Burton Township is the smallest in area in McHenry County, Illinois. As of the 2010 census, its population was 5,003 and it contained 1,758 housing units.
Burton Township was first settled by Englishmen in 1836, and the name English Prairie was given it. Later settlers called the township Benton, but upon it being learned that there was already a post office and township of Benton in Illinois, the name was changed to Burton on December 28, 1850.
According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 10.87 square miles (28.2 km2), of which 10.79 square miles (27.9 km2) (or 99.26%) is land and 0.08 square miles (0.21 km2) (or 0.74%) is water.