A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. Such a school can also be known as school of management, school of business, school of business administration, or, colloquially, b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, administration, strategy, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, information systems, logistics, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others.
There are several forms of business schools, including school of business, business administration, and management.
- Most of the university business schools are faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, and teach predominantly business courses.
- In North America, a business school is often understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees.
- In Europe and Asia, some universities teach only business.
- Privately owned business school which is not affiliated with any university.
- 1819 – The world's first business school, ESCP Europe was in Paris, France. It is the oldest business school in the world and now has campuses in Berlin, London, Madrid, Paris, Torino, and Warsaw.
- 1855 - The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers (State funded) and the Institut Saint-Ignace - École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie (Jesuits education) were founded in the same year in the city of Antwerp, Belgium. After getting university status in 1965 and after almost 150 years of business education and rivalry between each other, both merged in 2003 into what became the University of Antwerp.
- 1857 – The world's first public business school, Budapest Business School was founded in Budapest in Austria-Hungary as the first business school in Central Europe.
- 1868 – The Ca' Foscari University was founded in Venice. It is the oldest business school in Italy and one of the oldest in the world.
- 1871 – The Rouen Business School recently merged with Reims Management School under the name of NEOMA Business School. Rouen Business School is the second oldest French business school.
- 1871 - The ESC Le Havre was created ( now École de management de Normandie). Created the same year than Rouen Business School it is also the second oldest French business school.
- 1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school.
- 1898 – On the west coast Haas School of Business is established as the College of Commerce of the University of California with Carl Copping Plehn as the Dean in 1898 and became the first public business school. The Booth School of Business The University of Chicago Booth School of Business also traces its beginnings back to 1898 when university faculty member James Laurence Laughlin chartered the College of Commerce and Politics,..
- 1898 – Handelshochschule Leipzig, today Leipzig Graduate School of Management, was founded as the first Business School in Germany, so it is the oldest university teaching economics in German speaking regions.
- 1898 – The University of St. Gallen established the first university in Switzerland teaching business and economics.
- 1900 - The first graduate school of business in the United States, the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, was founded. The school conferred the first advanced degree in business, specifically, a Master of Science in Commercial Sciences, the predecessor to the MBA.
- 1902 - The Birmingham Business School of University of Birmingham is the United Kingdom's first business school. Originally established as the School of Commerce in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
- 1906 - The McGill School of Commerce was founded as part of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, eventually developing into the Desautels Faculty of Management.
- 1906 – The Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) was established as the first university in Poland dedicated to teaching commerce and economics.
- 1907 - ESSEC Business School in Paris, which was later the first Business School outside North America to be accredited by the prestigious AACSB (main and most famous association to accredit schools of business) in 1997
- 1908 - Kellogg School of Management was originally founded as Northwestern University's School of Commerce.
- 1908 - Harvard Business School was founded at Harvard University. It was the first program in the world to offer the Master of Business Administration degree.
- 1909 - Stockholm School of Economics was founded on the initiative of the Swedish business sector and is the oldest business school in Sweden. Hanken School of Economics was established the same year in Helsinki, Finland.
- 1914 - MIT Sloan School of Management was founded in MIT (as Course XV - Engineering Administration) 
- 1919 - Babson College was the first business school founded to focus solely on entrepreneurship. Every graduate receives a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration.
- 1936 – The Norwegian School of Economics (also known as NHH) is the oldest business school in Norway.
- 1946 – The Thunderbird School of Global Management, then called the American Institute for Foreign Trade, was the first graduate management school focused exclusively on global business.
- 1949 – The University of Pretoria in South Africa founded the oldest business school in Africa. In January 2008 the Graduate School of Management was formally replaced by the Gordon Institute of Business Science.
- 1949 - XLRI - India's oldest business management school is founded.
- 1953 - IISWBM is the first institute in India to offer an MBA degree.
- 1954 - The Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), University of Delhi is among one of the oldest business schools in India.
- 1955 - The Institute of Business Administration, Karachi was the first business school to be established outside North America to offer an MBA degree.
- 1963 – ESAN University Graduate School of Business in Lima, Peru was the first Graduate Business School founded in Latin America. It was established under an agreement between the Government of the United States Of America, Stanford Graduate School of Business and the Government of Peru.
- 1991 – The IEDC-Bled School of Management was the first business school to offer an MBA program in Eastern Europe.
- 1994 – CEIBS (China Europe International Business School) was the first business school in China to have received funding from a foreign government, namely the European Commission.
- 2015 – The Daniels College of Business was the first business school to launch a challenge-driven MBA program.
Common degrees are as follows.
