|Part of a series on|
|Islamic female dress|
|Practice and law by country|
A burqa or burka // (Arabic: برقع), also known as a chadaree /( ) / (Pashto: چادري) in Afghanistan or a paranja // (Russian: паранджа́; Tatar: пәрәнҗә) in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment which covers the body and the face that is worn by women in some Islamic traditions. The Arab version of the burqa is called the boshiya, and is usually black in color.
The term burqa is sometimes conflated with niqāb. In more precise usage, niqab is a face veil that leaves the eyes uncovered, while a burqa covers the entire body from the top of the head to the ground, with only a mesh screen allowing the wearer to see in front of her. The burqa is also not to be confused with the hijab, a garment which covers the hair, neck and all or part of the chest, but not the face.
The burqa and other types of face veils have been attested since pre-Islamic times. Face veiling has not been regarded as a religious requirement by most Islamic scholars, past or present. However, some scholars, especially those belonging to the Salafi movement, view it as obligatory for women in the presence of non-related (mahram) males. Women may wear the burqa for a number of reasons, including compulsion, as was the case in Afghanistan during Taliban rule.
The following nations have introduced full or partial ban of the burqa: Austria, France, Belgium, Denmark, Bulgaria, the Netherlands (in public schools, hospitals and on public transport), Germany (partial bans in some states), Italy (in some localities), Spain (in some localities of Catalonia), Russia (in the Stavropol Krai), Luxembourg, Switzerland, Norway (in nurseries, public schools and universities), Canada (in the public workplace in Quebec), Gabon, Chad, Senegal, the Republic of the Congo, Cameroon (in some localities), Niger (in some localities), Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (ban on all personal religious symbols), Azerbaijan (in public schools), Turkey (in the judiciary, military and police), Kosovo (in public schools), Bosnia and Herzegovina (in courts and other legal institutions), Morocco (ban on manufacturing, marketing and sale), Tunisia (in public institutions), Egypt (in universities), Algeria (in the public workplace), and China (in Xinjiang).
Pre-Islamic use of the face veil
However, although Byzantine art before Islam commonly depicts women with veiled heads or covered hair, it does not depict women with veiled faces. In addition, the Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the first century AD, refers to some Median women veiling their faces; and the early third-century Christian writer Tertullian clearly refers in his treatise The Veiling of Virgins to some "pagan" women of "Arabia" wearing a veil that covers not only their head but also the entire face. Clement of Alexandria commends the contemporary use of face coverings. There are also two Biblical references to the employment of covering face veils in Genesis 38.14 and Genesis 24.65, by Tamar and by Rebeccah, Judah and Abraham's daughters-in-law respectively. These primary sources show that some women in Egypt, Arabia, Canaan and Persia veiled their faces long before Islam. In the case of Tamar, the Biblical text, 'When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; because she had covered her face' indicates customary, if not sacral, use of the face veil to accentuate rather than disguise sexuality.
Face veiling in Islam
|Part of a series on|
Despite legal requirements and prevalence in certain regions, most Islamic scholars and most contemporary Islamic jurists have agreed that Islam does not require women to cover their faces.
Although the Quran commands both men and women to behave modestly and contains no precise prescription for how women should dress, certain Quranic verses have been used in exegetical discussions of face veiling. Coming after a verse which instructs men to lower their gaze and guard their modesty, verse 24:31 instructs women to do the same, providing additional detail:
Tell the believing women to lower their eyes, guard their private parts (furuj), and not display their charms (zina) except what is apparent outwardly, and cover their bosoms with their veils (khumur, sing. khimar) and not to show their finery except to their husbands or their fathers or fathers-in-law [...]
The verse goes on to list a number of other types of exempted males. Classical Quranic commentators differed in their interpretation of the phrase "except what is apparent outwardly". Some argued that it referred to face and hands, implying that these body parts need not be covered, while others disagreed.
Another passage, known as the "mantle verse" (33:59), has been interpreted as establishing women's security as a rationale for veiling:
O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters, and the women of the faithful, to draw their wraps (jalabib, sing. jilbab) over them. They will thus be recognized and no harm will come to them. God is forgiving and kind.
Based on the context of the verse and early Islamic literature, this verse has been generally understood as establishing a way to protect the Muslim women from a hostile faction who had molested them on the streets of Medina, claiming that they confused them with slave girls.
