|Bush dog at Prague Zoo|
|Bush dog range|
The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canine found in Central and South America. In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare in most areas except in Suriname, Guyana and Peru; it was first identified by Peter Wilhelm Lund from fossils in Brazilian caves and was believed to be extinct. The bush dog is the only living species in the genus Speothos, and genetic evidence suggests that its closest living relative is the maned wolf of central South America or the African wild dog. The species is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.
In Brazil it is called cachorro-vinagre ("vinegar dog") or cachorro-do-mato ("bush dog"). In Spanish-speaking countries it is called perro vinagre ("vinegar dog"), zorro vinagre ("vinegar fox"), perro de agua ("water dog"), or perro de monte ("mountain dog").
Adult bush dogs have soft long brownish-tan fur, with a lighter reddish tinge on the head, neck and back and a bushy tail, while the underside is dark, sometimes with a lighter throat patch. Younger individuals, however, have black fur over their entire bodies. Adults typically have a head-body length of 57–75 cm (22–30 in), with a 12.5–15 cm (5–6 in) tail. They have a shoulder height of 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and weigh 5–8 kg (11–18 lb). They have short legs relative to their body, as well as a short snout and relatively small ears.
The teeth are adapted for its carnivorous habits. Uniquely for an American canid, the dental formula is
for a total of 38 teeth. The bush dog is one of three canid species (the other two being the dhole and the African wild dog) with trenchant heel dentition, having a single cusp on the talonid of the lower carnassial tooth that increases the cutting blade length. Females have four pairs of teats and both sexes have large scent glands on either side of the anus. Bush dogs have partially webbed toes, which allow them to swim more efficiently.
Distribution and habitat
Bush dogs are found from Costa Rica in Central America and through much of South America east of the Andes, as far south as central Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil. They primarily inhabit lowland forests up to 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) elevation, wet savannas and other habitats near rivers, but may also be found in drier cerrado and open pasture. The historic range of this species may have extended as far north as Costa Rica where the species may still be found in suitable habitat. New, repeated observations of bush dog groups has been recorded in east-central (Barbilla National Park) and south-eastern (La Amistad International Park) Costa Rica, and a substantial portion of the Talamanca Mountains up to 120 km to the north-northwest and at elevations up to 2,119 m.
- The South American bush dog (Speothos venaticus venaticus), with a range including southern Colombia and Venezuela, the Guyanas, most of Brazil, eastern Ecuador and Peru, Bolivia, and northern Paraguay.
- The Panamanian bush dog (Speothos venaticus panamensis), with a range including Panama, northern Colombia and Venezuela, western Ecuador.
- The southern bush dog (Speothos venaticus wingei), with a range including southern Brazil and Paraguay, as well as extreme northeastern Argentina. The first camera trap photos of this species in Argentina were obtained in April 2016 from the Selva Paranaense Don Otto Ecological Private Reserve, located in Eldorado Department of the Misiones province of Argentina.  
Bush dogs are carnivores and hunt during the day. Their typical prey are pacas, agouti and capybaras, all large rodents. Although they can hunt alone, bush dogs are usually found in small packs. The dogs can bring down much larger prey, including peccaries and rheas, and a pack of six dogs has even been reported hunting a 250 kg (550 lb) tapir. When hunting paca, part of the pack chases it on land and part wait for it in the water, where it often retreats.
Bush dogs appear to be the most gregarious South American canid species. They use hollow logs and cavities such as armadillo burrows for shelter. Packs consist of a single mated pair and their immediate relations, and have a home range of 3.8 to 10 square kilometres (1.5 to 3.9 sq mi). Only the adult pair breed, while the other members of the pack are subordinate, and help with rearing and guarding any pups. Packmates keep in contact with frequent whines, perhaps because visibility is poor in the undergrowth where they typically hunt. While eating large prey, parents position themselves at either ends of the animal, making it easier for the pups to disembowel it.