- Associate's degree: AA, AAB, ABA, AS
- Bachelor's Degrees: BA, BS, BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration), BBus (Bachelor of Business), BCom, BSBA, BAcc, BABA, BBS, BMOS and BBusSc (Bachelor of Business Science)
- Master's Degrees: MBA, MBM, Master of Management, MAcc, MMR, MSMR, MPA, MISM, MSM, MHA, MSF, MSc, MST, MMS, EMBA and MCom. At Oxford and Cambridge business schools an MPhil or MSc, is awarded in place of an MA.
- Doctoral Degrees: Ph.D., DBA, DHA, DM, Doctor of Commerce (DCOM), PhD in Management or Business Doctorate (Doctor of Philosophy), Doctor of Professional Studies (DPS)
Use of case studies
Some business schools center their teaching around the use of case studies (i.e. the case method). Case studies have been used in graduate and undergraduate business education for nearly one hundred years. Business cases are historical descriptions of actual business situations. Typically, information is presented about a business firm's products, markets, competition, financial structure, sales volumes, management, employees and other factors affecting the firm's success. The length of a business case study may range from two or three pages to 30 pages, or more.
Business schools often obtain case studies published by the Harvard Business School, INSEAD, the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, the Richard Ivey School of Business at The University of Western Ontario, the Darden School at the University of Virginia, IESE, other academic institutions, or case clearing houses (such as The Case Centre). Harvard's most popular case studies include Lincoln Electric Co. and Google, Inc.
Students are expected to scrutinize the case study and prepare to discuss strategies and tactics that the firm should employ in the future. Three different methods have been used in business case teaching:
- Prepared case-specific questions to be answered by the student. This is used with short cases intended for undergraduate students. The underlying concept is that such students need specific guidance to be able to analyze case studies.
- Problem-solving analysis. This second method, initiated by the Harvard Business School is by far the most widely used method in MBA and executive development programs. The underlying concept is that with enough practice (hundreds of case analyses) students develop intuitive skills for analyzing and resolving complex business situations. Successful implementation of this method depends heavily on the skills of the discussion leader.
- A generally applicable strategic planning approach. This third method does not require students to analyze hundreds of cases. A strategic planning model is provided and students are instructed to apply the steps of the model to six to a dozen cases during a semester. This is sufficient to develop their ability to analyze a complex situation, generate a variety of possible strategies and to select the best ones. In effect, students learn a generally applicable approach to analyzing cases studies and real situations. This approach does not make any extraordinary demands on the artistic and dramatic talents of the teacher. Consequently, most professors are capable of supervising application of this method.
History of business cases
When Harvard Business School started operating in 1908, the faculty realized that there were no textbooks suitable for a graduate program in business. Their first solution to this problem involved interviewing leading practitioners of business and writing detailed accounts of what these managers were doing, based partly on the case method already in use at Harvard Law School. Of course, the professors could not present these cases as practices to be emulated, because there were no criteria available for determining what would succeed and what would not succeed. So the professors instructed their students to read the cases and to come to class prepared to discuss the cases and to offer recommendations for appropriate courses of action. The basic outlines of this method still operate in business-school curricula as of 2016[update].
In contrast to the case method some schools use a skills-based approach in teaching business. This approach emphasizes quantitative methods, in particular operations research, management information systems, statistics, organizational behavior, modeling and simulation, and decision science. The leading institution in this method is the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University. The goal is to provide students a set of tools that will prepare them to tackle and solve problems.
Another important approach used in business school is the use of business games that are used in different disciplines such as business, economics, management, etc. Some colleges are blending many of these approaches throughout their degree programs, and even blending the method of delivery for each of these approaches. A study from by Inside Higher Ed and the Babson Survey Research Group shows that there is still disagreement as to the effectiveness of the approaches but the reach and accessibility is proving to be more and more appealing. Liberal arts colleges in the United States like New England College, Wesleyan University, and Bryn Mawr College are now offering complete online degrees in many business curriculae despite the controversy that surrounds the learning method.
There are also several business schools which still rely on the lecture method to give students a basic business education. Lectures are generally given from the professor's point of view, and rarely require interaction from the students unless notetaking is required. Lecture as a method of teaching in business schools has been criticized by experts for reducing the incentive and individualism in the learning experience.
In addition to teaching students, many business schools run Executive Education programs. These may be either open programs or company-specific programs. Executives may also acquire a MBA title in an Executive MBA program within university of business or from top ranked business schools. Many business schools seek close co-operation with business.
Global Master of Business Administration ranking
Each year, well-known business publications such as The Economist, Eduniversal, U.S. News & World Report, Fortune, Financial Times, Business Week and The Wall Street Journal publish rankings of selected MBA programs and business schools that, while controversial in their methodology, nevertheless can directly influence the prestige of schools that achieve high scores. Academic research is also considered to be an important feature and popular way to gauge the prestige of business schools.
