Bury Town Hall
Bury shown within Greater Manchester
|OS grid reference|
|Metropolitan county||Greater Manchester|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||BL9 & BL8 & BL0|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
|UK Parliament||Bury North|
Bury (//, locally also //) is a town in Greater Manchester, England, on the River Irwell, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east of Bolton, 5.9 miles (9.5 km) west-southwest of Rochdale and 7.9 miles (12.7 km) north-northwest of Manchester. Bury is the largest settlement and administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Bury and in 2011 had a population of 55,856.
Bury resident Sir Robert Peel was a British Prime Minister who founded the Metropolitan Police and Conservative Party. The Peel Memorial is outside Bury parish church and the Peel Monument stands on Holcombe Hill overlooking Ramsbottom.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Landmarks
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Sport
- 9 Culture
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Twin towns
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Bury was formed around the ancient market place but even prior to this there is evidence of activity dating back to the period of Roman occupation. Bury Museum has a Roman urn containing a number of small bronze coins dated for AD 253–282 and found north of what is now the town centre. Under Agricola the road building programme included a route from the fort at Manchester (Mamucium) to the fort at Ribchester (Bremetennacum) that ran through Radcliffe and Affetside. The modern Watling Street, that serves the Seddons Farm estate on the west side of town, follows the approximate line of the route.
The most imposing early building in the town would have been Bury Castle, a medieval fortified manor house. The castle was built in 1469 by Sir Thomas Pilkington, lord of the manors of Pilkington and Bury and a powerful member of Lancashire's gentry. It sat in a good defensive position on high ground overlooking the Irwell Valley. At that time the Pilkingtons had been lords of Bury for nearly a century, having inherited the manor from a family named de Bury.
The Pilkington family suffered badly in the Wars of the Roses when, despite the geography they supported the House of York. When Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth, in 1485, Thomas Pilkington was captured and later executed. The outcome of the battle was that the Duke of Richmond, representing the House of Lancaster was crowned Henry VII by Sir William Stanley. As a reward for the support of his family Thomas Stanley was created Earl of Derby and amongst other land the confiscated Pilkington estate in Bury was presented to him.
The ancestral home of the Earls of Derby is Knowsley Hall on the outskirts of Liverpool. The family maintains a connection with Bury in various ways—the Derby High School is named after them. When the school opened in 1959 the Earl of Derby was patron and the school's badge is based on the Earl's coat of arms.
For many years the castle remains were buried beneath the streets outside the Castle Armoury. From time to time it was the subject of archaeological excavations. These established that there was an earlier manor house on the site. In 2000 the castle site was properly excavated as a focal point in the town centre. The remains of the old walls are now displayed in Castle Square.
Between 1801 and 1830 the population of the town more than doubled from 7,072 to 15,086. This was the time when the factories, mines and foundries began to dominate the landscape with their spinning machines and steam engines.
Probate evidence from the 17th century and the remains of 18th century weavers' cottages in Elton, on the west side of Bury, indicate that domestic textile production was an important factor of the local economy at a time when Bury's textile industry was dominated by woollens and based upon the domestic production of yarn and cloth as well as water-powered fulling mills.
Development was swift in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The establishment of Brooksbottom Mill, in Summerseat north of the town, as a calico printing works in 1773 by the family of Sir Robert Peel marked the beginning of the cotton industry in Bury. By the early 19th century cotton was the predominant textile industry with the River Roch and River Irwell providing power for spinning mills and processing water for the finishing trades. Development was further promoted when the town was linked to the national canal network by the Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal, fully opened in 1808. The canal is provided with water from Elton Reservoir, fed by aqueducts from a weir on the River Irwell, north of what is now the Burrs Country Park. The Burrs is also the site of another mill developed by the Peel family, first founded in 1790. The remains are displayed for the public. There were seven cotton mills in Bury by 1818 and the population grew from 9,152 in 1801 to 58,029 in 1901.
Following this, railways were opened, linking the town from Bury Bolton Street railway station to Manchester, Radcliffe, Rawtenstall and Accrington and from the old Knowsley Street railway station to the neighbouring mill towns of Bolton, Heywood and Rochdale. As well as the many cotton mills other industries which thrived included paper–making, calico printing and some light engineering. The town expanded to incorporate the former townships of Elton, Walmersley and Heap and rows of terraced housing encircled the town centre by the turn of the 19th century. Districts such as Freetown, Fishpool and Pimhole were transformed from farmers' fields to rows of terraced housing, beside the factories and mills.
