Burnley (UK Parliament constituency)

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Coordinates: 53°47′13″N 2°14′42″W / 53.787°N 2.245°W / 53.787; -2.245

Burnley
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Burnley in Lancashire.
Outline map
Location of Lancashire within England.
County Lancashire
Population 87,059 (2011 census)[1]
Electorate 67,003 (December 2010)[2]
Major settlements Burnley
Current constituency
Created 1868
Member of parliament Julie Cooper (Labour Party)
Number of members One
Created from North Lancashire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency North West England

Burnley is a constituency[n 1] centred on the town of Burnley in Lancashire, which has been represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Julie Cooper of the Labour Party.[n 2]

History[edit]

The seat was created in 1868. From World War II until 2010 it was won by Labour candidates, generally on safe, large majorities; even Ann Widdecombe could not snatch the seat from the former leading cotton town's close affinity with Labour Party values as they stood in 1979. The closest second place was to a Conservative Party candidate, Ian Bruce, who came 787 votes (1.6%) short of taking the seat in 1983.[3]

Burnley saw strong opposition support for the Liberal Democrats in 2005 who moved into second place, meanwhile a local independent pushed Yousuf Miah, a Conservative into fourth position. Following controversy regarding outgoing Labour MP Kitty Ussher's personal expenses, Gordon Birtwistle, who first contended the seat in 1992, gained the seat in 2010 with a heavy swing of 9.6%.

However, Birtwistle was one of the many casualties faced by the Liberal Democrats in the 2015 election, losing the seat to Julie Cooper, who had also stood as Labour's candidate in 2010, although the 6.2% swing away from Birtwistle was less than half the 15.2% national swing against his party. As in 2005, the Conservatives came fourth, behind UKIP as well as Labour and the Lib Dems this time.

In the 2017 election Labour held the seat with an increased majority. Birtwistle stood again but saw his share of the vote halved, this was widely seen to be due to his party's stance on Brexit. This was one of the biggest increases in the share of the vote for the Conservatives in the whole country, more than doubling their share of the vote. UKIP lost two thirds of their vote from 2015 but did retain their deposit. This meant Burnley was one of the few constituencies in England where four parties retained their deposits.

The review of parliamentary representation in Lancashire by the Boundary Commission for England in the 2000s proposed no change to the boundaries of the Burnley seat. The seat remains coterminous with the boundaries of the borough of Burnley (as it has been since 1983 - before then it was coterminous with the county borough of the same name).[4]

Boundaries[edit]

1918-1983: The County Borough of Burnley.

1983-1997: The Borough of Burnley.

1997-present: As 1983 but with redrawn boundaries, due to local government boundary changes in the mid 1980s.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Election Member[5][6] Party
1868 Richard Shaw Liberal
1876 by-election Peter Rylands Liberal
1886 Liberal Unionist
1887 by-election John Slagg Liberal
1889 by-election Jabez Balfour Liberal
1893 by-election Hon. Philip Stanhope Liberal
1900 William Mitchell Conservative
1906 Frederick Maddison Lib-Lab
Jan. 1910 Gerald Arbuthnot Conservative
Dec. 1910 Philip Morrell Liberal
1918 Dan Irving Labour
1924 by-election Arthur Henderson Labour
1931 Gordon Campbell, VC National Liberal
1935 Wilfrid Burke Labour
1959 Dan Jones Labour
1983 Peter Pike Labour
2005 Kitty Ussher Labour
2010 Gordon Birtwistle Liberal Democrats
2015 Julie Cooper Labour

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2017: Burnley[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Julie Cooper 18,832 46.7 +9.1
Conservative Paul White 12,479 31.0 +17.5
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 6,046 15.0 -14.4
UKIP Tom Commis 2,472 6.1 -11.1
Green Laura Fisk 461 1.1 -1.0
Majority 6,353 15.7 +7.5
Turnout 40,290 62.2 +0.6
Labour hold Swing -4.2
General Election 2015: Burnley[8][9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Julie Cooper 14,951 37.6 +6.3
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 11,707 29.5 −6.2
UKIP Tom Commis 6,864 17.3 +15.0
Conservative Sarah Cockburn-Price 5,374 13.5 −3.1
Green Mike Hargreaves 850 2.1 N/A
Majority 3,244 8.2
Turnout 39,746 61.6
Labour gain from Liberal Democrat Swing +6.3
Gordon Birtwistle
Gordon Birtwistle
General Election 2010: Burnley[10][11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 14,932 35.7 +12.0
Labour Julie Cooper 13,114 31.3 −7.2
Conservative Richard Ali 6,950 16.6 +5.8
BNP Sharon Wilkinson 3,747 9.0 −1.3
Independent Andrew Brown 1,876 4.5 N/A
UKIP John Wignall 929 2.2 +1.2
Independent Andrew Hennessey 287 0.7 N/A
Majority 1,818 4.3
Turnout 41,845 62.8
Liberal Democrat gain from Labour Swing +9.6

