Burmese Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Burmese Americans
Total population
193,036[1]
0.03% of the U.S. population (2017)
Regions with significant populations
Languages
English, Burmese, Karen, Chin
Religion
Related ethnic groups
Bamar people, Karen people, Rohingya people, Burmese Britons, Burmese Australians

Burmese Americans (Burmese: မြန်မာဇာတိနွယ် အမေရိကန် [mjəmà nwɛ̀bwá ʔəmèjḭkàɰ̃]) are Americans of full or partial Burmese ancestry. The term encompasses people of all ethnic backgrounds with ancestry in present-day Myanmar (or Burma), regardless of specific ethnicity.[2] They are a subgroup of Asian Americans.

As a small group, Burmese Americans have largely integrated into the larger Southeast Asian and South Asian American communities.[3]

The estimated immigrant population for 2015-2019 was 147,600. Marion County, Indiana was the county with the most Burmese Americans followed by Los Angeles County.[4]

History[edit]

The first Burmese to study in the United States was Maung Shaw Loo, an ethnic Mon, who came in 1858 to study at the University at Lewisburg (now Bucknell University) in Pennsylvania. He graduated with a medical degree in 1867 and returned the following year.[5]

The first major wave of immigration from Myanmar occurred in the 1960s, after Ne Win established military rule in 1962, to the late 1970s. Most who immigrated were primarily those with Chinese origins, who arrived in increasing numbers following the 1967 anti-Chinese riots.[6] The Burmese Chinese were the first major group of Theravada Buddhists to immigrate to the United States and were largely educated professionals, business entrepreneurs and technically skilled workers.[6] A minority were of Anglo-Burmese and Indian descent. Some of the Burmese immigrated to the United States after the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 abolished the previously existing quota on Asian immigrants.[7] A second wave occurred during the 1980s to the early 1990s after the national uprising in 1988. This wave consisted of many different ethnic groups, including Bamars, Karens, and those from other ethnic minorities, particularly in search of better opportunities. Among this wave are political refugees numbering a few thousand, who were involved in the 8888 Uprising and are concentrated in Fort Wayne, Indiana.[8] From 1977 to 2000, 25,229 Burmese immigrated to the United States, although the figure is inaccurate because it does not include Burmese who immigrated via other channels or through other third countries.[9] A third wave of immigration, from 2006 to date, has been primarily of ethnic minorities in Myanmar, in particular Karen refugees from the Thai-Burmese border.[9] From October 2006 to August 2007, 12,800 Karen refugees resettled in the United States.[9]

Burmese in far smaller numbers continue to immigrate to the United States today mainly through family sponsorships and the "green card lottery". Thousands of Burmese each year apply to a Diversity Visa Program (previously known as "OP" and now called "DV"), a lottery-based program that grants visas to those who wish to reside in the United States.

According to the 2010 United States Census, 100,200 persons of Burmese descent resided in the United States, an increase of 499% over the previous census, which recorded 16,720 individuals of Burmese descent.[10] Leading up to the census, an awareness campaign was conducted by the Burmese Complete Count Committee, which consisted of Burmese American organizations, to convince Burmese Americans to self-identify as "Burmese" on their census forms.[11] Following the 2010 census, Burmese-Americans are no longer ambiguously categorized as "Other Asian," but in a separate category.[12]

Communities[edit]

Drummers of the Rakhine minority performing on the Burmese New Year, Thingyan, in New York City

Most Burmese Americans live in metropolitan areas with large immigrant populations. As of 2015, the metropolitan areas with the largest Burmese populations are Minneapolis-Saint Paul (with 10,000), Dallas–Fort Worth (with 7,000), Greater New York (with 7,000), the Bay Area (with 6,000), Atlanta (with 6,000), Minneapolis (with 5,000,) Milwaukee (with around 5,000 Burmese refugees), Los Angeles (with 5,000), Indianapolis (with 4,000), Buffalo (with 4,000), Washington (with 4,000), and Des Moines (with 3,000)[13]. Other areas of significance include Tulsa, Oklahoma; Fort Wayne, Indiana, the residence of many Burmese refugees;[14] Chicago; San Diego; and Florida.

Based on estimated immigrant population for 2015-2019, the largest populations by county were as follows:[4]

1) Marion County, Indiana ---------------------- 8,800

2) Los Angeles County, CA --------------------- 7,600

3) Ramsey County, Minnesota --------------- 6,800

4) Milwaukee County, Wisconsin------------ 5,800

5) Allen County, Indiana ------------------------- 4,200

6) San Mateo County, CA ----------------------- 3,800

7) Alameda County, CA -------------------------- 3,700

8) Dallas County, Texas -------------------------- 3,500

9) Queens Borough, New York --------------- 3,400

10) Tulsa County, Oklahoma -------------------- 3,100

11) San Francisco County, CA ---------------- 2,900

12) Douglas County, Nebraska --------------- 2,600

13) Dekalb County, Georgia -------------------- 2,600

14) Polk County, Iowa ---------------------------- 2,500

15) Brooklyn Borough, New York ----------- 2,100

16) Duval County, Florida ----------------------- 2,100

17) Oneida County, New York ---------------- 2,000

18) Erie County, New York --------------------- 2,000

19) Maricopa County, Arizona --------------- 2,000

20) Wyandotte County, Kansas -------------- 2,000

Culture[edit]

As most Burmese are Buddhists, many Burmese Buddhist monasteries, most of which also serve as community centers, have sprouted across most major cities in the United States. A few ethnic Mon and Rakhine monasteries serve their respective ethnic populations. Burmese Christian churches consisting mainly of ethnic Karen, Chin, Kachin, and Anglo-Burmese congregations can also be found in large metropolitan areas. Many Christian Burmese found asylum in the U.S. as refugees.