Islamic scholars who hold that face veiling is not obligatory also base this on a narration from one of the canonical hadith collections (sayings attributed to Muhammad), in which he tells Asma', the daughter of Abu Bakr: "O Asmaʿ, when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she displays her parts of body except this and this", pointing to her face and hands (Abū Dawūd, Book 32, Number 4092). According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, traditional hadith scholars have not viewed this narration as providing proof on its own, because its recorded chain of transmission made them uncertain about its authenticity, but those who argued that face veiling is not required have used it as supporting evidence strengthened by other textual sources, such as those recording customary practice at the time of Muhammad and his companions.
When veiling was discussed in early Islamic jurisprudence beyond the context of prayer, it was generally considered an "issue of social status and physical safety". Later, during the medieval era, Islamic jurists began to devote more attention to the notion of awra (intimate parts) and the question of whether women should cover their faces. The majority opinion which emerged during that time, predominant among Maliki and Hanafi jurists, held that women should cover everything except their faces in public. In contrast, most medieval Hanbali and Shafi'i jurists counted a woman's face among the awra, concluding that it should be veiled, except for the eyes. The Hanbali jurist Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1328 CE) was an influential proponent of the latter view, while the Hanafi scholar Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani (d. 1197 CE) stressed that it was particularly important for a woman to leave her face and hands uncovered during everyday business dealing with men. There was a difference of opinion on this question within the legal schools. Thus, Yusuf al-Qaradawi quotes classical Shafi'i and Hanbali jurists stating that covering the face is not obligatory.
According to the Salafi point of view, it is obligatory (fard) for a woman to cover her entire body when in public or in presence of non-mahram men. Some interpretations say that a veil is not compulsory in front of blind, asexual or gay men.
The Salafi scholar Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani wrote a book expounding his view that the face veil is not a binding obligation upon Muslim women, while he was a teacher at Islamic University of Madinah. His opponents within the Saudi establishment ensured that his contract with the university was allowed to lapse without renewal.
Reasons for wearing
Reasons for wearing a burqa vary. A woman may choose to wear it to express her piety, modesty, rejection of Western culture, political views, and cultural views among other reasons. Women in Afghanistan were required, often against their will, to wear the burqa by the Taliban.
Around the world
In July 2015, Cameroon banned the face veil, including the burqa, in the Far North region after two women dressed in the religious garments committed a suicide attack killing 13. The ban is now active in five of country's ten provinces.
Republic of the Congo
In May 2015, the Republic of the Congo banned the face veil in order to counter extremism. The decision was announced by El Hadji Djibril Bopaka, the president of the country's Islamic High Council.
The Moroccan government distributed letters to businesses on 9 January 2017 declaring a ban on the sale, production and import of burqas. The letters indicated that businesses were expected to clear their stock within 48 hours.
The full Afghan chadaree covers the wearer's entire face except for a small region about the eyes, which is covered by a concealing net or grille. They are usually light blue in the Kabul area, white in the north in Mazar-i-Sharif and brown and green in Kandahar in the south.
Before the Taliban took power in Afghanistan, the chadaree was rarely worn in cities, especially Kabul. While they were in power, the Taliban required the wearing of a chadaree in public. Officially, it is no longer required under the present Afghan regime, but some local feudal lords still enforce it in some parts of Afghanistan. Chadaree use in the remainder of Afghanistan is variable and is observed to be gradually declining in Kabul. Due to political instability in these areas, women who might not otherwise be inclined to wear the chadaree must do so as a matter of personal safety.
Among the Muslim population in India (about 14.2% as of 2011 census), the burqa (Hindi: बुरक़ा, Urdu: بُرقع) is common in many areas Old Delhi, for example. In the locale of Nizamuddin Basti, the obligation of a woman to wear a burqa is dependent on her age, according to a local informant: young, unmarried women or young, married women in their first years of marriage are required to wear the burqa. However, after this the husband usually decides if his wife should continue to wear a burqa. In addition, the Indian burqa is a slim black cloak different from the style worn in Afghanistan.
Some years ago[when?], a group of Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) Jewish women in Israel began donning the Burqa as a symbol of piety. Following its adoption by Bruria Keren, an estimated 600 Jewish women took to wearing the veil. Keren claims to "follow these rules of modesty to save men from themselves. A man who sees a woman's body parts is sexually aroused, and this might cause him to commit sin. Even if he doesn't actually sin physically, his impure thoughts are sin in themselves." However, a rabbinical authority said "There is a real danger that by exaggerating, you are doing the opposite of what is intended [resulting in] severe transgressions in sexual matters," and issued an edict declaring burka-wearing a sexual fetish, that is as promiscuous as wearing too little.
According to The Jerusalem Post, in 2010, a Member of the Knesset intended to put forward a bill to "prohibit the wearing of a full-body and face covering for women. [The] bill would not differentiate between Muslims and Jews".
In April 2019, face-covering clothing was banned in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2019 Easter Sunday bombings by jihadists.
