Burmese–Siamese wars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Burmese–Siamese wars also known as the Yodian wars (Burmese: ယိုးဒယားစစ်ပွဲများ), were a series of wars fought between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries.[1][2]

During the Empires / Dynasties of the Toungoo (Burma)–Ayutthaya (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1547–1549) Siamese defensive victory First Siege of Ayutthaya

Burma invades Siam but is unsuccessful at capturing Ayutthaya.[3]

2 Burmese–Siamese War (1563–1564) Burmese victory Second Siege of Ayutthaya
Also called the War over the White Elephants.
Burma invades Siam and captures Ayutthaya. Siam becomes a vassal of Burma.[4]
3 Burmese–Siamese War (1568–1569) Burmese victory Third Siege of Ayutthaya
Siam rebells. Burma invades and recaptures Ayutthaya. Siam remains a vassal of Burma.[5]
4 Burmese–Siamese War (1584–1593) Siamese victory Fourth Siege of Ayutthaya
Siam declares its independence under King Naresuan. Burma invades Siam three times but is constantly repulsed. After a three-year pause, Burma invades Siam a fourth time but returns home after their crown prince dies in an elephant duel against the Siamese king.[6]
5 Burmese–Siamese War (1593–1600) Siamese victory First Siamese Invasion of Burma
Siam conquers the Tenasserim coastal region to Martaban.
Lan Na (Chiang Mai) becomes a vassal of Siam.[7][8][9]
6 Burmese–Siamese War (1609–1622) Burmese victory Wars around the Tenasserim coast
The Mon supported by the Siamese raid lower Burma. Burma and Siam battle in the Tenasserim coastal region and Lan Na. Burma ultimately regains Martaban (1618), Tavoy (1622), and an independent Lan Na (1626).[10][11]
7 Burmese–Siamese War (1662–1664) Inconclusive – A stalemate

status quo ante bellum

Second Siamese Invasion of Burma
Siam conquers Lan Na. The Mons rebel causing Burma and Siam to war in the Tenasserim coastal region. Burma invades Siam and is repulsed. Siam invades lower Burma and returns home.[12][13]
8 Burmese–Siamese War (1675–1676) Burmese defensive victory

Siamese defensive victory

Burma successfully defends the Upper Tenasserim coast (1675).

Siam successfully defends against a counter Burmese invasion (1675–1676).

9 Burmese–Siamese War (1700–1701) Siamese defensive victory Siam successfully defends against a Burmese invasion.

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Ayutthaya (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1759–1760) Siamese defensive victory Fifth Siege of Ayutthaya
The Mon raid Syriam. Burma conquers the Tenasserim coastal region down to the Tavoy–Mergui frontier. Burma besieges the Ayutthaya but returns home when their King is injured and becomes ill.[14][15]
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) Burmese victory Sixth Siege of Ayutthaya
Burma conquers the rebellious/independent states of the Tenasserim coastal region. Burma invades Siam and besieges Ayutthaya. Burma captures and sacks the capital, burning it to rubble. Siamese sources say that the city burned for 7 days and 7 nights. Burma ends the Ayutthaya Kingdom.[16][17]

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Thonburi (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Thonburi reunification of Siam (1767–1771) Siamese victory Thonburi reunification of Siam following the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767.
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1775–1776) Siamese defensive victory Azaewunky's War
The war was named after the Thai name of Maha Thiha Thura. After seeing the growing power of Siam, the Burmese launched a full scale invasion under the command of Maha Thiha Thura. The Burmese suffered heavy resistance and supply shortages in the invasion. After the death of King Hsinbyushin, the Burmese withdrew from Siam, allowing the Siamese to claim Lan Na, which had been under Burmese domination for 2 centuries.[18]

During the Empires / Dynasties of Konbaung (Burma)–Rattanakosin (Siam)[edit]

No. Name Results Notes
1 Burmese–Siamese War (1785–1786) Siamese defensive victory The Nine Armies' War
Burmese King Bodawpaya unsuccessfully attempts to subjugate Siam by trying to capture Junkseylon (Phuket Island) and by invading mainland Siam with nine armies by means of four different routes.[19][20]
2 Burmese–Siamese War (1788) Burmese defensive victory Siamese Invasion of Tavoy

After the disastrous Burmese defeat in the Nine Armies' War, the Siamese decided to exploit this weakness by capturing Tavoy, hoping to reclaim the Tenasserim coast. The Burmese managed to defend against the Siamese invasion.