The houses were of the most limited kind without basic facilities, sewers or proper streets. The result was the rapid spread of disease and high mortality rates in crowded areas. In 1838 out of 1,058 working class houses in Bury investigated by the Manchester Statistical Society 733 had 3–4 people in each bed, 207 had 4–5, and 76 had 5–6. Social reformers locally and nationally were concerned about such issues, including Edwin Chadwick. One report that prepared the ground for the reform of public health matters, commissioned by then Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, asked local doctors for information. King Street, Bury was highlighted. It had 10 houses, each with one bedroom, and a population of 69. The average age of death in Bury was 13.8 years. Towns like Bury were likened to 'camps' where newcomers sought work in mill, mine or forge. Many, often from Ireland, found shelter in lodging houses. 38 in Bury were surveyed. 73% had men and women sharing beds indiscriminately, 81% were filthy and the average was 5.5 persons to a bed.
Although Bury had few of the classic late 19th century spinning mills that were such a feature of other Lancashire towns a group, known as Peel Mills, are still in use at Castlecroft Road, immediately north of the town centre, their name another reminder of the link with the Peel family.
In 1688 Prince William of Orange (later King William III) landed at Brixham, Devon. He was met by a number of noblemen who were then commissioned to raise Regiments to help him oppose James II. Colonel Sir Robert Peyton raised a Regiment containing six independent companies in the Exeter area. This Regiment evolved to become the Lancashire Fusiliers: following successful recruiting a Regimental Depot was established at Wellington Barracks in 1881.
In the post-war period, there was a major decline in the cotton industry, and in common with many neighbouring towns, Bury's skyline was soon very different, with countless factory chimneys being pulled down and the associated mills closing their doors for ever. The old shopping area around Princess Street and Union Square was demolished in the late 1960s, and a concrete precinct emerged to replace it. This development was replaced by the Mill Gate Shopping Centre in the late 1990s.
In 2010 a £350m large shopping area opened up around the Rock. The main street is populated mainly by independent shops and food outlets. At the top end of the street, however, is a modern shopping area. It has a multi screen cinema, bowling alley and department stores including Marks & Spencer, Debenhams, Boots UK, Clarks, Poundland, The Body Shop and Warren James Jewellers.
Bury has also benefited from other facilities in the early 2010s including a new medical centre and office accommodation close to Bury Town Hall. Bury is competing as a destination with Bolton and Rochdale. A decision by Marks and Spencer to vacate its store in the Mill Gate Shopping Centre and move into a large new one on the Rock emphasised a change in the makeup of the town.
The town centre is still famous for its traditional market, with its "world famous" black pudding stalls. Bury Market was also once famous for its tripe, although this has declined in the past few decades. The Bury Black Pudding Co, owned by the Chadwick family, provides black pudding to retailers such as Harrods as well as supermarkets and the Market is a haven for people from all over Greater Manchester and beyond. The last 30 years have seen the town developing into an important commuter town for neighbouring Manchester. Large scale housing development has taken place around Unsworth, Redvales, Sunnybank, Brandlesholme, Limefield, Chesham and Elton. The old railway line to Manchester Victoria closed in 1990, and was replaced by the light rapid transit system Metrolink in 1992. The town was also linked to the M66 motorway network, opening in 1978, accessed from the east side of the town.
In terms of local administration the town was originally a parish, then a select vestry, first with a board of guardians for the poor. Improvement commissioners were added before full borough status was granted. The borough charter was received in 1876 and by 1889 this was raised to that of a county borough of Lancashire.
The coat of arms was granted in 1877 and the symbols represent local industry. In the quarters are representations of the anvil, for forging, the golden fleece, for wool, a pair of crossed shuttles, for the cotton industry and a papyrus plant for the paper trade. Above them is a closed visor capped by a mayfly and two red roses. The motto "Vincit Omnia Industria" means "work conquers all".
With the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, Bury merged with the neighbouring municipal boroughs of Radcliffe and Prestwich, together with the urban districts of Whitefield, Tottington and Ramsbottom to become the Metropolitan Borough of Bury in 1974. This borough is part of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. On 3 July 2008 there was a referendum across the borough to decide whether the borough should be ruled by a directly elected mayor. The proposal was rejected by the voters.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Bury is located on the edge of the western Pennines in North West England in the northern part of the Greater Manchester Urban Area. The River Irwell flows through the town and this position has proved important in its history and development. Flowing from north to south the river effectively divides the town into two parts on the east and west sides of the valley respectively. The town centre sits close to and above the river on the east side. Bury Bridge is a key bridging point linking the east side of town and the town centre to the western suburbs and Bolton beyond. Other bridges across the river are limited—there is one at Radcliffe Road to the south and at Summerseat to the north. There is also a bridge at the Burrs but this serves a cul-de-sac and does not allow full east–west access. To the south the main tributary, the River Roch, flowing from the east, joins the Irwell close to another significant bridging point, Blackford bridge. This carries the main route south, now the A56, towards Manchester.