Syria is a Baathist state and discourages the wearing of hijab. Ghiyath Barakat, Syria's minister of higher education, announced that the government would ban students, teachers or staff from covering faces at universities, stating that the veils ran counter to "secular and academic principles of the country".
In 2017 the government of Tajikistan passed a law requiring people to "stick to traditional national clothes and culture", which has been widely seen as an attempt to prevent women from wearing Islamic clothing, in particular the style of headscarf wrapped under the chin, in contrast to the traditional Tajik headscarf tied behind the head.
In 2017, a legal ban on face-covering clothing in public spaces was adopted by the Austrian parliament including Islamic face-covering garments. The government stated that accepting and respecting Austrian values is essential to the peaceful co-existence between the Austrian majority population and immigrants. The ban came into force on 1 October 2017 and carried a fine of 150 euros.
It is reported that there are 150 Austrian women who wear the burqa.
On 29 April 2010, the lower house of parliament in Belgium passed a bill banning any clothing that would obscure the identity of the wearer in places like parks and in the street. The proposal was passed without dissent, and was then also passed by the Senate. BBC News estimates that "Only around 30 women wear this kind of veil in Belgium, out of a Muslim population of around half a million." The ban came into effect in Belgium in July 2011. On 11 July 2017 the ban in Belgium was upheld by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) after having been challenged by two Muslim women who claimed their rights had been infringed.
The Parliament of Bulgaria outlawed the wearing of any clothing "that partially or completely covers the face" in public places such as government offices, educational and cultural institutions, and places of public recreation, except for health or professional reasons from 30 September 2016. Anyone who violates the law is liable to a fine of up to 1,500 levs (US$860). The Muslim community makes up 15% of the Bulgarian population of 7.1 million.
In autumn 2017, the Danish government agreed to adopt a law prohibiting people to wear "attire and clothing masking the face in such a way that it impairs recognizability". A full ban on both niqabs and burqas was announced on 31 May 2018. The ban came into force on 1 August 2018 and carries a fine of 1000 DKK, then about 134 euro; repeat offenses are punishable with fines up to 10 000 DKK. The law targets all garments that cover the face, such as fake beards or balaclavas. Supporters of the ban claim that the ban facilitates integration of Muslims into Danish society, while Amnesty International claimed the ban violated women's rights. On the date the law came into force, a protest numbering 300-400 people was held in Copenhagen's Nørrebro district organised by Socialist Youth Front, Kvinder i Dialog and Party Rebels, with protesters wearing various head coverings including party masks.
Wearing the burqa has not been allowed in French public schools since 2004 when it was judged to be a religious symbol like the Christian cross. This ruling was the application of an established 1905 law that prohibits students and staff from wearing any clearly visible religious symbols. The law relates to the time where the secular French state took over control of most schools from the Catholic Church. It does not apply to private or religious schools. This was followed on 22 June 2009, when the president of France, Nicolas Sarkozy, said that burqas are "not welcome" in France, commenting that "In our country, we cannot accept that women be prisoners behind a screen, cut off from all social life, deprived of all identity". The French National Assembly appointed 32 lawmakers from right- and left-wing parties to a six-month fact-finding mission to look at ways of restricting its use. On 26 January 2010, the commission reported that access to public services and public transport should be barred to those wearing the burqa. On Tuesday 13 July 2010 the Assembly overwhelmingly approved a bill banning burqas and niqabs.
On 14 September 2010, the French Senate overwhelmingly approved a ban on burqas in public, with the law becoming effective beginning on 11 April 2011. When the measure was sent in May to the parliament they said "Given the damage it produces on those rules which allow the life in community, ensure the dignity of the person and equality between sexes, this practice, even if it is voluntary, cannot be tolerated in any public place".
The ban is officially called "The bill to forbid concealing one's face in public". "It refers neither to Islam nor to veils. Officials insist the law against face-covering is not discriminatory because it would apply to everyone, not just Muslims. They cite a host of exceptions, including motorcycle helmets, or masks for health reasons, fencing, skiing or carnivals".
In a 2016 speech, accepting her nomination for reelection, the German chancellor Angela Merkel called for banning the burqa in Germany "wherever legally possible", which was interpreted as support for the earlier proposal by Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière to outlaw full-face veils in public buildings. The announcement was seen as an attempt to counter public anger at Merkel's handling of the migrant crisis and electoral gains by the anti-immigration AfD party. In 2017, a legal ban on face-covering clothing for soldiers and state workers during work was approved by the German parliament. Also in 2017, a legal ban on face-covering clothing for car and truck drivers was approved by the German Ministry of Traffic. In July 2017 the state of Bavaria approved a ban on face-covering clothing for teachers, state workers and students at university and schools.
