Business jet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Business jets)
Jump to: navigation, search
Almost 1,700 BAe 125/Hawker 800 were produced

A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J.,[1] is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, and some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces.

History[edit]

The Lockheed JetStar is the earliest Business Jet

1950s first flight[edit]

The Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978, powered by four 3,300 pounds-force (15 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines, then Garrett TFE731 turbofan for a 44,500 pounds (20.2 t) MTOW, then two General Electric CF700 turbofans.

The smaller, 17,760 pounds (8.06 t) MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines then Garrett TFE731, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982.

1960s first flight[edit]

The 1963 Learjet 23 was the first light jet
The first large, long range jet was the Grumman Gulfstream II in 1966

The 25,000 pounds (11 t) MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force (13 kN) Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engine were replaced by Garrett TFE731, then Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. Almost 1,700 aircraft were produced between 1962 and 2013 after being marketed as the Hawker 800.

The 23,500 pounds (10.7 t) MTOW IAI Westwind, developed by Aero Commander, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets, then Garrett TFE731. 442 were built from 1965 to 1987 and it was developed in the IAI Astra, re-branded as the Gulfstream G100.

The 29,000 pounds (13 t) MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700, then Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731. From 1963 to 1988, 508 were built and it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family.

The first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963 : the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force (12.7 kN) General Electric CJ610, its 12,500 pounds (5.7 t) MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations. 104 were built between 1962 and 1966 and it is the first member of the Learjet Family.

On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds (29.7 t) MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force (51 kN) Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family.

The 11,850 pounds (5.38 t) MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force (9.8 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 at 689 samples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family.

1970s first flight[edit]

The trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight the 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds (18 t) MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force (16 kN) TFE731. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900.

On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off. The 43,000–48,000 pounds (20–22 t) MTOW craft, usually powered by two 9,200 pounds-force (41 kN) General Electric CF34, the basis of the long range Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners. The 1000th Challenger has entered service in 2015.

On May 30, 1979 took off the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds (10.0 t) MTOW Cessna Citation III powered by two 3,650 pounds-force (16.2 kN) TFE731, basis of the larger Citation X.

The Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds (7.3 t) MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force (13 kN) JT15D. 950 has been produced, it was renamed Beechjet 400 then Hawker 400.

1980s first flight[edit]

The 1980s only saw the introduction of derivatives and no major new design.

1990s first flight[edit]

The clean-sheet Learjet 45 took off on 7 October 1995. The 21,500 pounds (9.8 t) is powered by two 3,500 pounds-force (16 kN) TFE731. 642 have been made since.

Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force (10 kN) Williams FJ44, the 12,500 pounds (5.7 t) Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on December 22, 1998. Nearly 300 has been made before the production stopped in 2013.

2000s first flight[edit]

In the opposite way of Bombardier, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the ERJ regional jet family. Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force (39.2 kN) Rolls-Royce AE 3007, the 50,000 pounds (22.5 t) plane took off first on March 31, 2001.

On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight. The 38,850 pounds (17.62 t) aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force (30.36 kN) HTF7000. The 500th has been delivered in 2015.

The first very light jet, the 5,950 pounds (2.70 t) MTOW Eclipse 500, took off on August 26, 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force (4.0 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600. 260 have been produced till 2008.

It has been followed by the 8,645 pounds (3.921 t) MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force (6.5 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 and produced at more than 450.

Then the Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007. The 10,500 pounds (4.75 t) MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force (7.2 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been made.

Configuration[edit]

Though the early Lockheed Jetstar had four, most production business jets have two jet engines, mostly rear-mounted podded engine. If mounted below their low wing, it wouldn't allow sufficient engine clearance without a too long landing gear. The HondaJet is the exception with its over the wing engine pods.

Dassault Falcon still builds three-engine models derived from the Falcon 50, and the very light jets market has seen the introduction of several single-engine designs such as the Cirrus SF50.

