Byerley Turk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Byerley Turk by John Wootton

The Byerley Turk (c. 1680 – c. 1703[1]), also spelled Byerly Turk, was the earliest of three stallions that were the founders of the modern Thoroughbred horse racing bloodstock (the other two are the Godolphin Arabian and the Darley Arabian).[2][3]


The biographical details of the stallion are the subject of much speculation. The entry in the General Stud Book simply states: "BYERLY TURK, was Captain Byerly's [sic] charger in Ireland, in King William's wars (1689, &c.)."[4] As for his earlier history, the most popular theory is that the horse was captured at the Battle of Buda (1686) along with the Lister Turk, who was brought to England by the Duke of Berwick. Other sources speculate he was one of three Turkish stallions captured at the Battle of Vienna.[5] It is even possible he was bred in England from previously imported stock.[6] He was definitely the war horse and cavalry mount of Captain Robert Byerley, who was dispatched to Ireland in 1689 during King William's War and saw further military service in the Battle of the Boyne. According to early records, Captain Byerley was nearly captured while reconnoitering the enemy, "owing his safety to the superior speed of his horse".[5]

As a general rule, the spelling of a name registered with the Jockey Club is considered definitive, even if it is an obvious error.[7] However, the original edition of the General Stud Book was compiled nearly a century after the fact (in 1791) and contains several errors that have been subsequently corrected. Most sources consider the correct spelling of the horse's name to follow the correct spelling of the owner's name, Byerley.[5]

The Byerley Turk was a dark brown or black[1] horse of unknown breeding, but described in historic accounts as an Arabian.[5] At the time, Turkish horses were described as descended from "those of Arabia or Persia", but stated that they were longer in the body and of a larger size.[8] He was described as a horse of elegance, courage and speed.[5] Many of his offspring were also noted to have been either bay or black.[9]

Stud record[edit]

In 1692, Captain Byerley married his cousin, Mary Wharton (sole heir to the estate of Goldsborough, near Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England) and moved to live with her at her family home of Goldsborough Hall. After Byerley retired (as Colonel Byerley), the Byerley Turk retired to stud, first at Middridge Grange, then, from 1697, at Goldsborough Hall.[5] The Byerley Turk died there in 1703 and it is believed he is buried close to the Hall. Goldsborough Hall is now a private family home that offers accommodation, which includes the commemorative Byerley suite.[10]

He did not cover many well-bred mares,[11] but his most significant sons include:

Partner, grandson of the Byerley Turk, grandsire of Herod
  • Black Hearty, black colt born c. 1695, "a famous Horse of Sir George Fletcher"[5]
  • Grasshopper or Bristol Grasshopper, c. 1695, won the Town Plate at Nottingham under 10 stone[5]
  • Jigg, c. 1701, a bay colt of middling ability[9] who became the sire of Partner, a four-time leading sire. Partner sired Tartar, who was the sire of Herod (1738).[2] Herod founded one of the three sire lines from which all modern Thoroughbreds descend, the other lines being founded by Eclipse and Matchem.
  • Basto, a nearly black colt born c. 1704, who won several match races from 1708 to 1710.[12] Basto sired Old Ebony, the foundation mare of family #5.[a]

The Byerley Turk also sired several highly influential daughters, most of whose names do not survive. They are generally classified by the female family that they belong to:

  • Byerley Turk mare, a black or brown daughter out of Tarfollet Barb mare, through whom all modern members of family #1 descend.[9] Family 1 is estimated to account for 15% of all thoroughbreds, and has been divided into several sub-families for ease of reference. For example, family 1-k, the family of Frankel among many others, traces back through several branches to family 1-a, Bonny Lass, a grand-daughter of the Byerley Turk mare.[13] As of 2010, there were 33 Epsom Derby winners, 31 St. Leger winners, and 40 winners of The Oaks Stakes listed in family 1 as descendants of the Byerley Turk mare[14]
  • Bowes' Byerley Turk mare, the "Dam of the Two True Blues", the taproot of family 3. Though not as widespread as family 1, many classic winners around the world trace back to family 3.[15] As of 2010, there were 25 Derby winners, 26 Oaks winners and 20 St Leger winners from family 3[16]
  • The Byerley Turk mare out of Bustler Mare, the taproot of family 8, which has produced 7 Oaks winners, 11 Derby winners, and 15 St Leger winners including Nijinsky[17]
  • The Byerley Turk mare that was the taproot of family 17, which has produced 2 Oaks and 3 St Leger winners
  • The Byerley Turk mare that was the taproot of family 41[18][19]

Byerley Turk sire line[edit]

Herod (King Herod)

The Byerley sire line persisted by producing a major sire every few generations, whose sons would create branches of their own. Most of these branches have died out over the course of time in the purebred Thoroughbred, but remain present in other horse breeds in which mares were bred to male descendants of the Byerley Turk. The line of descent to the present day is as follows:[20][21][22]

  • The Byerley Turk (~1680) sired Jigg in 1705, who sired Partner in 1718, who sired Tartar in 1743, who sired Herod in 1758. Herod was the leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland from 1777 to 1784.
  • Herod sired Highflyer in 1774, leading sire in Great Britain from 1785-1796. Highflyer sired Sir Peter Teazle, who was leading sire in Great Britain from 1799-1802, 1804-1809. Highflyer's line persisted for many generations, but died out by the mid-20th century.[23]
  • Herod sired Florizel (1768), who sired Diomed (1777). Diomed would become a foundation sire of the American turf. In turn, Diomed sired Sir Archy, who was the first great "sire of sires" in the United States. A few generations later through Sir Archy's line came Lexington, who became the leading sire in North America 16x times in the mid-19th century; his sire line died out in the late 20th century.[24][25][26][27]
  • Herod's line continued through Woodpecker, foaled in 1773, who sired Buzzard (1787). Buzzard founded several sire lines that flourished in the 19th century, most of which withered away in the 20th century.[28] