Burmese–Siamese wars

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The Burmese–Siamese wars were a series of wars fought between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries.[1][2]

During the Empires / Dynasties of the Toungoo (Burma)–Ayutthaya (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1547–49) Siamese defensive victory First Siege of Ayutthaya

Burma invades Siam but is unsuccessful at capturing Ayutthaya.[3]

2 Burmese–Siamese War (1563–64) Burmese victory Second Siege of Ayutthaya
Also called the War over the White Elephants.
Burma invades Siam and captures Ayutthaya. Siam becomes a vassal of Burma.[4]
3 Burmese–Siamese War (1568–69) Burmese victory Third Siege of Ayutthaya
Siam rebells. Burma invades and recaptures Ayutthaya. Siam remains a vassal of Burma.[5]
4 Burmese–Siamese War (1584–1593) Siamese victory Fourth Siege of Ayutthaya
Siam declares its independence under King Naresuan. Burma invades Siam three times but is constantly repulsed. After a three year pause, Burma invades Siam a fourth time but returns home after their crown prince dies in an elephant duel against the Siamese king.[6]
5 Burmese–Siamese War (1593–1600) Siamese victory First Siamese invasion of Burma
Siam conquers the Tenasserim coastal region to Martaban.
Lan Na (Chiang Mai) becomes a vassal of Siam.[7][8][9]
6 Burmese–Siamese War (1609–1622) Burmese victory Second Siamese invasion of Burma
The Mon supported by the Siamese raid lower Burma. Burma and Siam battle in the Tenasserim coastal region and Lan Na. Burma ultimately regains Martaban (1618), Tavoy (1622), and an independent Lan Na (1626).[10][11]
7 Burmese–Siamese War (1662–64) Inconclusive - A stalemate

status quo ante bellum

Mutual invasions
Siam conquers Lan Na. The Mons rebel causing Burma and Siam to war in the Tenasserim coastal region. Burma invades Siam and is repulsed. Siam invades lower Burma and returns home.[12][13]

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Ayutthaya (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1759–60) Burmese victory Fifth Siege of Ayutthaya
The Mon raid Syriam. Burma conquers the Tenasserim coastal region down to the Tavoy–Mergui frontier. Burma besieges the Ayutthaya but returns home when their King is injured and becomes ill.[14][15]
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67) Burmese victory Sixth Siege of Ayutthaya
Burma conquers the rebellious/independent states of the Tenasserim coastal region. Burma invades Siam and besieges Ayutthaya. Burma captures and sacks the capital, burning it to rubble. Siamese sources say that the city burned for 7 days and 7 nights. Burma ends the Ayutthaya Kingdom.[16][17]

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Thonburi (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Taksin's conquest of Siam (1767-1774) Siamese victory Takin's initial victories over Burmese rule
Taksin defeats the Burmese at Thonburi (Bangkok). Taksin captures Ratchaburi and Tavoy from the Burmese. Taksin consolidates Siamese factions. Taksin finally evicts the Burmese from Lan Na after two unsuccessful attempts.[18]
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1775–76) Siamese defensive victory Taksin defends Siam
Taksin ends the Burmese pursuit of Mon rebels into Siam. Taksin stops a major Burmese invasion of Siam. Taksin aids Siam's vassal state of Lan Na in their defense against the Burmese.[19]

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Rattanakosin (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1785–86) Siamese defensive victory The Nine Armies' War
Burmese King Bodawpaya unsuccessfully attempts to subjugate Siam by trying to capture Junkseylon (Phuket Island) and by invading mainland Siam with nine armies by means of four different routes.[20][21]
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1791-1793) Inconclusive - A stalemate

status quo ante bellum

Border Aggression
Siam gains Tavoy through treachery. Burma attacks and sieges Tavoy regaining the city through treachery. The Siamese unsuccessfully attack Mergui. In a treaty, Siam formally cedes the Tenasserim coastal region to Burma.[22]
3 Burmese–Siamese War (1797) Inconclusive - A stalemate