Fleet[edit]

On 1 January 2016, there were 21,342 business jets in the worldwide fleet, of which 11.1% were for sale.[2] 5-year old aircraft residual value level is at a 55% of the list price.[3] About 70% of the fleet was in North America at the end of 2011. The European market is the next largest, with growing activity in the Middle East, Asia, and Central America.[4] In 2015 the total airplane billing amounted to US$21.9 billion, and 718 business jets were delivered to customers across the globe : 199 (27.7%) by Bombardier Aerospace, 166 (23.1%) by Cessna, 154 (21.4%) by Gulfstream Aerospace, 120 (16.7%) by Embraer and 55 (7.7%) by Dassault Falcon.[5]

In 2016 Jetcraft forecasts 7,879 unit deliveries in the next decade for $248 billion, a 31.5 $M average. Cessna should lead the numbers with 24.4% of the deliveries ahead of Bombardier with 21.8% while Gulfstream would lead the revenue market share with 30.6% ahead of Bombardier with 28%. Pratt & Whitney Canada should be the first engine supplier with 30% of the $24B revenue, in front of the current leader Rolls-Royce at 25%. Honeywell will hold 45% of the avionics $16B revenue ahead of Rockwell Collins with 37% and Garmin.[3]

In 2016 Honeywell predicts 8,600 aircraft to be delivered during 2016-26 for a total value of $255 Billion. Its breakdown is 57% big (85% in value) - super-midsize to business liner, 21% midsize (10% in value) - light-medium to medium, and 22% small (5% in value).[6]

A 2010 study by the National Business Aviation Association found that small and midsize companies that use private jets produce a 219% higher earnings growth rate than those that strictly fly commercial.[7]

Worldwide market[5]
Year Planes Value ($B) average ($M)
1994 278 2.92 10.5
1995 300 3.35 11.2
1996 316 3.88 12.3
1997 438 6.02 13.7
1998 515 7.22 14
1999 667 10.19 15.3
2000 752 11.66 15.5
2001 784 12.12 15.5
2002 676 10.43 15.4
2003 518 8.62 16.6
2004 592 10.40 17.6
2005 750 13.16 17.5
2006 887 16.56 18.7
2007 1137 19.35 17
2008 1317 21.95 16.7
2009 874 17.44 20
2010 767 18.00 23.5
2011 696 17.26 24.8
2012 672 17.11 25.5
2013 718 21.06 29.3
2014 722 22.02 30.5
2015 718 21.87 30.5

Operators[edit]

There are three basic types of operators who own, manage and operate private jets.[citation needed]

Flight departments[edit]

Flight departments are corporate-owned operators who manage the aircraft of a specific company. Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, and Altria are examples of companies that own, maintain and operate their own fleet of private aircraft for their employees. Flight departments handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. In the United States, flight-department aircraft operate under FAR 91 operating rules.

Charter companies[edit]

Charter operators own or manage private jets for multiple clients. Like traditional flight departments, charter companies handle all aspects of aircraft operation and maintenance. However, they are not aligned with just one corporation. They manage aircraft for a private owner or corporation and also handle the sales of available flight time on the aircraft they own or manage. Maintenance services can also be provided which typically include on-site or mobile repair, major and minor routine inspections, troubleshooting assistance away from base, avionics installation and repair, jet engine and battery service, interior modifications and refurbishment, Inspection Authority (IA) qualified inspectors, aircraft planning and budgetary projections, compliance with service bulletins, aircraft storage management, record keeping and management, technical appraisal of private jet purchases, leases and lease terminations, and Part 91 or Part 135 conformity inspections.