In August 2017, the state of Lower Saxony banned the burqa along with the niqab in public schools. This change in the law was prompted by a Muslim pupil in Osnabrück who wore the garment to school for years and refused to take it off. Since she has completed her schooling, the law was instituted to prevent similar cases in the future.
In Italy, by an anti-terrorism Law passed in 1975, it is forbidden to wear any dress that hides the face of a person. At that time, Italy was facing domestic (not Islam-related) terrorism. In May 2010, it was reported that a Tunisian woman was fined €500 for this offence.
It was wrongly claimed in foreign media that a legal ban of face-covering Islamic clothing was adopted by the Latvian parliament. After long public discussions draft legislation was approved by Latvian government on 22.08.2017, however it was never adopted by the parliament as a law.
Malta has no restrictions on Islamic dressing such as the veil (hijab) nor the full face veil (burqa and/or niqab) but strictly speaking face covering is illegal. An official ban on face covering for religious reasons is ambiguous. It is guaranteed that individuals are allowed to wear as they wish at their private homes and at the Mosque. Imam El Sadi, without quoting anyone and speaking from his own beliefs, as a spiritual guidance, that banning of the niqab and the burka "offends Muslim women". Elsadi said that the Maltese's "attitude towards Muslim women" is positive and, despite cultural clashes, they tolerate the dressing. Some Muslim women share the belief that it is sinful to be seen in public without veiling themselves; however, they are legally required to remove it when needed.
On 27 January 2012, a bill was agreed upon by the Dutch cabinet, banning any clothing that would hide the wearer's identity. Fines for wearing a burqa in public could go up to 380 euros. However, it did not pass in Parliament. In October 2012, this law was mitigated by the succeeding cabinet to pertain only to public transport, health care, education and government buildings, rather than all public spaces.
On 22 May 2015, a bill was agreed upon by the Dutch cabinet, banning wearing a burqa in public places. Public places would have included public transportation, educational institutes, public health institutes, and government buildings. In the courtroom a burqa or a nikab could not be worn. In the public space a burqa and nikab would have been allowed. Police officers could have requested one to remove face-covering clothing for identification purposes. There were exceptions, such as during carnival or other festivities, and when face-covering clothing was necessary as a sports or job requirement. Opposition party D66 commented on the burqa abolishment as tokenism, while PVV labelled the ban unsatisfactory. Minister of Internal Affairs, Plasterk, has stated that setting a norm is important.
The May 2015 bill did not pass either, but a new bill was proposed in November 2015, which was eventually made into law. On 26 June 2018, a partial ban on face covering (including burqas) on public transport and in buildings and associated yards of educational institutions, governmental institutions and healthcare institutions was enacted, with a number of exceptions. From 1 August 2019 a national burka ban was introduced in the Netherlands.
As of August 2019, 200-400 Dutch women are believed to wear a burqa or niqab.
In June 2018, the parliament of Norway passed a bill banning clothing covering the face at educational institutions as well as daycare centres, which included face-covering Islamic veils. The prohibition applies to pupils and staff alike.
In 2012, a poll by Uppsala University found that Swedes responded that face-covering Islamic veils are either completely unacceptable or fairly unacceptable, 85% for the burqa and 81% for the niqab. The researchers noted these figures represented a compact resistance to the face-covering veil by the population of Sweden.
The burka was outlawed in the canton of Ticino after a citizen initiative to hold a referendum. With 65% in favour of a ban and it was ruled that the ban was constitutional, the ban took effect in July 2016. Those who violate the law face a fine of up to CHF 10,000.
In September 2018, a ban on face-covering veils was approved with a 67% vote in favour in the canton of St Gallen. The largest Islamic community organisation in Switzerland, the Islamic Central Council, recommended that Muslim women continue to cover their faces.
During the federal votation of the 7th of March 2021 regarding the prohibition of face-covering, the Swiss people voted yes. The question submitted for the referendum was initiated from a right-wing political group affiliated with the Swiss People's Party. Although very few women in Switzerland actually wear a burqa or niqab, the proposition has been made with the intention to forbid these outfits in public spaces. 51.4% of the population participated in the vote, 51.2% of them agreed with the initiative.
Face veils have caused debate in the United Kingdom. A senior member of the previous government, Jack Straw, asked Muslim women from his constituency to remove any veils covering their faces during face-to-face meetings with him. He explained to the media that this was a request, not a demand, and that he made sure that a woman staffer remained in the room during the meeting. Some Muslim groups said that they understood his concerns, but others rejected them as prejudicial. A poll in 2011 indicated that 66 percent of British people supported banning the burqa in all public places. However, a ban on burqas was ruled out by the Conservative government, and in 2018 Theresa May stated "we do not support a ban on the wearing of the veil in public".