Bury experiences a warm Temperate climate due to the warm summers and cool winters from the shielding effect from the Western Pennine Moors. Summer is the driest time of the year with low amount of rainfall. Bury rarely experiences temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F), due to Oceanic north eastern winds. In summer temperature is warm and Bury does experience a lot of sun, due to summer being the driest season. The winters are cool and temperatures can drop below freezing occasionally from December to March. There is not much extreme weather in Bury, floods are seen rarely since Bury is higher ground, normally most floods are seen in Ramsbottom. Thunderstorms happen mostly in early summer with lots of amounts of rain.
|Population growth in Bury since 1901|
|Source: Vision of Britain|
Attractions in Bury include:
- Bury Art Museum, containing the Wrigley collection of paintings including works by Turner, Cox and De Wint.
- Bury Castle is a fortified manor house built in the mid 13th century by Sir Thomas Pilkington and is now protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument; the foundations have been excavated and have been open to the public since 2000.
- Bury Parish Church on the Market Place in the centre of the town is a Grade I listed building.
- Bury's 'World Famous' Market, which has been on the same site for nearly 600 years; the original licence for a market was granted in 1444. In 2006, out of 1,150 markets in the UK, Bury Market was voted the best 'British Market of the Year' by the National Association of British Market Authorities. The market was also selected as Radio 4's Food and Farming Awards Market of the Year in 2008. It receives over 1,000 coachloads of visitors every year.
- Castlesteads is an ancient promontory fort and scheduled monument.
- Peel Tower, Harcles Hill, above Holcombe village, Ramsbottom. The Peel Tower was built in remembrance of Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and founder of the police force, who was born in Bury. Hundreds of people climb to the tower each year on Good Friday. Historically this gathering had a principally religious purpose since the hill is said to be strikingly similar to the hill that Jesus is said to have climbed before he was crucified on Good Friday (Calvary).
- East Lancashire Railway, a heritage railway which runs from the town to Heywood, Ramsbottom and Rawtenstall. Based at Bury Bolton Street railway station.
- Regimental museum of the Lancashire Fusiliers has now moved to a new museum on Moss Street in Bury.
- Silver Street and environs contain many examples of mid-Victorian architecture, using York stone, from the pre-Gothic revival period.
Bury is home to several fine sculptures and pieces of public art. Edward Hodges Baily's 1851 statue of Sir Robert Peel stands in the centre of town, while Lutyens' Lancashire Fusiliers War Memorial can be found outside the Fusilier Museum. George Frampton's 'cheering fusilier', a tribute to the those who died in the Boer War, stands in Whitehead Gardens near the town hall. Contemporary works include Ron Silliman's text piece From Northern Soul (Bury Neon) at Bury Interchange.
|This section needs to be updated. (October 2012)|
Between 1903 and 1949, the Bury Corporation Tramways network served the town.
Bury Bolton Street railway station, first opened in 1846 and substantially rebuilt in the 1880s and again in the 1950s, is now home to the East Lancashire Railway, a heritage railway which serves Heywood, Ramsbottom and Rawtenstall, but which does not provide a regular commuter service. The station is the original railway station of Bury, and it was a mainline station until 1980, although after December 1966 passenger services were reduced to a commuter service to Manchester only (formerly there were services to Ramsbottom, Rawtenstall and Bacup to the north of Bury also from Bolton Street station).
Bury was served by two major railway stations between 1848 and 1970, when Bury Knowsley Street railway station was closed. Bury Knowsley Street station had passenger services travelling east-west through Bury, connecting the town directly to both Bolton and Heywood. After October 1970 services to and from Manchester were the only passenger rail services connecting Bury to the national rail network. Bury to Manchester Victoria rail services were provided by Class 504 units, which were third-rail operated, in the 1970s and 1980s. Bury Interchange, opened in March 1980 close to the site of the former Knowsley Street station (which was demolished in the early-1970s); it was the replacement for the Bolton Street railway station (which was subsequently taken over the East Lancashire Railway heritage line in 1987), and initially incorporated a railway station, with services to Manchester Victoria, and a bus station. Third-rail powered heavy rail passenger services integrated with the national rail network ceased in 1991, with Metrolink taking over the line and trams operating the line since April 1992. Bury has therefore not had a conventional heavy rail link to the national network since 1991.
