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Bush medicine, also called traditional medicine, is the sum of the total knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. Bush medicine is also connected to the holistic worldview in such a way that the interplay between the physical, emotional, social and spiritual aspects is crucial in attaining wellbeing.
Generally, bush medicine is made from plant materials, such as bark, leaves and seeds, although animal products were used as well.
Aboriginal remedies varied between clans in different parts of the country. There was no single set of Aboriginal medicines and remedies, just as there was no one Aboriginal language.
The modern world and indigenous culture have differing approaches for health. Whilst conventional medicine deals with direct causes of illness and science-based views of health, the aboriginal view on health as defined by the National Aboriginal Health Strategy considers "not just the physical well being of the individual, but the social, emotional and cultural well-being of the whole community. This is the whole-of-life view and it also includes the cyclical concept of life-death-life".
A variety of bush medicine techniques were and are still being used. In Western Australia and the Northern Territory, eucalypt kino was drunk for influenza, colds and coughs.
Mitchell Park, situated near Sydney Basin in NSW, had many plants that were used as remedies for Aboriginal people. Nine species of eucalyptus present in the park could act as remedies. The red gum exudate, known as kino, are known to be rich in astringent tannins. Additionally, this park also contained native pants that were actually used by early European settlers. The nectar-laden liquid from banksia flowers was used as a cough syrup, and from the native grapes (Cissus hypoglauca) a throat gargle was made.
In Warrabri, the Northern territory, for instance, the cure for earache is squeezing the fatty part of a witchetty grub into the sore ear. While in Uluru, the cure is squeezing rabbit urine into the ear.
In general, there are two types of accepted causes of illness in aboriginal tribes - natural, and supernatural. Natural causes would be treated with natural remedies, and supernatural illnesses could only be treated with a spiritual cure. It was believed that evil spirits caused any illness without an obvious explanation and these would be treated by the tribe's medicine man who would specialize in spiritual cures. They mainly use bush animal dung or plants in their medicine.
Aboriginal people believe that their healers, their 'medicine men', have special powers which are bestowed upon them by their spiritual ancestors to heal. They have the roles of both a general practitioner and a psychiatrist, healing both the body and mind.
A practitioner of bush medicine is called a "ngangkari". They cure illnesses through healing rituals that may involve sorcery. An example of such ritual would be singing, massaging and sucking to remove a foreign object that has entered the body, and invoking the power of the war god Ancestor Ngurunderi to heal the wounds of soldiers caused by spears and clubs. Aside from physical healing, ngangkaris also act as mental health practitioners, as they try to resolve conflicts within the community and offer advice as well. With every sickness, in addition to giving a diagnosis and advice on suitable remedies, the duty of the ngangkari is also to assess the impact of the sickness to the community.
Many Aboriginal people choose to be treated by bush medicine instead of, or as well as, Western treatments for a number of reasons. These include: some Aboriginal people feel uncomfortable and out of place in a sterilised, Western clinic, Aboriginal bush medicine incorporates physical, spiritual and emotional healing - Western medicine does not, and they believe that by using these treatments they are being drawn closer to their ancestors.
Traditions in southern and eastern Australia have largely been lost, but efforts are being made by anthropologists to record traditions from Aborigines in central and north-western Australia. In the Northern territory, however, it is still relatively well-preserved. Ngangkeres are said to be present in health clinics to perform rituals and give medical advice when necessary. Moreover, in 1994 it is reported that 22% of all Aborigines had practiced bush medicine in the past 6 months from the time the survey was taken.
The use of bush medicine and natural remedies in Australia is on the decline. This is due to the loss of information. In Aboriginal culture they do not pass on information through writing, but through singing and dancing rituals, which are becoming far rarer. Without these rituals, the tens of thousands of years of knowledge that the Aboriginal elders hold is being lost, leading to a lack of people knowing the medicinal purposes of the flora and fauna.
Examples of herbs
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) tincure 20ml – for anti inflammatory activity and to improve local circulation at affected joints. Another example is emu bush leaves, which were used by Northern Territory Aboriginal tribes to sterilise sores and cuts. The leaves are now being considered by Australian scientists as a viable steriliser for implants.
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