In the United States, business aircraft may be operated under either FAR 91 as private operations for the business purposes of the owner, or under FAR 135 as commercial operations for the business purposes of a third party. One common arrangement for operational flexibility purposes is for the aircraft's owner to operate the aircraft under FAR 91 when needed for its own purposes, and to allow a third-party charter-manager to operate it under FAR 135 when the aircraft is needed for the business purposes of third parties (such as for other entities within the corporate group of the aircraft's owner).[8]

Fractional ownership[edit]

Since 1996 the term "fractional jet" has been used in connection with business aircraft owned by a consortium of companies. Under such arrangements, overhead costs such as flight crew, hangarage and maintenance are split among the users.

Fractional ownership, often called "time share", involves an individual or corporation who pays an upfront equity share for the cost of an aircraft. If four parties are involved, a partner would pay one-fourth of the aircraft price (a "quarter share"). That partner is now an equity owner in that aircraft and can sell the equity position if necessary. This also entitles the new owner to a certain number of hours of flight time on that aircraft, or any comparable aircraft in the fleet. Additional fees include monthly management fees and incidentals such as catering and ground transportation. In the United States, fractional-ownership operations may be regulated by either FAA part 91 or part 135.

Classes[edit]

Business Jets can be categorized according to their size.

Very light jets[edit]

The most sold VLJ is the Cessna Citation Mustang

The very light jet (VLJ) is a recent classification, initiated by the first one : the Eclipse 500,[9][10][11] introduced on December 31, 2006, which was originally available at around US$1.5 million, cheaper than existing business jets and comparable with turboprop airplanes. It accompanied a bubble for air taxi services, exemplified by DayJet which ceased operations on September 2008, Eclipse Aviation failed to sustain its business model and filed for bankruptcy in February 2009.

Cessna simultaneously developed the Citation Mustang,[12][9][10] a six-place twinjet (2 crew + 4 passengers), followed by the Embraer Phenom 100[12][9][10][11] and the Honda Jet.[9][11] They have a maximum takeoff weight lighter than the FAR Part 23 12,500 pounds limit, and are approved for single-pilot operation. They typically accommodate 5-7 passengers over a 965 nmi average range, with a $3.6M mean price.

Very light jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nmi var./hour[14]
Cirrus SF50 $2.0M 4-6 30.9 ft 38.3 ft 9.8 ft 5.1 ft 1 FJ33 1800 lbf 6,000 lb 714 nmi 278 kn 1.6 lb $662
Eclipse 500 $3.0M 4-5 33.5 ft 37.9 ft 10.0 ft 4.7 ft 2 PW610 1800 lbf 6,000 lb 825 nmi 317 kn 1.17 lb $889
Citation Mustang $3.4M 5-5 40.6 ft 43.2 ft 9.8 ft 4.6 ft 2 PW615 2920 lbf 8,645 lb 963 nmi 301 kn 1.73 lb $1,015
Phenom 100E $4.2M 5-7 42.1 ft 40.4 ft 11.0 ft 5.1 ft 2 PW617 3390 lbf 10,582 lb 1,050 nmi 324 kn 1.87 lb $1,152
HondaJet $4.5M 5-6 42.6 ft 39.8 ft 12.1 ft 5.0 ft 2 HF120 4100 lbf 10,600 lb 1,065 nmi 361 kn 1.86 lb $1,135
Cessna Citation M2 $4.5M 7-7 42.6 ft 47.3 ft 11.0 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 3930 lbf 10,700 lb 1,174 nmi 369 kn 1.99 lb $1,395

Light jets[edit]

1800 Cessna CitationJet have been produced

Light jets have been a staple of the business jet industry since the advent of the Learjet 23 in the early 1960s. They provide access to small airports and the speed to be an effective air travel tool. Aircraft of this class include:

They typically accommodate 6-8 passengers over a 1953 nmi average range, with a $9.1M mean price.