In 2010, Australian Liberal Senator Cory Bernardi called for the burqa to be banned in Australia, branding it "un-Australian". The ban did not go ahead but the debate about the burqa continues.
In 2011, Carnita Matthews of Sydney was sentenced to six months jail for making a statement accusing a police officer of attempting to forcibly lift her niqab, which news sources initially referred to incorrectly as a burqa. The officer had pulled her over for a random breath test and then ticketed her for a licence infringement. Matthews allegedly then submitted a signed complaint to a police station while wearing a niqab. Judge Clive Jeffreys overturned the conviction in June 2011, citing what he thought were differences between the signature on her license and that on the complaint. She then proceeded to seek legal costs. Matthews was subsequently revealed to have a considerable record of unpaid fines and licence revocations that cast doubt on her character. On 4 July 2011, New South Wales became the first Australian state to pass laws allowing police to demand that burqas (and other head gear such as motorcycle helmets) be removed when asking for identification.
In October 2014, the Speaker of the House and President of the Senate at Parliament House in Canberra decreed that female visitors wearing a face covering would have to sit in the separated glassed-in areas of the public gallery normally reserved for schoolchildren. This was in response to a planned disruptive action by a political activist group. Prime Minister Tony Abbott stated that he opposed this restriction. The decision was subsequently reversed.
In August 2017, Senator Pauline Hanson arrived at the Senate wearing a burqa in protest, calling for the garment to be banned. Following the incident, ReachTEL polled 2,832 Australians and found that the majority supported banning the wearing of the burqa in public places.
On 18 October 2017, the Quebec provincial government passed bill 21, which requires people to show their face when giving or receiving public services. The bill allows exemptions (including for religious motives) on a "case by case" basis, but despite this, the legislation was still regarded as a ban on burqas and niqabs by its detractors.
- ^a It is generally pronounced in the local variety of Arabic which vary. Examples: Egyptian Arabic: [ˈboɾʔoʕ], plural: Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [bæˈɾæːʔeʕ], in Literary Arabic by Egyptians: Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈborqoʕ], plural: Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [bɑˈɾɑːqeʕ].
- Originating from Arabic: برقع, burquʿ or burqaʿ, and Urdu: بُرقع, it is also transliterated as burkha, bourkha, burqua or burqu' and is pronounced natively [ˈbʊrqʊʕ, ˈbʊrqɑʕ].a
- Also transliterated chadri or chadari.
Vyver, James (17 August 2017). "Explainer: Why do Muslim women wear a burka, niqab or hijab?". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
Some Muslim women wear niqabs, which are often confused with the burka.
- "The Islamic veil across Europe". BBC News. 31 May 2018.
- "Where are 'burqa bans' in Europe?". Deutsche Welle. 1 August 2019.
- Tan, Rebecca (16 August 2018). "From France to Denmark, bans on full-face Muslim veils are spreading across Europe". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286.
- Alexandra Parachini. "Le Luxembourg a désormais sa loi burqa | Le Quotidien" (in French). Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Switzerland referendum: Voters support ban on face coverings in public". BBC News. 7 March 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Norway votes in favour of banning burqa in schools and universities". The Independent. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Levin, Dan (18 October 2017). "Quebec Bars People in Face Coverings From Receiving Public Services (Published 2017)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "The veil in west Africa - Banning the burqa". The Economist. 11 February 2016. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Après le Tchad et le Cameroun, le Sénégal renonce à la burqa et à ses suppôts". Franceinfo (in French). 20 November 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Colombo, Associated Press in (13 March 2021). "Sri Lanka to ban burqa and close 1,000 Islamic schools". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Tajikstan passes law 'to stop Muslim women wearing hijabs'". The Independent. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Reuters Staff (10 September 2018). "Uzbek imam sacked after urging president to allow hijabs, beards". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Yevgrashina, Lada (10 December 2010). "Muslims in Azerbaijan protest over headscarves". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Sanghani, Radhika (8 July 2016). "Burka bans: The countries where Muslim women can't wear veils". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Headscarf ban sparks debate over Kosovo's identity". BBC News. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Bosnia women protest at ban on headscarf". BBC News. 7 February 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Ennaji, Moha. "Why Morocco's burqa ban is more than just a security measure". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Tunisia bans niqab in government buildings". BBC News. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Algeria bans woman working in public sector from wearing full-face veils". The Independent. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Phillips, Tom (13 January 2015). "China bans burqa in capital of Muslim region of Xinjiang". The Telegraph (13 January 2015). The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "China Uighurs: Xinjiang ban on long beards and veils". BBC News. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- See for instance F. R. C. Bagley, "Introduction", in B. Spuler, A History of the Muslim World. The Age of the Caliphs, 1995, X; for a different view T. Dawson, "Propriety, practicality and pleasure : the parameters of women's dress in Byzantium, A.D. 1000-1200", in L. Garland (ed.), Byzantine women: varieties of experience 800-1200, 2006, 41-76.
