The Butter Rebellion, which took place at Harvard University in 1766, was the first recorded Harvard student protest in what is now the United States. In the decade preceding the American Revolution, economic difficulties made the acquisition of fresh food difficult at Harvard.
A satirical account of the "Butter Rebellion," written in biblical style, was penned during the American revolutionary crisis. According to this account, one meal with particularly rancid butter led Asa Dunbar (the grandfather of Henry David Thoreau) to tell a tutor, "Behold, our butter stinketh!" In the account, Dunbar was punished for insubordination, and the next morning his fellow students protested by leaving their hall, cheering in Harvard Yard, and dining in town.
The protests were led by seniors Dunbar, Daniel Johnson and Thomas Hodgson. The Harvard Corporation admitted much of the butter served to students was rancid, but was alarmed by a month of "violent, illegal, and insulting proceedings." Eventually the Corporation enlisted the help of Massachusetts governor Sir Francis Bernard, 1st Baronet, who addressed students in the chapel, and ended the crisis.
- Samuel Elliot Morrison, Three Centuries of Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1936), 117-118.
- Batchelder, Samuel (1920). "The History of Commons at Harvard III". Harvard Alumni Bulletin. Harvard Bulletin, Incorporated. 23: 752.
- The Book of Harvard, satirical account of the Butter Rebellion
- Bethell, John T., Richard M. Hunt, & Robert Shenton. Harvard from A to Z. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. 2004.
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- "Butter." Time, March 23, 1925.  (Accessed: November 18, 2007)
- Lepore, Jill. Lecture at Harvard University for her course: "Liberty and Slavery, the History of an American Paradox." October 18, 2005.
- Poitier, Beth. "The alpha and omega of Harvard lore" in The Harvard Gazette, June, 2004.  (Accessed: November 18, 2007)
- Wood, Sandy & Kara Kovalchik. "College protests in America began in the 1960s, right? Not quite. Back up a couple hundred years," in Mental Floss, April 6, 2003.  (Accessed: November 18, 2007)