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

Kitty Ussher
General Election 2005: Burnley[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Kitty Ussher 14,999 38.5 −10.8
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 9,221 23.7 +7.5
Burnley First Independent Harry Brooks 5,786 14.8 N/A
Conservative Yousuf Miah 4,206 10.8 −10.1
BNP Len Starr 4,003 10.3 −1.0
Independent Jeff Slater 392 1.0 N/A
UKIP Robert McDowell 376 1.0 −1.3
Majority 5,778 14.8
Turnout 38,983 59.2 +3.5
Labour hold Swing −9.15[n 3]
General Election 2001: Burnley[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Peter Pike 18,195 49.3 −8.6
Conservative Robert Frost 7,697 20.9 +0.6
Liberal Democrat Paul Wright 5,975 16.2 −1.2
BNP Steve Smith 4,151 11.3 N/A
UKIP Richard Buttrey 866 2.3 N/A
Majority 10,498 28.4
Turnout 36,884 55.7 −11.3
Labour hold Swing −4.6

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Burnley[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Peter Pike 26,210 57.9 +4.9
Conservative Bill Wiggin 9,148 20.2 −10.4
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 7,877 17.4 +1.0
Referendum Richard Oakley 2,010 4.4 N/A
Majority 17,062 37.7
Turnout 45,245 66.9 −7.5
Labour hold Swing +7.65
General Election 1992: Burnley[15][16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Peter Pike 27,184 53.0 +4.6
Conservative Brenda Binge 15,693 30.6 −3.2
Liberal Democrat Gordon Birtwistle 8,414 16.4 −1.4
Majority 11,491 22.4 +7.9
Turnout 51,291 74.2 −4.6
Labour hold Swing +3.9

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Burnley[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Peter Pike 25,140 48.4 +8.6
Conservative Harold Elletson 17,583 33.8 −4.4
Social Democratic Ronals Baker 9,241 17.8 −2.2
Majority 7,557 14.5
Turnout 51,964 78.8
Labour hold Swing +6.5
General Election 1983: Burnley[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Peter Pike 20,178 39.8 −11.0
Conservative Ian Bruce 19,391 38.2 +2.8
Liberal Michael Steed 11,191 20.0 +7.2
Majority 787 1.6
Turnout 50,760 76.3
Labour hold Swing −6.9

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 20,172 50.8 −4.0
Conservative Ann Widdecombe 14,062 35.4 +8.7
Liberal Michael Steed 5,091 12.8
Independent Democrat F Tyrrall 352 0.9
Majority 6,110 15.4
Turnout
Labour hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 21,642 54.8
Conservative A Pickup 9,766 24.7
Liberal SP Mews 8,119 20.5
Majority 11,876 30.1
Turnout 79.7
Labour hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 21,108 50.4
Conservative A. Pickup 11,268 27.0
Liberal S. Mews 9,471 22.6
Majority 9,840 23.5
Turnout 79.7
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1970: Burnley[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 24,200 57.0
Conservative John Birch 14,846 34.9
Liberal George Brownbill 3,446 8.11
Majority 9,354 22.0
Turnout 75.7
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Burnley[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 25,583 60.43
Conservative Albert S Royse 11,710 27.66
Liberal Mary R Mason 5,045 11.92
Majority 13,873 32.77
Turnout 79.96
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Burnley[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 25,244 56.80
Conservative Tom Mitchell 12,365 27.82
Liberal Mary R Mason 6,833 15.38
Majority 12,879 28.98
Turnout 81.68
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Burnley[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Jones 27,675 56.97
Conservative Edward Brooks 20,902 43.03
Majority 6,773 13.94
Turnout 83.77
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1955: Burnley[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Wilfrid Burke 27,865 55.63
Conservative Edward Brooks 22,229 44.37
Majority 5,636 11.25
Turnout 83.46
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1951: Burnley[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Wilfrid Burke 31,261 56.53
Conservative Donald P Dunkley 24,034 43.37
Majority 7,227 13.07
Turnout 88.86
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1950: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Wilfrid Burke 30,685 55.65
Conservative F.H. Wilson 23,636 42.86
Communist Bill Whittaker[25] 526 0.95
Ind. Labour Party Dan Carradice 295 0.53
Majority 7,049 12.78
Turnout 89.56
Labour hold Swing