- Geography 11.13.9-10.:"Some say that Medeia introduced this kind of dress when she, along with Jason, held dominion in this region, even concealing her face whenever she went out in public in place of the king Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine"
- The Veiling of Virgins Ch. 17. Tertullian writes, "The pagan women of Arabia, who not only cover their head but their whole face, so that they would rather enjoy half the light with one eye free than prostitute the face, will judge you. (Judicabunt vos Arabiae feminae ethnicae quae non-caput, sed faciem totam tegunt, ut uno oculo liberato contentae sint dimidiam frui lucem quam totam faciem prostituere)."
- "Clement of Alexandria, 'Going to Church' Chapter XI, Book 3, Paedagogus". New Advent Fathers. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
Woman and man are to go to church decently attired, with natural step, embracing silence, possessing unfeigned love, pure in body, pure in heart, fit to pray to God. Let the woman observe this, further. Let her be entirely covered, unless she happen to be at home. For that style of dress is grave, and protects from being gazed at. And she will never fall, who puts before her eyes modesty, and her shawl; nor will she invite another to fall into sin by uncovering her face.
- "Clement of Alexandria, "On Clothe"' Chapter XI, Book 2, Paedagogus". New Advent Fathers. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Astour, Michael (June 1966). "Tamar the Hieronodule". Journal of Biblical Literature. 85 (2): 185–196. doi:10.2307/3265124. JSTOR 3265124.
- 'Prostitution' in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Academic. May 2001. ISBN 9780801020759. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Westenholtz, Joan (July 1989). "Tamar, Qědēšā, Qadištu, and Sacred Prostitution in Mesopotamia". Harvard Theological Review. 82 (3): 245–68. doi:10.1017/S0017816000016199. JSTOR 1510077.
- Lipinski, Edward (January–February 2014). "Cult Prostitution in Ancient Israel?". Biblical Archaeology Review. Biblical Archaeology Society. 40 (1). Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Bible Gateway passage: Genesis 38:15 - King James Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- Juan Eduardo Campo, ed. (2009). "Burqa". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438126968.
- al-Qaraḍāwī, Yūsuf. "Is Wearing the Niqāb Obligatory for Women?". SuhaibWebb.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Hadia Mubarak (2009). "Burqa". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Siddiqui, Mona (2006). "Veil". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00103.
- Amer, Sahar (2014). What Is Veiling?. The University of North Carolina Press (Kindle edition). pp. 26–28.
- Bucar, Elizabeth (2013). The Islamic Veil: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. 54–55.
- "The Islamic Modest Dress". Mutahhari. 7 March 2008. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- IslamQA.info (7 March 2008). "Awrah". IslamQ&A. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- IslamQA.info (7 March 2008). "Ruling on covering the face, with detailed evidence". IslamQ&A. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- "Is it permissible to take off the khimar in front of a blind man?". Islamqa.info. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Women revealing their adornment to men who lack physical desire - Islam web ladies'". Islamweb. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- Queer Spiritual Spaces: Sexuality and Sacred Places, p. 89, Kath Browne, Sally Munt, Andrew K. T. Yip - 2010
- Meijer, Global Salafism, pg. 66.
- BBC: "Cameroon bans Islamic face veil after suicide bombings", Bbc.com, 16 July 2015.
- "Another African country bans Islamic veil for women over terror attacks", Washingtonpost.com, 18 June 2015.
- "Chad police: Anyone wearing face veils will be arrested". Al Jazeera English. 12 July 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Chad arrests 62 women for wearing veils after bombings". News24. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Congo-Brazzaville bans Islamic face veil in public places". BBC News. May 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Congo-Brazzaville bans women from wearing full veil - Security reasons cited as the reason behind the ban, according to an Islamic association", Aljazeera.com, 3 May 2015
- Rose Troup Buchanan (2 May 2015). "Republic of Congo bans full-face veils in attempt to prevent religious extremist attacks". The Independent. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Morocco 'bans the sale and production of the burka'". BBC News. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Malhotra, Jyothi (26 July 2009). "An election in Afghanistan". Business Standard. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
- "Associated Press News". bigstory.ap.org.