English is the primary language for most Burmese Americans, albeit with varying levels of fluency depending on the level of education and the years lived in the country. Burmese is still widely spoken or understood as most Burmese Americans are recent immigrants or first generation children of those immigrants. Still, the command of spoken Burmese among the American-born Burmese is basic to poor, and that of written Burmese is close to none. Some older Burmese of Chinese origin speak some Chinese (typically, Mandarin, Minnan, or Cantonese); likewise some of Indian-origin speak some Indic language (usually Tamil and Hindi/Urdu).

Notable people[edit]

This is a list of notable Burmese Americans including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.

Most of these people were born in Myanmar/Burma and grew up in the United States.

Community and economic issues[edit]

Poverty[edit]

According to data released in 2017 by the Pew Research Center, approximately 35% of the Burmese American community lived under the poverty line.[33] This is more than twice the USA average poverty rate of 16% according to data released by the Economic Policy Institute in 2011.[34]

Median household income[edit]

Burmese Americans have an average median household income of $36,000 which is much lower than the American average of $53,600.[33]

Per capita income[edit]

In 2014, when Americans' per capita income was divided by ethnic groups, Burmese Americans were found to be the second lowest-earning ethnic group per capita in the country, with a per capita income of $12,764, less than half of the American average of $25,825.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "American FactFinder - Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  2. ^ Lin Zhan (2003). Asian Americans: Vulnerable Populations, Model Interventions, and Clarifying Agendas. Jones & Bartlett. ISBN 0-7637-2241-3.
  3. ^ Ph.D, Lan Dong (14 March 2016). Asian American Culture: From Anime to Tiger Moms [2 volumes]: From Anime to Tiger Moms. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440829215. Retrieved 9 January 2018 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  5. ^ "The Burma Bucknell Connection || Bucknell University". Bucknell.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  6. ^ a b Cheah 201.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-06-12.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Cheah 202.
  9. ^ a b c Cheah, Joseph (2008). Huping Ling (ed.). Emerging voices: experiences of underrepresented Asian Americans. Rutgers University Press. pp. 199–217. ISBN 978-0-8135-4342-0.
  10. ^ "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  11. ^ Kiviat, Barbara (29 July 2009). "The Census Games: Groups Gear Up to Be Counted". Time. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  12. ^ Levin, Sam (4 August 2011). "Immigrants from Nepal and Burma grow into own Census category". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  13. ^ "Burmese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. 2017-09-08. Archived from the original on 2018-05-13. Retrieved 2018-05-13.
  14. ^ a b Lalit K Jha (2007-06-01). "A Little Burma in Fort Wayne". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  15. ^ "Karen Refugees From Burma" (PDF). Health.state.mn.us. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  16. ^ Holland, Rebecca (February 19, 2018). "HOW TWO MIDWEST CITIES ARE HANDLING ROHINGYA RESETTLEMENT". Pacific Standard. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  17. ^ "More than 25% of all Rohingya living in the United States reside in 53221, 53204, 53215, and 53207". Milwaukee Independent. May 5, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  18. ^ Ramos, Manny (2022-01-30). "Refugees drive West Ridge's growing Asian population". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2022-01-31.
  19. ^ Boen, Jennifer L., (2009-01-30). Refugee aid office opens in city Archived 2011-04-27 at the Wayback Machine. The News-Sentinel. Retrieved on 2009-06-11.
  20. ^ Ryan, Lisa. "Burmese Population Influences Fort Wayne Grocery Stores". Archived from the original on 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2018-05-13.
  21. ^ "Zomi USA: How a city in Oklahoma became home to an ethnic group from Southeast Asia". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2018-05-13.
  22. ^ Jane C. Parikh (2015-04-16). "Battle Creek's Burmese now find the tastes of home in their own backyard". Secondwavemedia.com. Archived from the original on 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  23. ^ "St. Joseph Catholic Church - Battle Creek, Michigan - Burmese Community". Stjosephbc.org. Archived from the original on 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  24. ^ "New Faces of Immigration in North Texas". NBC 5 Dallas–Fort Worth. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  25. ^ "How Indiana's Burmese community is leading a movement for democracy".
  26. ^ "Burmese refugees in Iowa summoned by U.S. immigration officials". Des Moines Register. Archived from the original on 2021-03-26. Retrieved 2018-05-13.
  27. ^ Autry, Lisa. "Filmmaker in Bowling Green to showcase Burmese refugees". WKYU.
  28. ^ "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". migrationpolicy.org. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  29. ^ Garrison, Joey. "Rent hike in Nashville could dismantle a Burmese refugee community". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2022-02-03.
  30. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  31. ^ Mike Giglio (1 September 2009). "The Burmese Come to Houston". Houstonpress.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  32. ^ "Burmese refugee family overcomes obstacles, finds success | Cronkite News - Arizona PBS". 8 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-12-15. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  33. ^ a b "Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population". Pewresearch.org. 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  34. ^ "New poverty measure highlights positive effect of government assistance". Epi.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  35. ^ "Median houseland income in the past 12 months (in 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cooper, Amy. "Burmese Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, (3rd ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2014), pp. 373–380. online

External links[edit]