3 Burmese–Siamese War (1792–1794) Burmese defensive victory Siamese Invasion of Tavoy
Siam gains Tavoy through treachery. Burma attacks and sieges Tavoy regaining the city through treachery. The Siamese unsuccessfully attack Mergui. In a treaty, Siam formally cedes the Tenasserim coastal region to Burma.[21]
4 Burmese–Siamese War (1797–1798) Siamese defensive victory Burmese Invasion of Chiang Mai
Burma invades Lan Na and besieges Chiang Mai. The city was taken, but Kawila asks for reinforcement from Rama I, which helped them recapture the city.[22]
5 Burmese–Siamese War (1802–1805) Siamese victory Siamese Invasion of Chiang Saen
Burma attacks Lan Na, but is defeated again. Siam and its ally Lan Na attacks and expels the Burmese from their stronghold at Chiang Saen. Siam and Lan Na extend their influence to Chiang Tung and Sipsong Panna.[23]
6 Burmese–Siamese War (1809–1812) Siamese defensive victory Burmese Invasion of Thalang
Burma unsuccessfully attempts to capture Junk Ceylon and is repelled in 1810 and 1812.[24][25]
7 First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826) British victory Conflict mostly between Burma and the United Kingdom. Siam, as a nominal British ally, secures the Burney Treaty with the British East India Company and briefly invades Burma.[26]
8 Burmese–Siamese War (1849–1855) Burmese defensive victory Shan States Revolt against Burmese Rule
The Shan states of Kengtung and Chiang Hung unsuccessfully revolt with Siamese assistance.[27][28]

See more[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Harvey, pp. xxviii-xxx.
  2. ^ James, p. 302.
  3. ^ Damrong, pp. 14–26.
  4. ^ Damrong, pp. 27–41.
  5. ^ Damrong, pp. 42–64.
  6. ^ Damrong, pp. 65–144.
  7. ^ Damrong, pp. 145–179.
  8. ^ Fernquest, pp. 51–52.
  9. ^ Wood, p. 144.
  10. ^ Damrong, pp. 180–202.
  11. ^ Wood, pp. 166–168.
  12. ^ Damrong, pp. 220–239.
  13. ^ Wood, pp. 191–194.
  14. ^ Damrong, pp. 240–311.
  15. ^ Wood, pp. 240–242.
  16. ^ Damrong, pp. 312–357.
  17. ^ Wood, pp. 243–250.
  18. ^ Wood, pp. 263–267.
  19. ^ Wood, p. 273.
  20. ^ Symes, pp. 96–97.
  21. ^ Symes, p. 97-98.
  22. ^ Ongsakul, p. 155.
  23. ^ Ongsakul, p. 150.
  24. ^ Skinner, pp. 59–61.
  25. ^ Gerini, pp. 81–82.
  26. ^ Wood, pp. 276–277
  27. ^ Hardiman, pp. 408–409
  28. ^ Master.

References[edit]

  • Fernquest, Jon (Spring 2005). "The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma Back to Laos in 1596: A Comparison of Historical Sources". SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. SOAS, University of London. 3 (1). ISSN 1479-8484.
  • Gerini, Colonel G. E. (1905). "Historical Retrospect of Junkceylon Island" (PDF). Siamese Heritage Trust. The Siam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  • Hardiman, John Percy (1901). Sir James George Scott (ed.). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States Part 2. 1. Government Press, British Burma.
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
  • James, Helen (2004). "Burma-Siam Wars and Tenasserim". In Keat Gin Ooi (ed.). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.
  • Master (2011). "Military History of Thailand". Wayback Machine. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  • Ongsakul, Sarassawadee (2005). History of Lan Na. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 974-9575-84-9.
  • Rajanubhab, Damrong (2001). Chris Baker (ed.). Our Wars with the Burmese: Thai-Burmese Conflict 1539–1767. Translated by Aung Thein. White Lotus Co. Ltd. ISBN 9747534584.
  • Siam Society (1904). The Journal of the Siam Society. 1–3. Bangkok: Siam Society.
  • Skinner, Cyril (1984). "The interrogation of Zeya Suriya Kyaw: A Burmese Account of the Junk Ceylon (Phuket) Campaigns of 1809-1810" (PDF). Siamese Heritage Trust. The Siam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  • Steinberg, David Joel (1987). David Joel Steinberg (ed.). In Search of South-East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Symes, Michael (Spring 2006). "An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava". SBBR. SOAS, University of London. 4.
  • Wood, W.A.R. (1924). A History of Siam. London: T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  • Wyatt, David K. (2003). History of Thailand (2 ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08475-7.