Light Jets, 4 pax mission[13]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Cessna Citation CJ3+ $8.0M 8-9 51.2 ft 53.3 ft 15.7 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 5640 lbf 13,870 lb 1,802 nmi 377 kn 2.07 lb $1,680
SyberJet SJ30i $8.3M 5-6 46.8 ft 42.3 ft 12.5 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 4600 lbf 13,950 lb 2,205 nmi 408 kn 1.68 lb $1,608
Pilatus PC-24 $8.9M 8-11 55.2 ft 55.8 ft 23.0 ft 5.5 ft 2 FJ44-4A 6800 lbf 17,650 lb 1,949 nm 425 kn NA NA
Phenom 300 $9.0M 7-10 51.2 ft 52.2 ft 17.2 ft 5.1 ft 2 PW535E 6720 lbf 17,968 lb 1,903 nmi 411 kn 2.34 lb $1,758
Cessna Citation CJ4 $9.0M 8-9 53.3 ft 50.8 ft 17.3 ft 4.8 ft 2 FJ44 7242 lbf 17,110 lb 1,927 nmi 416 kn 2.55 lb $1,970
Learjet 70 $11.3M 6-7 56.0 ft 50.9 ft 17.7 ft 5.1 ft 2 TFE731 7700 lbf 21500 lb 1934 nm 427 kn 2.48 lb $2,166

Mid-size jets[edit]

Nearly 1700 BAe 125/Hawker 800 have been built

These aircraft are suitable for longer-range travel such as transcontinental flights and for travel with larger passenger capacity requirements. Aircraft of this class include:

They typically accommodate 9 passengers over a 2435 nmi average range, with a $15M mean price.

Mid-size jets, 4 pax mission[20]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nmi var./hour[14]
Cessna Citation XLS+ $12.8M 9-12 52.5 ft 56.3 ft 18.5 ft 5.7 ft 2 PW545 8238 lb 20200 lb 1719 nmi 395 kn 3.01 lb $2,303
Learjet 75 $13.8M 8-9 58.0 ft 50.9 ft 19.8 ft 5.1 ft 2 TFE731 7700 lb 21500 lb 1912 nmi 426 kn 2.51 lb $2,172
Gulfstream G150 $15.7M 7-9 56.8 ft 55.6 ft 17.7 ft 5.8 ft 2 TFE731 8840 lb 26100 lb 2988 nmi 418 kn 2.96 lb $2,380
Citation Latitude $16.3M 9-10 62.3 ft 72.3 ft 21.8 ft 6.4 ft 2 PW300 11814 lb 30800 lb 2658 nmi 400 kn 3.59 lb $2,936
Embraer Legacy 450[21] $16.6M 7-9 64.7 ft 66.5 ft 20.6 ft 6.8 ft 2 HTF7000 13080 lb 35274 lb 2900 nmi <462 kn NA $2,789

Super mid-size jets[edit]

The most widespread super mid-size jet is the Challenger 300

Super mid-size jets feature wide-body cabin space, high-altitude capability, speed, and long range. These jets combine transatlantic capability with the speed and comfort of a wide-body, high-altitude aircraft. Aircraft of this class include:

They typically accommodate 10-11 passengers over a 3282 nmi average range, with a $22.5M mean price:

Super mid-size jets, 4 pax mission[20]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Citation Sovereign+ $17.9M 9-12 63.5 ft 72.3 ft 25.3 ft 5.7 ft 2 PW300 11814 lb 30775 lb 3063 nmi 401 kn 3.16 lb $2,699
Embraer Legacy 500 $20.0M 8-12 68.1 ft 66.4 ft 24.6 ft 6.8 ft 2 HTF7000 14072 lb 37919 lb 3125 nmi 433 kn 3.6 lb $3,180
Cessna Citation X+ $23.4M 9-12 73.6 ft 69.2 ft 25.2 ft 5.7 ft 2 AE3007 14068 lb 36600 lb 3370 nmi 465 kn 3.31 lb $4,099
Gulfstream G280 $24.5M 10-19 66.8 ft 63.0 ft 25.8 ft 7.2 ft 2 HTF7000 15248 lb 39600 lb 3600 nmi 452 kn 3.55 lb $3,163
Challenger 350 $26.7M 9-11 68.7 ft 69.0 ft 25.2 ft 7.2 ft 2 HTF7000 14646 lb 40600 lb 3250 nmi 448 kn 3.76 lb $3,152

Large jets[edit]

More than 1000 Challenger 600 have been produced

They typically accommodate 13-14 passengers over a 4365 nmi average range, with a $37.8M mean price.