First Greater Manchester and Rosso operate most bus services around Bury, connecting with destinations within Greater Manchester, Rossendale, Accrington and Burnley. The bus station is connected to the Bury Interchange Metrolink station, to provide a vast complex of inter-modal transport. There is also a free car park at the rear of the complex and a cycle hub to park your bike up during the day. The station is located in the centre of Bury, right next to Bury Market, the Millgate Shopping Centre, the Rock and the main square.
- Bury College, formerly Bury Technical College and Peel Sixth Form College.
- Bury Grammar School has existed since the 1634.
- Holy Cross College, formerly Bury Convent Grammar School. In 2008 it was named 2nd in the country.
- High schools located in the area include
- St Gabriel's RC High School
- Woodhey High School
- Tottington High School
- Broad Oak High School
- Bury Church of England High School
- Bury Grammar School (Independent)
- Derby High School
- Elton High School
Bury has a football club, Bury F.C., which plays at Gigg Lane. The club was formed in 1885 and in 1889 they finished runners up in the inaugural season of the Lancashire League. They were elected to the Football League Second Division in 1894, at the same time as Manchester City. They were promoted to Division One at the end of their first season, beating Liverpool in a play-off. More success came in 1900 when they won the FA Cup followed by a further win in 1903. On the second occasion they beat Derby County 6–0—a record victory for a Cup Final that still stands. The most recent run of success was in 1996 and 1997 when they won promotion from Football League Division Three and Football League Division Two, being Champions in that Division, in successive seasons.
The club currently (2015–16) plays in League One, with a thriving Youth and Centre of Excellence department. The club has produced players such as David Nugent, Simon Whaley and Colin Kazim-Richards. Former legends include free scoring Lenell John-Lewis, old timers Norman Bullock and Henry Cockburn, Neville Southall, Dean Kiely, Lee Dixon, Colin Bell, Terry McDermott, Alec Lindsay, Trevor Ross and John McGrath.
Gigg Lane was used by F.C. United of Manchester of the Northern Premier League Premier Division. FC United is a breakaway group of former Manchester United fans adhering to the anti Malcolm Glazer movement and outright commercialism in modern football. F.C. United's attendances were lower than those of Bury. Until 2002 Manchester United Reserves were also hosted by Gigg Lane in Bury.
The Met arts centre, based in the Derby Hall on Market Street, is a small performing arts venue promoting a programme of theatre, music and comedy events. The Met has hosted famous comedy acts such as Peter Kay, Jason Manford, Steve Coogan and Eddie Izzard in their days before fame.
Museums and galleries
The Fusilier Museum, home to the collection of the Lancashire Fusiliers, commemorating over three hundred years of the regiment's history. The museum occupies the former School of Arts and Crafts on Broad Street.
The award winning Bury Transport Museum, part of the East Lancashire Railway, holds a fine collection of vintage vehicles and interactive displays. It is housed in the Grade II listed, beautifully restored, 1848 Castlecroft Goods Shed. In 2011 Bury Transport Museum won a National Railway Heritage Award.
The 2008 Mercury Music Prize winning group Elbow, fronted by Guy Garvey, hail from Bury and in 2009 the group were awarded Freedom of the Borough after their 2008 classic album "Seldom Seen Kid" won several accolades including a Brit Award and Mercury Prize.
Bury is known for its black puddings so much so, that it is not uncommon to see it as "Bury Black Pudding" on a menu. Bury simnel cake is also a variant of the cake originating in Bury. Bury is also notable for tripe, though there is little demand for this in modern times.
- John Kay, the inventor of the Flying Shuttle, one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution. He was born to a yeoman farming family at Park, a tiny hamlet just north of Bury, on 16 June 1704. A memorial to John Kay stands in the heart of Bury—in Kay Gardens. He also features as one of twelve subjects portrayed in the epic Manchester Murals, by Ford Madox Brown, that decorate the Great Hall, Manchester Town Hall and depict the history of the city. The piece shows John Kay being smuggled to safety as rioters, who feared their jobs were in danger, sought to destroy looms whose invention he had made possible. This was a key moment in the struggle between labour and new technology. He eventually fled to France and died in poverty.
- James Wood, Dean of Ely Cathedral and Master of St John's College, Oxford was born Bury in 1760. A pupil at Bury Grammar School, he won an exhibition to St John's College and was a college tutor from 1789 to 1814. During this time he published the 'Principles of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy'. He was appointed Dean of Ely in 1820. He served as Master of St John's from 1815 and left his library to the college upon his death in 1839.