- List of Ivy League business schools
- List of Big Ten business schools
- Business schools listed by country
- List of business schools in Africa
- List of business schools in Australia
- List of business schools in Asia
- List of business schools in Canada
- List of business schools in Europe
- List of business schools in France
- List of business schools in Germany
- List of business schools in India
- List of business schools in Mexico
- List of business schools in Russia
- List of business schools in South Africa
- List of business schools in Spain
- List of business schools in Switzerland
- List of business schools in New Zealand
- List of business schools in the United States
- List of United States graduate business school rankings
- List of business schools in Chile
- Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs
- Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
- Association of MBAs
- Bachelor of Commerce
- Case competition
- Central and East European Management Development Association
- Decision Sciences Institute
- European Foundation for Management Development
- International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education
- "Andreas Kaplan: European Management and European Business Schools: Insights from the History of Business Schools, European Management Journal, 2014".
- "Focus On - Generation Europe Foundation - Career Guidance (page 5)" (PDF).
- "Business Schools and business programs - Graduate International".
- "ESCP EUROPE - Torino". TopUniversities. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Mansoor Iqbal (2 December 2015). "The 10 Top European Business Schools According to International Recruiters". TopMBA. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "The University of Antwerp, Belgium". TheCompleteUniversity. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "BBS History".
- Ginibrière, Gaëlle (14 May 2013). "Business Schools: Rouen and Reims unite to view larger". Lefigaro (in French). Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Wharton History". The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
- "Haas School of Business". Haas School of Business. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "History of Haas". Haas School of Business. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Chicago Booth School of Business". Chicago Booth School of Business. Retrieved 2 Dec 2014.
- "HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management".
- "Definition: Betriebswirtschaftlehre (BWL)" (in German). Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Tuck School of Business | History. Tuck.dartmouth.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
- "Birmingham Business School". The Independent. London. 2010-12-12.
- History | Desautels. mcgill.ca
- "History of the School". SGH. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "1908-1917 | Kellogg School of Management | Northwestern University". www.kellogg.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "History of the MBA MBA Friday Facts". http://www.topmba.com. External link in
- Kaplan, Andreas M (2014). "European Management and European Business Schools: Insights from the History of Business Schools". European Management Journal. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- "HANKEN Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration". Helsinki. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "The growth and development of NHH". www.nhh.no. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- Gonzales, Angela (2007-02-05). "Thunderbird school changes name as it seizes new opportunities – Phoenix Business Journal". Phoenix.bizjournals.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Thunderbird history showcased through Arizona Memory Project – Thunderbird School of Global Management". Thunderbird.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Wits Business School". MBA.co.za. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Gordon Institute of Business Science". GIBS. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- XLRI- Xavier School of Management
- Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management
- "History - Faculty of Management Studies". fms.edu.
- "Institute of Business Administration - Karachi". iba.edu.pk.
- "IEDC – Bled School of Management". The Independent. London. 2010-12-21.
- "Charmed by China". Business Because. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "The Denver MBA".
- "Lincoln Electric Co". Harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Google Inc". Harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Chapter 1.2. A Model for Strategic Planning, Analyzing Cases and Decision Making". Mbatoolbox.org. 2006-02-22. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Yumlembam, Dayananda. "MICA innovation to help Harvard business school sharpen teaching tools". Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
When Harvard Business School was started, its faculty members realized that there were no textbooks suitable to a graduate program in business. That was when they decided to use case studies which are detailed accounts of innovative methods and practices that managers follow.
- Kolowich, Steve (29 June 2012). "Online Learning and Liberal Arts Colleges". Inside Highered. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Bisk Education". bisk.com.
- "Liberal arts college explore uses of 'blended' online learning - InsideHigherEd.com". insidehighered.com.
- J. Scott Armstrong (2012). "Natural Learning in Higher Education". Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.
- Schreuder, Hein, Jeannet, Jean-Pierre. From Coal to Biotech The Transformation of DSM with Business School Support. ISBN 9783662462997. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Which MBA?". Economist. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Eduniversal Rating: Palmes Of Excellence". Eduniversal Ranking. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Best Undergraduate Business Programs | Rankings | US News". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Best Business School Rankings | MBA Program Rankings | US News". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Business school rankings from the Financial Times - Global MBA Rankings 2012". Rankings.ft.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Business Schools". Businessweek. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Business Schools - MBA Rankings and Executive Education Programs - Wsj.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "From Best Business School to Best MBA Fit for You". Best Match. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
- J. Scott Armstrong (1994). "Learning versus Teaching: Reply to Commentaries" (PDF). Interfaces. 24: 39–43.
- "Business School Prestige – Research versus Teaching" (PDF). Journal of Marketing. American Marketing Association. 59: 101–106. 1995.
- J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Book Reviewed: Peter Robinson, Snapshots from Hell, New York: Warner Books, 1994." (PDF). Interfaces. 24: 13–43.