Election in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Wilfrid Burke 32,122 63.54
Liberal National Herbert Monckton Milnes 18,431 36.46
Majority 13,691 27.08
Turnout 80.44
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Wilfrid Burke 31,160 53.61
Liberal National Gordon Campbell 26,965 46.39
Majority 4,195 7.22
Turnout 87.36
Labour gain from Liberal National Swing
Gordon Campbell VC
Gordon Campbell VC
General Election 1931: Burnley[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Gordon Campbell 35,126 56.15
Labour Arthur Henderson 26,917 43.03
Communist J. Rushton 512 0.82
Majority 8,209 13.12
Turnout 91.85
National gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Burnley[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Henderson 28,091 46.2 +0.8
Unionist Stephen Ian Fairbairn 20,137 33.2 −2.4
Liberal Aneurin Edwards 12,502 20.6 +1.6
Majority 7,954 13.0 +3.2
Turnout 60,730 89.6 +1.2
Registered electors 67,781
Labour hold Swing +1.6
General Election 1924: Burnley[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Henderson 20,549 45.4 +7.6
Unionist Stephen Ian Fairbairn 16,804 35.6 +3.8
Liberal James Whitehead 8,601 19.0 −11.4
Majority 4,465 9.8 +3.8
Turnout 45,954 88.4 +1.1
Registered electors 51,162
Labour hold Swing +1.9
Arthur Henderson
Burnley by-election, 1924[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Henderson 24,571 58.4 +20.6
Conservative Harold Edward Joscelyn Camps 17,534 41.6 +9.8
Majority 7,037 16.8 +10.8
Turnout 42,105 82.4 −4.9
Registered electors 51,086
Labour hold Swing +5.4
General Election 1923: Burnley[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Irving 16,848 37.8 −1.3
Unionist Harold Edward Joscelyn Camps 14,197 31.8 −1.3
Liberal James Whitehead 13,543 30.4 +2.6
Majority 2,651 6.0 -
Turnout 44,588 87.3 −1.4
Registered electors 51,086
Labour hold Swing 0.0
General Election 1922: Burnley[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Irving 17,385 39.1 −2.8
Unionist Harold Edward Joscelyn Camps 14,731 33.1 −0.7
Liberal Walter Layton 12,339 27.8 +3.5
Majority 2,654 6.0 −2.1
Turnout 44,455 88.7 +17.3
Registered electors 50,111
Labour hold Swing −1.1

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election December 1918: Burnley
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dan Irving 15,217 41.9 +18.1
C Unionist Henry Mulholland 12,289 33.8 -3.7
Liberal John Howarth Grey 8,825 24.3 -14.3
Majority 2,928 8.1
Turnout 21,114 71.4 −22.7
Labour gain from Liberal Swing +16.2
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
Philip Morrell
General Election December 1910: Burnley[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Philip Morrell 6,177 38.7 +4.1
Conservative Gerald Arbuthnot 6,004 37.5 +2.3
Social Democratic Federation Henry Hyndman 3,810 23.8 -6.4
Majority 173 1.2 N/A
Turnout 15,991 94.1 −2.4
Registered electors 16,992
Liberal hold Swing +0.9
Gerald Arbuthnot
Fred Maddison
Henry Hyndman
General Election January 1910: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gerald Arbuthnot 5,776 35.2 +2.5
Lib-Lab Fred Maddison 5,681 34.6 −0.2
Social Democratic Federation Henry Hyndman 4,948 30.2 −2.3
Majority 95 0.6 N/A
Turnout 16,405 96.5 +1.5
Registered electors 16,992
Conservative gain from Lib-Lab Swing +1.4

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1906: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Lib-Lab Fred Maddison 5,288 34.8 −12.9
Conservative Gerald Arbuthnot 4,964 32.7 −19.6
Social Democratic Federation Henry Hyndman 4,932 32.5 N/A
Majority 324 2.1 N/A
Turnout 15,184 95.0 +5.1
Registered electors 15,983
Lib-Lab gain from Conservative Swing +3.4
General Election 1900: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Mitchell 6,678 52.3 +9.8
Liberal Philip Stanhope 6,173 47.7 +2.6
Majority 600 4.6 N/A
Turnout 12,946 89.9 −0.6
Registered electors 14,393
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +3.6