Large Jets, 4 pax mission[20]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Embraer Legacy 600 $26.0M 13-14 86.4 ft 69.5 ft 42.4 ft 6.9 ft 2 AE3007 15906 lb 49604 lb 3430 nm 406 kt 4.69 lb $3,740
Falcon 2000S/EX $28.4M 10-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 26.2 ft 7.7 ft 2 PW300 14000 lb 41000 lb 3540 nm 431 kt 3.6 lb $3,150
Embraer Legacy 650 $31.6M 13-14 86.4 ft 69.5 ft 42.4 ft 6.9 ft 2 AE3007 18040 lb 53572 lb 3919 nm 415 kt 4.7 lb $3,860
Challenger 650 $32.4M 10-19 68.4 ft 64.3 ft 25.6 ft 7.9 ft 2 CF34 18440 lb 48200 lb 4020 nm 419 kt 4.47 lb $3,385
Falcon 2000LXS/EX $33.7M 8-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 26.2 ft 7.7 ft 2 PW300 14000 lb 42800 lb 4075 nm 431 kt 3.64 lb $3,090
Gulfstream 450 $41.0M 14-19 89.3 ft 77.8 ft 37.0 ft 7.3 ft 2 Tay engines 27700 lb 74600 lb 4328 nm 452 kt 6.03 lb $4,747
Falcon 900LX/EX $43.3M 12-19 66.3 ft 70.2 ft 33.2 ft 7.7 ft 3 TFE731 15000 lb 49000 lb 4695 nm 420 kt 4.04 lb $3,588
Global 5000 $50.4M 13-19 96.8 ft 94.0 ft 40.7 ft 7.9 ft 2 BR700 29500 lb 92500 lb 5520 nm 463 kt 6.48 lb $5,094
Falcon 7X $53.8M 12-19 76.1 ft 86.0 ft 39.1 ft 7.7 ft 3 PW300 19206 lb 70000 lb 5760 nm 454 kt 5.13 lb $3,850

Including long range jets:

They typically accommodate 13-19 passengers over a 6731 nmi average range, with a $63.3M mean price.

Ultra Long Range Jets, 8 pax mission[20]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Dassault Falcon 8X $57.5M 12-19 80.3 ft 86.3 ft 42.7 ft 7.7 ft 3 PW300 20166 lb 73,000 lb 6,450 nm 454 kt 5.04 lb $3,804
Gulfstream G550 $61.5M 16-19 96.4 ft 93.5 ft 42.6 ft 7.3 ft 2 BR700 30770 lb 91,000 lb 6,708 nm 453 kt 5.7 lb $4,731
Global 6000 $62.3M 13-19 99.4 ft 94.0 ft 43.3 ft 7.9 ft 2 BR700 29500 lb 99,500 lb 6,147 nm 464 kt 6.74 lb $5,150
Gulfstream G650 $66.6M 16-19 99.8 ft 99.6 ft 46.8 ft 8.5 ft 2 BR700 33800 lb 99,600 lb 6,912 nm 481 kt 5.91 lb $4,843
Gulfstream G650ER $68.7M 16-19 99.8 ft 99.6 ft 46.8 ft 8.5 ft 2 BR700 33800 lb 103,600 lb 7,437 nm 482 kt 6.03 lb $4,848

VIP Airliners[edit]

Boeing Business Jets are the most widespread bizliners

Business Airliner can be contracted in Bizliner.[25] Airliners converted into business jets are used by sports teams or VIPs with a large entourage or press corps. Such airplanes can face operational restrictions based on runway length or local noise restrictions. They can be the most expensive type of private jet as they provide the greatest space and capabilities.