- "China bans burqas and 'abnormal' beards in Muslim province". 30 March 2017.
- Suad Joseph, Afsaneh Najmabadi (9 July 2011). Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Family, Law, and Politics. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004128187.
The burqá is common in India and Pakistan and a girl is usually required to use it from the age of nine or ten.
- Jain, Simmi (9 July 2011). Encyclopaedia of Indian Women Through the Ages: Modern India. Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 9788178351759.
The wearing of Burqa was not seen in the rural areas although the majority observed complete purdah whereas in the old Delhi area from where the urban data was collected, ' Burqa ' clad women were quite frequently seen in the markets and other places, as also women without a Burqa.
- Weigl, Constanze (9 July 2011). Reproductive Health Behavior and Decision-Making of Muslim Women. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643107701.
The obligation of a woman to wear a burqa is dependent on her age, as Moazam, one of my key informants, explained to me; a woman with grown-up children has not necessarily to wear a burqa. Young, unmarried women or young, married women in their first years of marriage, however, are obliged to wear it. In this situation a husband usually decides if his wife should continue to wear a burqa after marriage or not. In Nizamuddin Basti girls usually started to wear a burqa when they were around 16 years old and became fecund.
- Shaheed, Aisha Lee Fox (2008). "Dress Codes and Modes: How Islamic Is the Veil?". In Heath, Jennifer (ed.). The Veil: Women Writers on Its History, Lore, and Politics. University of California Press. pp. 290–306. ISBN 978-0-520-25040-6 – via Google Books.
- Shaviv, Miriam (28 April 2010). "Should Israel Ban the Burka?". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- "Controversy in Israel over burqa-wearing ultra-Orthodox Jews". Asia News. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (30 July 2010). "Israeli rabbis clamp down on burka". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- The Jerusalem Post. 26 April 2010. . Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Sri Lanka Bans Face Coverings After Easter Sunday Attacks". NPR.org. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Syria bans face veils at universities". BBC News. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Harriet Agerholm (1 September 2017). "Tajikstan passes law 'to stop Muslim women wearing hijabs'". The Independent.
- WELT (16 May 2017). "Integration: Österreich stellt Tragen von Burka und Nikab unter Strafe". Die Welt – via www.welt.de.
- "Österrike bötfäller burka – och hajkostym". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Belgian lawmakers pass burka ban". BBC News. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "The Islamic veil across Europe - BBC News". Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- "Top Europe court upholds ban on full-face veil in Belgium". 11 July 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Cooperman, Alan; Sahgal, Neha; Schiller, Anna (10 May 2017). "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe", p. 52. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Radio, Sveriges. "Tolv har fått böta efter dansk maskeringslag - Nyheter (Ekot)". sverigesradio.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Denmark is about to ban the burqa". 6 October 2017.
- "Denmark passes ban on niqabs and burkas". BBC News. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Fra i dag kan Ayesha få en bøde for at gå på gaden: 'Jeg tager aldrig min niqab af'". DR (in Danish). 1 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Joining other European countries, Denmark bans full-face veil in public - France 24". France 24. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Hestehoveder og niqaber: Demonstranter dækker ansigtet til i protest mod forbud". DR (in Danish). 1 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- Foreign, Our (22 June 2009). "Nicolas Sarkozy: burqa not welcome in France". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "France sets up burka commission". BBC News. 23 June 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Doland, Angela (13 July 2010). "France Burqa Ban: French Parliament Approves Ban on Face Veils". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- French Senate Approves Burqa Ban (CNN)
- "CNN – French Senate approves burqa ban". CNN. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Doland, Angela (13 July 2010). "France Burqa Ban: French Parliament Approves Ban on Face Veils". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
- Willsher, Kim (1 July 2014). "France's burqa ban upheld by human rights court". Retrieved 25 August 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "European Court upholds French full veil ban - BBC News". BBC News. July 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Alison Smale (6 December 2016). "Angela Merkel Calls for Ban on Full-Face Veils in Germany". The New York Times.
- "Angela Merkel endorses burka ban 'wherever legally possible'". BBC. 6 December 2016.
- Sheena McKenzie (6 December 2016). "Angela Merkel calls for full-face veil ban in Germany". CNN.
- Nachrichten, n-tv. "Bundestag beschließt Sicherheitspaket".
- "CSU-Verkehrsminister Alexander Dobrindt will offenbar Burka-Verbot im Auto". 2 June 2017.
- WELT (7 July 2017). "Burka-Verbot: Bayern verbietet Gesichtsschleier in vielen Bereichen". Die Welt – via www.welt.de.