status quo ante bellum

Lan Na Incursion
Burma besieges Chiang Mai. Kawila asks for and receives the help of Siam in dispersing the Burmese.[23]
4 Burmese–Siamese War (1802–1805) Siamese victory Chiang Saen Invasion
Siam and its ally Lan Na attacks and expels the Burmese from their stronghold at Chiang Saen. Siam and Lan Na extend their influence to Chiang Tung and Sipsong Panna.[24]
5 Burmese–Siamese War (1809–12) Siamese defensive victory Burma invades Junk Ceylon
Burma unsuccessfully attempts to capture Junk Ceylon and is repelled in 1810 and 1812.[25][26]
6 First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) Siamese victory Britain and Burma go to War
Siam takes no serious part, but as a nominal British ally, secures the Burney Treaty. Beginning of the end of Burmese independence.[27]
7 Burmese–Siamese War (1849–55) Burmese defensive victory Shan States Revolt against Burmese Rule
The Shan states of Kengtung and Chiang Hung unsucessfully revolt with Siamese assistance.[28][29]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Harvey, pp. xxviii-xxx.
  2. ^ James, p. 302.
  3. ^ Damrong, pp. 14-26.
  4. ^ Damrong, pp. 27-41.
  5. ^ Damrong, pp. 42-64.
  6. ^ Damrong, pp. 65-144.
  7. ^ Damrong, pp. 145-179.
  8. ^ Fernquest, pp. 51–52.
  9. ^ Wood, p. 144.
  10. ^ Damrong, pp. 180-202.
  11. ^ Wood, pp. 166-168.
  12. ^ Damrong, pp. 220-239.
  13. ^ Wood, pp. 191-194.
  14. ^ Damrong, pp. 240-311.
  15. ^ Wood, pp. 240-242.
  16. ^ Damrong, pp. 312-357.
  17. ^ Wood, pp. 243-250.
  18. ^ Wood, pp. 251-263.
  19. ^ Wood, pp. 263-267.
  20. ^ Wood, p. 273.
  21. ^ Symes, pp. 96-97.
  22. ^ Symes, p. 97-98.
  23. ^ Ongsakul, p. 155.
  24. ^ Ongsakul, p. 150.
  25. ^ Skinner, pp. 59-61.
  26. ^ Gerini, pp. 81-82.
  27. ^ Wood, pp. 276-277
  28. ^ Hardiman, pp. 408-409
  29. ^ Master.

References[edit]

Fernquest, Jon (Spring 2005). "The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma Back to Laos in 1596: A Comparison of Historical Sources". SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. SOAS, University of London. 3 (1). ISSN 1479-8484.
Gerini, Colonel G. E. (1905). "Historical Retrospect of Junkceylon Island" (PDF). Siamese Heritage Trust. The Siam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Hardiman, John Percy (1901). Sir James George Scott (ed.). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States Part 2. 1. Government Press, British Burma.
Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
James, Helen (2004). "Burma-Siam Wars and Tenasserim". In Keat Gin Ooi (ed.). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.
Master (2011). "Military History of Thailand". Wayback Machine. Internet Archive. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Ongsakul, Sarassawadee (2005). History of Lan Na. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 974-9575-84-9.
Rajanubhab, Damrong (2001). Chris Baker (ed.). Our Wars with the Burmese: Thai-Burmese Conflict 1539–1767. Translated by Aung Thein. White Lotus Co. Ltd. ISBN 9747534584.
Siam Society (1904). The Journal of the Siam Society. 1–3. Bangkok: Siam Society.
Skinner, Cyril (1984). "The interrogation of Zeya Suriya Kyaw: A Burmese Account of the Junk Ceylon (Phuket) Campaigns of 1809-1810" (PDF). Siamese Heritage Trust. The Siam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Steinberg, David Joel (1987). David Joel Steinberg (ed.). In Search of South-East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Symes, Michael (Spring 2006). "An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava". SBBR. SOAS, University of London. 4.
Wood, W.A.R. (1924). A History of Siam. London: T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
Wyatt, David K. (2003). History of Thailand (2 ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08475-7.