Buxa Tiger Reserve

Coordinates: 26°39′0″N 89°34′48″E / 26.65000°N 89.58000°E / 26.65000; 89.58000
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Buxa Tiger Reserve
Bengali: বক্সা ব‍্যাঘ্র সংরক্ষণ
Map showing the location of Buxa Tiger Reserve
Map showing the location of Buxa Tiger Reserve
Buxa NP
LocationWest Bengal, India
Nearest cityAlipurduar
Coordinates26°39′0″N 89°34′48″E / 26.65000°N 89.58000°E / 26.65000; 89.58000
Area760 km2 (290 sq mi)
Governing bodyMinistry of Environment Forests and Climate Change, Government of India

Buxa Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve and national park in northern West Bengal, India, covering an area of 760 km2 (290 sq mi). In altitude, it ranges from 60 m (200 ft) in the Gangetic Plains to 1,750 m (5,740 ft) bordering the Himalayas in the north. At least 284 bird species inhabit the reserve.[1] Mammals present include Asian elephant, gaur, Sambar deer, clouded leopard, Indian leopard, and Asian golden cat.[2]


Buxa Tiger Reserve

Buxa Tiger Reserve was created in 1983 as the 15th tiger reserve in India. In 1986, Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary was constituted over 314.52 km2 (121.44 sq mi) of the reserve forests. In 1991, 54.47 km2 (21.03 sq mi) was added to Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. In 1992, the Government of West Bengal declared its intentions to constitute a national park over 117.10 km2 (45.21 sq mi) of the Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. State government finally declared national park with notification No.3403-For/11B-6/95 dt. 05.12.1997.[3]



Jayanti hills

Buxa Tiger Reserve lies in Alipurduar district of West Bengal. Its northern boundary runs along the international border with Bhutan. The Sinchula hill range lies all along the northern side of BTR and the eastern boundary touches that of the Assam state. National Highway No.31 C roughly runs along its southern boundary. It is the easternmost extension of extreme bio-diverse North-East India and represents highly endemic Indo-Malayan region. The fragile "Terai Eco-System" constitutes a part of this reserve. The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to the north of BTR. Manas National Park lies on east of BTR. BTR, thus, serves as international corridor for Asian elephant migration[4][5] between India and Bhutan. To the south-west, the Chilapata Forests form an elephant corridor to the Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary. The reserve encompasses as many as eight forest types. The divisional headquarters is located at Alipurduar. The forest is divided into two divisions: East and West. Buxa Fort is an important landmark for this reserve. This fort was captured by British-India in 1865 after the Bhutan War from Bhutan. Later this fort was used as a detention camp for Indian freedom fighters during the Indian freedom movement.


It is contiguous to the Buxa Formation of Mamley in Mamley village of Namchi neighboring state of Sikkim, the stromatolite bearing Dolomite Limestones, which has been declared national geological monument by the Geological Survey of India (GSI), for their protection, maintenance, promotion and enhancement of geotourism.[6][7][8]



More than 450 species of trees, 250 species of shrubs, 400 species of herbs, 9 species of cane, 10 species of bamboo, 150 species of orchids, 100 species of grass and 130 species of aquatic flora including more than 70 sedges (Cyperaceae) have been identified so far. There are more than 160 species of other monocotyledons and ferns. The main trees are sal, champa, gamhar, simul and chikrasi.[3]

Forest types include:[citation needed]

  • Northern dry deciduous
  • Eastern Bhabar and Terai sal
  • East Himalayan moist mixed deciduous forest
  • Sub-Himalayan secondary wet mixed forest
  • Eastern sub-montane semi-evergreen forest
  • Northern tropical evergreen forest
  • East Himalayan subtropical wet hill forest
  • Moist sal savannah
  • Low alluvium
  • Savannah woodland


During a survey in May 2000 to July 2001, 284 bird species were recorded including Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), Amur falcon (Falco amurensis), Malayan night heron (Gorsachius melanolophus), Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris), rufous-necked hornbill (Aceros nipalensis), chestnut-breasted partridge (Arborophila mandellii), cinnamon bittern (Ixobrychus cinnamomeus), stripe-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos atratus), velvet-fronted nuthatch (Sitta frontalis) and black-naped oriole (Oriolus chinensis).[1] The Narathali lake, Raidāk and Jayanti rivers provide habitat to migratory birds like common merganser (Mergus merganser), Eurasian teal (Anas crecca), black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis), black stork (Ciconia nigra), and ferruginous pochard (Aythya nyroca). Two new frog species were discovered in 2006.[3]

The 73 mammal species include Indian leopard, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, giant squirrel, gaur, chital and wild boar. 65 fish, 41 reptile and 4 amphibian species have been identified.[2] In February 2018, both plain and spotted Asiatic golden cats (Catopuma temminckii) were recorded in the reserve for the first time.[9]

Endangered species present in the reserve are leopard cat, Bengal florican, reticulated python, Chinese pangolin, hispid hare,[10] hog deer[2][3] lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis), slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris), chestnut-breasted partridge (Arborophila mandellii), rufous necked hornbill (Aceros nipalensis), ferruginous pochard (Aythya nyroca) and great hornbill (Buceros bicornis).[1]


Hilly, Bhabhar and riverine tracts of core suffer from fire. Generally non timber forest produce collectors and shepherds put forests on fire.[1] Poachers from Assam frequently come to poach Indian elephants.[3]


  1. ^ a b c d Sivakumar, S.; Varghese, J.; Prakash, V. (2006). "Abundance of birds in different habitats in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India" (PDF). Forktail. 22: 128–133. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Das, B. K. (2005). "Role of NTFPs among forest villagers in a protected area of West Bengal" (PDF). Journal of Human Ecology. 18 (2): 129–136. doi:10.1080/09709274.2005.11905820. S2CID 55037688.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Project Tiger on Buxa". Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  5. ^ Singh, Shiv Sahay; Perinchery, Aathira (11 November 2017). "Elephant corridors in India threatened, says study". The Hindu.
  6. ^ "National Geological Monument, from Geological Survey of India website". Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Geo-Heritage Sites". pib.nic.in. Press Information Bureau. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  8. ^ national geo-heritage of India Archived 11 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, INTACH
  9. ^ Ghose, M.; Sharma, D.; Murali, N. S. (2019). "First photographic evidence of polymorphic Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11 (4): 13502–13505. doi:10.11609/jott.4254.11.4.13502-13505.
  10. ^ Chapman, J. A.; Flux, J. E. C. (1990). Rabbits, hares and pikas: status survey and conservation action plan. pp. 128–136. ISBN 9782831700199.

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