Bush dogs mate throughout the year; oestrus lasts up to twelve days and occurs every 15 to 44 days. Like many other canids, bush dog mating includes a copulatory tie, during which the animals are locked together. Urine-marking plays a significant role in their pre-copulatory behavior.
Gestation lasts from 65 to 83 days and normally results in the birth of a litter of three to six pups, although larger litters of up to 10 have been reported. The young are born blind and helpless and initially weigh 125 to 190 grams (4.4 to 6.7 oz). The eyes open after 14 to 19 days and the pups first emerge from the nativity den shortly thereafter. The young are weaned at around four weeks and reach sexual maturity at one year. They can live for up to 10 years in captivity.
- Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- DeMatteo, K.; Michalski , F. & Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. (2011). "Speothos venaticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T20468A9203243. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T20468A9203243.en. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened
- de Mello Beiseigel, B. & Zuercher, G.L. (2005). "Speotheos venaticus". Mammalian Species. 783: Number 783: pp. 1–6. doi:10.1644/783.1. S2CID 198129207.
- Wayne, R.K.; et al. (1997). "Molecular systematics of the Canidae". Systematic Biology. 46 (#4): 622–653. doi:10.1093/sysbio/46.4.622. PMID 11975336.
- Nyakatura, K.; et al. (2012). "Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates". BMC Biology. 10 (#12): 12. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-12. PMC 3307490. PMID 22369503.
- "Speothos venaticus | ARKive". ARKive. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- David Attenborough (November 20, 2002). The Life of Mammals, Episode 5: Meat Eaters (Documentary – 16:9 Stereo). United Kingdom: BBC/Discovery Channel. Event occurs at 17:10 min.
- "Animal Diversity- Speothos venaticus". Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Alvarado, Laura. New Mammal Species Found in Costa Rica. Available at: https://news.co.cr/new-mammal-species-found-in-costa-rica/68595/
- Rosa, C. L., de la and Nocke, C. C. 2000. A Guide to the Carnivores of Central America: Natural History, Ecology, and Conservation. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.
- Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p77.
- 2019. Saenz-Bolanos, Carolina; Fuller, Todd K.; and Mooring, Michael S. "Bush Dogs in Central America: Recent Range Expansion, Cryptic Distribution, or Both?" Tropical Conservation Science. 12: 1-5.
- 2017. Ocampol, Nicolás Lodeiro Ocampo; Nigrol, Norberto Ángel; Gonzalo Gnatiuk1, Daniel; and Gasparri, Bárbara. "Primeras fotos de zorro pitoco (Speothos venaticus) obtenidas con cámaras trampa en Argentina." Notulas Faunisticas - Seguna Serie. 219:1-5.
- Macdonald, D.W. (1996). "Social behaviour of captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus)". Journal of Zoology. 239 (#4): 525–543. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05941.x.
- Macdonald, D. (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 31. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
- Porton, I.J.; et al. (1987). "Aseasonality of bush dog reproduction and the influence of social factors in the estrous cycle" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 68 (#4): 867–871. doi:10.2307/1381569. JSTOR 1381569.
- Porton, Ingrid. "Bush dog urine-marking: its role in pair formation and maintenance.[permanent dead link]" Animal behaviour 31.4 (1983): 1061-1069.
- Kleiman Devra G (1972). "Social behavior of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dog (Speothos venaticus): a study in contrast". Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (4): 791–806. doi:10.2307/1379214. JSTOR 1379214.
- Bekoff, M.; et al. (1981). "Life-history patterns and sociality in canids: body size, reproduction, and behavior". Oecologia. 50 (#3): 386–390. Bibcode:1981Oecol..50..386B. doi:10.1007/BF00344981. PMID 28309059. S2CID 7564251.
- Nicole Duplaix and Noel Simon, World Guide to Mammals. Mandarin Publishers Ltd. (1976).
- Flower WH. 1880. On the bush-dog (Icticyon venaticus Lund). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 70–76.
|Wikispecies has information related to Speothos.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Speothos venaticus.|