- "Burka-Streit: Niedersachsen verbietet Vollverschleierung an Schulen - WELT". DIE WELT. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Zeitung, Berliner. "Baden-Württemberg verbietet Vollverschleierung in Klassenzimmern". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 22 July 2020.
- Squires, Nick (4 May 2010). "Muslim woman fined £430 for wearing burqa in Italy". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "A European government has banned Islamic face veils despite them being worn by just three women". 21 April 2016.
- "A Ministru kabinets atbalsta Sejas aizsegšanas ierobežojuma likumprojektu". 22 August 2017.
- Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Volume 4 p. 393.
- Dalli, Miriam (2015), "MP calls for banning of the burqa: ‘Decision requires rational debate’", Malta Today.
- Camilleri, Neil (2015), "In Malta, wearing a burqa while driving is ‘not illegal’ - police", The Malta Independent.
- "Imam says burqa and niqab ban 'offends' Muslim women".
- "Muslim women should be able to wear hijab".
- "Report on Equality" (PDF). www.euroinfo.ee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Ltd, Allied Newspapers. "Election of Muslim girl champions diversity".
- Jørgen Nielsen; Samim Akgönül; Ahmet Alibašić; Egdunas Racius (2014), Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Volume 6, Brill, p.411.
- "Kabinet stemt in met boerkaverbod – 'wet met veel haken en ogen'". NRC Handelsblad. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- "Geen boerkaverbod op straat". Nederlands Dagblad. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Kabinet stemt in met boerkaverbod". NRC Handelsblad. 22 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "Weinig bijval voor boerka-plan". NOS. 22 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Halasz; McKenzie, Stephanie; Sheena (27 June 2018). "The Netherlands introduces burqa ban in some public spaces" (27 June 2018). CNN. CNN. Retrieved 9 August 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Mellen, Ruby (27 June 2018). "It took 10 years, but the Dutch far right finally managed to pass a burqa ban". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Hauser, Christine; Stack, Liam (27 June 2018). "Netherlands Approves Partial Ban on Face Coverings". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Norway bans burqa and niqab in schools". 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- "Nå blir det forbudt med nikab i norske skoler". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- "Mångfaldsbarometern 2012: Extremt negativa attityder permanentas och riskerar växa - Uppsala universitet". uppsalauniversitet.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 12 July 2018.
Svaren innebär att motståndet i Sverige mot Burka och Niqab är kompakt, 84,4 respektive 81,6 procent anser att de är ganska eller helt oacceptabla. Motståndet har åter ökat något.
- Malmöhus, P4. "Skurup förbjuder slöja i skolan". Sveriges Radio (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- "Muslims face fines up to £8,000 for wearing burkas in Switzerland". The Independent. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Editorial, Reuters. "Swiss canton becomes second to ban burqas in public". U.S. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- "'Remove full veils' urges Straw". BBC News. 6 October 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Two-thirds Brits want burqa ban". YouGov. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Boris Johnson faces criticism over burka 'letter box' jibe". BBC. 6 April 2018.
- "Burqa bans: thinly veiled discrimination?". Australian Times. 14 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "Demand for hijab ruling causes uproar in State Parliament". Adelaide Now. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "Burqa wearing-woman Carnita Matthews to seek legal costs". The Daily Telegraph. 23 June 2011.
- Fife-Yeomans, Janet (1 July 2011). "No covering up similar signatures in Carnita Matthews burqa case". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "Carnita Matthew, accused of making a false statement, has history of not paying fines". www.news.com.au. 22 June 2011.
- "Tony Abbott steps in to have Parliament House burka restrictions overturned". ABC News, 3 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "Burka segregation in Parliament reversed by Bishop". 19 October 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- ReachTEL survey (23 August 2017) https://powr.s3.amazonaws.com/app_images%2Fresizable%2F8fb90f02-cdc2-4dcd-9d81-7d87d3a9487c%2FSkyNewsReachel24August2017.pdf
- Boissinot, Jacques (24 October 2017). "How will Quebec's Bill 21 work? What we know (and don't) so far". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- Paperny, Anna Mehler. "Canadian judge suspends Quebec niqab ban". U.S. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Paperny, Anna Mehler. "Second Canadian judge suspends Quebec niqab ban". CA. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "Judge suspends Quebec face-covering ban, says it appears to violate charter | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burqa.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Burqa|
- Burqa ban: What it means for the West – TCN News
- France's burqa ban – background by Radio France Internationale in English
- The absence of evidence for banning burqas – The Guardian
- The Islamic veil across Europe – BBC
- Beautiful Burqas Archived 29 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine – slideshow by Life magazine
- "influence of Persian language in Arabic"