). 3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Fernquest, Jon (Spring 2005). "The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma Back to Laos in 1596: A Comparison of Historical Sources". SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. SOAS, University of London. 3 (1). ISSN 1479-8484. 
  • Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya (Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya) Doctor Bradley or Two-Volume Version (1864) – formerly called Krom Phra Paramanuchit Chinorot Version.