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Philip Stanhope
General Election 1895: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Philip Stanhope 5,454 45.1 −11.1
Conservative William Alexander Lindsay[31] 5,133 42.5 −1.3
Social Democratic Federation Henry Hyndman 1,498 12.4 N/A
Majority 321 2.6 −9.8
Turnout 12,085 90.5 −0.5
Registered electors 13,360
Liberal hold Swing −4.9
Burnley by-election, 1893[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Philip Stanhope 6,199 53.0 −3.2
Conservative William Alexander Lindsay[31] 5,506 47.0 +3.2
Majority 693 6.0 −6.4
Turnout 11,705 91.3 +0.3
Registered electors 12,826
Liberal hold Swing −3.2
General Election 1892: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Jabez Balfour 6,450 56.2 +6.5
Liberal Unionist Edwin Lawrence 5,035 43.8 −6.5
Majority 1,415 12.4 N/A
Turnout 11,485 91.0 +4.1
Registered electors 12,619
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist Swing +6.5

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

By-election, 27 Feb 1889: Burnley[29][30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Jabez Balfour Unopposed
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist
  • Caused by Stagg's death.
By-election, 19 Feb 1887: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Slagg 5,026 52.9 +3.2
Conservative John Thursby[32] 4,481 47.1 −3.2
Majority 545 5.8 N/A
Turnout 9,507 94.9 +8.0
Registered electors 10,020
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist Swing +3.2
  • Caused by Ryland's death.
General Election 1886: Burnley[30][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Peter Rylands 4,209 50.3 +4.0
Liberal James Greenwood[33] 4,166 49.7 −4.0
Majority 43 0.6 N/A
Turnout 8,375 86.9 −7.2
Registered electors 9,638
Liberal Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +4.0
General Election 1885: Burnley[30][34][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Peter Rylands 4,866 53.7 −1.4
Conservative Henry Herbert Wainwright 4,199 46.3 +1.4
Majority 667 7.4 −2.7
Turnout 9,065 94.1 +0.1
Registered electors 9,638
Liberal hold Swing −1.4
General Election 1880: Burnley[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Peter Rylands 3,943 55.1 −0.1
Conservative Edmund Talbot 3,217 44.9 +0.1
Majority 726 10.1 −0.3
Turnout 7,160 94.0 +9.9
Registered electors 7,614
Liberal hold Swing −0.1

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

By-election, 14 Feb 1876: Burnley[36][35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Peter Rylands 3,520 53.4 −1.8
Conservative William Alexander Lindsay[37] 3,077 46.6 +1.8
Majority 433 6.6 −3.8
Turnout 6,597 92.6 +8.5
Registered electors 7,127
Liberal hold Swing −1.8
  • Caused by Shaw's death.
General Election 1874: Burnley[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Richard Shaw 3,065 55.2 +1.3
Conservative William Alexander Lindsay[37] 2,490 44.8 −1.3
Majority 575 10.4 +2.5
Turnout 5,555 84.1 +8.4
Registered electors 6,607
Liberal hold Swing +1.3

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Burnley[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Richard Shaw 2,620 53.9 N/A
Conservative James Yorke Scarlett 2,238 46.1 N/A
Majority 382 7.9 N/A
Turnout 4,858 75.7 N/A
Registered electors 6,417
Liberal win (new seat)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. ^ Labour to Liberal Democrat
References
  1. ^ "Burnley: Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  3. ^ "VOTE 2001 | RESULTS & CONSTITUENCIES | Burnley". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  4. ^ Boundary Commission for England Fifth Periodical Report[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  5. ^ "Burnley 1868-". Hansard 1803-2005. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "B" (part 6)
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  9. ^ "Burnley". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  11. ^ "Election 2010 | Constituency | Burnley". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  12. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  14. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  15. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  16. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  17. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  18. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  19. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1970. 
  20. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1966. 
  21. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1964. 
  22. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1959. 
  23. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1955. 
  24. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1951. 
  25. ^ Stevenson, Graham. "Whittaker Bill". Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017. 
  26. ^ Craig, F.W.S., ed. (1969). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 110. ISBN 0-900178-01-9. 
  27. ^ a b c d British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  28. ^ "BURNLEY BY-ELECTION". The Register (Adelaide). LXXXIX, (25,952). South Australia. 1 March 1924. p. 10. Retrieved 18 May 2017 – via National Library of Australia. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Constitutional Year Book, National Unionist Association of Conservative and Liberal Unionist Organizations (1916)
  31. ^ a b "The Election at Burnley". Preston Herald. 8 Feb 1893. p. 2. Retrieved 23 November 2017. 
  32. ^ "The Burnley Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 21 Feb 1887. p. 8. Retrieved 24 November 2017. 
  33. ^ "Burnley". Preston Herald. 9 Feb 1887. p. 5. Retrieved 24 November 2017. 
  34. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  35. ^ a b c d Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3. 
  36. ^ "Burnley Election". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 14 February 1876. Retrieved 5 October 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  37. ^ a b "The nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in Burnley". Bradford Observer. 10 February 1876. p. 8. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]