- Sir Robert Peel (1788–1850), the 19th century Prime Minister best known today for the repeal of the Corn Laws and his introduction of the modern police force (hence the terms "Bobbies" and "Peelers"), was born in Bury. He is also notable for forming the famous British Police division, 'Scotland Yard' in London. A monument, Peel Tower, now exists to his memory. As this is situated nearly 1,000 feet above sea level, it is easily recognisable for miles around. The tower itself was not built for Sir Robert, but to provide work for local workers and was later dedicated to him. A statue of Sir Robert Peel stands in Market Place, outside the Robert Peel public house. You will notice that Sir Robert has his waistcoat fastened the wrong way round.
- Professor Sir John Charnley, born, son of a Bury pharmacist, in Bury in 1911. He wrote 'The Closed Treatment of Common Fractures', first published in 1950 which became a standard text for the subject. His subsequent achievement in developing hip replacement surgery, in 1962, is acknowledged as a ground breaking development that changed the approach to orthopaedic surgery. He established a centre for hip surgery at Wrightington Hospital, near Wigan where he worked. He was knighted for his work in 1977. The John Charnley Research Institute, Wrightington Hospital, near Wigan was named in his honour.
- Barrie Kelly, sprinter who competed in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, the 1966 and 1970 Commonwealth Games in Jamaica and Edinburgh and two European championships, Budapest in 1966 and Athens in 1969. He was British Champion, indoors and outdoors at 60 m and 100 m several times during this period.
- Gareth Parry (Gaz), rock climbing. One of Britain's most successful rock climbers. A former British champion in 1996 and 2002. Competed for Great Britain at the highest level for many years. Current British bouldering team coach.
- Paul Stenning, author and ghostwriter, lived in Bury and attended Bury Church High School between 1988 and 1991.
- Lawrie Smith, yachtsman, arguably Britain's most successful racing sailor. Learnt to sail at Elton Sailing Club, Bury. Won bronze medal at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992, and the Fastnet Race. Skippered British Challenger in the America's Cup and finished fourth in Whitbread Round the World Race in 1989/90.
- Richmal Crompton, author was born on Manchester Road, Bury (a plaque marks the house).
- Scott Quigg Boxer. Current British Super-Bantamweight Champion. Also holder of the WBA Interim World Champion.
- Helen Flanagan Actress best known for her role as Rosie Webster in Coronation Street
- Prof. Noel Castree, University of Manchester.
- Suzanne Shaw Originally famous for winning the show Popstars and being a member of Hear'say, Shaw is now the star of West End shows as well as a singer, actress and television presenter.
- Nicky Ajose, current Leeds United football player.
- Gary Neville, retired former Manchester United captain.
- Phil Neville, Everton midfielder and captain, and younger brother of Gary Neville.
- Tracey Neville, former netball international and younger sister of Gary Neville and Phil Neville.
- Andy Goram, Scottish international footballer.
- Lisa Riley, Actress & Television Presenter best known for her role as Mandy Dingle in Emmerdale was born in Bury.
- Antony Cotton, Actor and television host best known for his role as Sean Tully in Coronation Street was born in Bury.
- Matt Littler, Actor best known for his role as Max Cunningham in Hollyoaks was born in Bury and was a former pupil of Elton High School.
- Gemma Atkinson, Actress and lad mags favourite was born in Bury.
- Jennie McAlpine, Actress best known for her role as Fiz in Coronation Street was born in Bury and was a former pupil of St Gabriel's RC High School, Bury.
- Cherie Blair, barrister and former Prime Minister Tony Blair's wife was born in Bury
- Ian Wallace, professional musician—drummer with King Crimson, Don Henley, Bob Dylan and others was born in Bury and attended Bury Grammar School. His first group, the Jaguars, was formed in Bury with some school pals.
- Christian McKay He studied piano as a youth and had performed the Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No. 3 at age 21. McKay subsequently halted his concert career and enrolled at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art to study acting. Played, to critical acclaim, Orson Welles in the film Me and Orson Welles
- Steve Halliwell Actor best known for his role as Zak Dingle in Emmerdale
- Guy Garvey Known for being the Lead singer of Elbow.
Members of Parliament
- Burt, Alistair, Member of Parliament for North East Bedfordshire was born in Bury and was head boy at Bury Grammar School
- Chaytor, David, former Member of Parliament for Bury North was born in Bury. Educated at Bury Grammar School.
- Crausby, David, Member of Parliament for Bolton North East was born in Bury. Educated at the Derby High School
Bury is twinned with:
- Angoulême, a town and commune in South Western France
- Tulle, a small town in the Corrèze Department. Originally twinned with Prestwich.
- Schorndorf, a medieval market town and birthplace of Gottlieb Daimler to the east of Stuttgart, capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
- Woodbury, New Jersey, United States.
- Datong, China.
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