Aircraft of this class include:

VIP Airliners, 4/8 pax mission[20]
Model Price Pax Length Span int. L int. W Engines Thrust MTOW Range Cruise Fuel/nm var./hour[14]
Embraer Lineage 1000E $53.0M 13-19 118.9 ft 94.2 ft 84.3 ft 8.8 ft 2 CF34 37000 lb 120152 lb 4602 nm 446 kt 9.61 lb $5,827
BBJ1 737-700 (8 pax) $71.4M 19-149 110.3 ft 117.4 ft 79.2 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 171,000 lb 6,237 nm 442 kt 10.72 lb $6,851
ACJ318 $72.0M 18-132 103.2 ft 111.8 ft 70.2 ft 12.1 ft 2 CFM56 46600 lb 149900 lb 4300 nm 436 kt 10.14 lb $6,573
ACJ319 (8 pax) $87.0M 19-156 111.0 ft 111.8 ft 78.0 ft 12.2 ft 2 CFM56 54000 lb 168,650 lb 6,002 nm 442 kt 10.92 lb $6,926
BBJ2 737-800 $88.8M 19-189 129.5 ft 117.4 ft 98.3 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 174200 lb 5622 nm 444 kt 11.37 lb $7,675
ACJ320 $95.0M 18-179 123.3 ft 111.8 ft 90.3 ft 12.1 ft 2 CFM56 54000 lb 171950 lb 4330 nm 438 kt 11.1 lb $7,965
BBJ3 737-900ER $96.5M 19-215 138.2 ft 117.4 ft 107.2 ft 11.6 ft 2 CFM56 54600 lb 187700 lb 5496 nm 446 kt 12.37 lb $7,396

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gunston 1986, p. 65
  2. ^ "Business Aviation Market Update Report" (PDF). AMSTAT. January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "10 Year Market Forecast" (PDF). Jetcraft. October 12, 2016. 
  4. ^ "The business jet market in numbers" (PDF). Corporate Jet Investor. April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "2015 General Aviation Statistical Databook" (PDF). General Aviation Manufacturers Association. 2016. 
  6. ^ "Business Aviation Forecast" (PDF) (Press release). Honeywell. October 30, 2016. 
  7. ^ "Business aviation : an enterprise value perspective" (PDF). National Business Aviation Association. Fall 2010. 
  8. ^ Epstein, Jonathan M. (1 October 2013). "Placing Your Aircraft With An Aircraft Charter-Management Company". Holland & Knight. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "Aircraft Information". Jet Advisors (consulting). 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Aircraft Guide". Air Charter Service (charter). 
  11. ^ a b c "Very light jets". Flying (magazine). 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Aircraft Guide". Air Partner (charter). 
  13. ^ a b "Purchase Planning Handbook: 2016 Business Airplanes" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Variable costs only excluding capital, annual costs and crew : fuel, maintenance, reserves, misc. "Hourly operating costs of 45 jets compared". Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. 16 November 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Light jets". Flying (magazine). 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Your Fleet". Delta Private Jets (carrier). 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Jets". Business Avia Partner (charter). 
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Fleet Comparison". NetJets (fractional ownership). 
  19. ^ a b "Mid-size jets". Flying (magazine). 
  20. ^ a b c d e "Purchase Planning Handbook". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2015. 
  21. ^ "Legacy 450 Brochure" (PDF). Embraer. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Super Mid-Size Jets". Flight International. 
  23. ^ a b "Super mid-size jets". Flying (magazine). 
  24. ^ "Heavy jets". Flying (magazine). 
  25. ^ Chad Trautvetter (17 June 2010). "Airbus Sees Great Promise for Bizliner Orders in China". Aviation International News.