Butternut squash

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Butternut squash
Cucurbita moschata Butternut 2012 G2.jpg
Ripe butternut squash
SpeciesCucurbita moschata
Hybrid parentage'Gooseneck squash' × 'Hubbard squash'
BreederCharles Leggett
Origin1940s in Stow, Massachusetts, United States
Butternut squash cut lengthwise showing seed
Butternut pumpkin (Australian term)

Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata), sometimes known in Australia and New Zealand as butternut pumpkin or gramma,[1] is a type of winter squash that grows on a vine. It has a sweet, nutty taste similar to that of a pumpkin. It has tan-yellow skin and orange fleshy pulp with a compartment of seeds in the bottom. When ripe, it turns increasingly deep orange, and becomes sweeter and richer. It is a good source of fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium; and it is a source of vitamin A.

Although technically a fruit, butternut squash is used as a vegetable that can be roasted, sautéed, toasted, puréed for soups such as squash soup, or mashed to be used in casseroles, breads, muffins, and pies.

History[edit]

The word "squash" comes from the Massachuset Indian word askutasquash, meaning "eaten raw or uncooked." Although the Indians may have eaten some forms of squash without cooking, today most squash is eaten cooked.

The late-growing, less symmetrical, odd-shaped, rough or warty kinds, small to medium in size, but with long-keeping qualities and hard rinds, are usually called winter squash. They belong, almost without exception, to the species Cucurbita maxima or C. moschata.

The small, quick-growing forms that are eaten before the rinds and seeds begin to harden are called summer squash and belong to the species C. pepo.

Pumpkins also belong to that species, but large, late, smooth, symmetrical forms of C. maxima and C. moschata are sometimes called "pumpkins" regardless of species.

The word "pumpkin" is derived from the old French term pompion, meaning eaten when "cooked by the sun," or ripe. In modern French, pumpkin is called potiron.

Spread from South and Central America[edit]

All three species of squashes and pumpkins are native to the Western Hemisphere. C. maxima, represented now by such varieties as Hubbard, Delicious, Marblehead, Boston Marrow, and Turks Turban, apparently originated in northern Argentina near the Andes, or in certain Andean valleys. At the time of the Spanish invasion it was found growing in such areas and has never since been found elsewhere except as evidently carried by man.


Since this is a plant that requires a fair amount of hot weather for best growth, it has never become very well known in northern Europe, the British Isles, or in similar areas with short or cool summers. Only long-vining plants are known in this species.

C. moschata, represented by such varieties as Cushaw and Winter Crookneck Squashes, and Japanese Pie and Large Cheese Pumpkins, is a long-vining plant native to Mexico and Central America. This species and C. pepo apparently originated in the same general area, Mexico and Central America. Both are important food plants of the natives, ranking next to maize and beans. The flowers and the mature seeds, as well as the flesh of the fruit, are eaten in some areas.

Before the advent of the white man, C. mosckata and C. pepo had been carried over all parts of North America where they could be grown, but they had not been carried into South America as had beans, which originated in the same general region. They were generally grown by American Natives all over what is now the United States. Many of these tribes, particularly in the West, still grow a diversity of hardy squashes and pumpkins not to be found in our markets.

Although winter squashes are grown in many lands today, they are relatively unimportant with few exceptions. They are grown extensively in tropical America, in Japan, and in certain districts in the United States. The calabazas of the West Indies and the forms grown by the natives of present-day Mexico and Central America are not of uniform, pure varieties, but are extremely variable as to size, shape, and color. Since these species are normally cross-pollinated, it is difficult to keep a variety pure.

In Japan just after World War II I found squash growing on trellises over the doorways or on the sides of houses, at the foundations of burned-out buildings where vines can grow over the ruins, and beside and over small streams on horizontal trellises of poles.

Much "Pumpkin Pie" Is Really Squash[edit]

The largest "pumpkins" grown and bragged about are often C. maxima, really squashes; and much of the pumpkin pie we eat is made from C. maxima, squash. The best commercially canned "pumpkin" is not pumpkin but Delicious, Boston Marrow, or similar squash. The flesh of these varieties of squash is much richer and more nutritious than that of pumpkin.

Several years ago a North Dakota horticulturist bred a small variety of turban squash as a substitute for the sweet potato, which does not thrive on the northern Great Plains. This little Buttercup squash has flesh surprisingly similar to sweet potato in taste and quality. [2]

Culinary uses[edit]

One of the most common ways to prepare butternut squash is roasting. Once roasted, it can be eaten in a variety of ways.[3]

Butternut squash, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy188 kJ (45 kcal)
11.69 g
Dietary fiber2 g
0.1 g
1 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
67%
532 μg
39%
4226 μg
Thiamine (B1)
9%
0.1 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
8%
1.2 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
8%
0.4 mg
Vitamin B6
12%
0.154 mg
Folate (B9)
7%
27 μg
Vitamin C
25%
21 mg
Vitamin E
10%
1.44 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
5%
48 mg
Iron
5%
0.7 mg
Magnesium
10%
34 mg
Manganese
10%
0.202 mg
Phosphorus
5%
33 mg
Potassium
7%
352 mg
Zinc
2%
0.15 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The fruit is prepared by removing the skin, stalk, and seeds, which are not usually eaten or cooked.[4] However, the seeds are edible, either raw or roasted, and the skin is also edible and softens when roasted.

In Australia, it is regarded as a pumpkin, and is used interchangeably with other types of pumpkin.[citation needed]

In South Africa, butternut squash is commonly used and often prepared as a soup or grilled whole. Grilled butternut is typically seasoned with spices such as nutmeg and cinnamon or stuffed (e.g. spinach and feta) before being wrapped in foil and grilled. Grilled butternut is often served as a side dish to braais (barbecues) and the soup as a starter dish.

Butternuts were introduced commercially in New Zealand in the 1950s by brothers Arthur and David Harrison who were nurserymen and market gardeners in Otaki.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Commercial production of pumpkins and grammas". Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  2. ^ Aggie Horticulture https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/archives/parsons/publications/vegetabletravelers/squash.html
  3. ^ "Butternut Squash". Traditional-Foods.com. 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  4. ^ "Butternut Squash". Veg Box Recipes. 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2013.

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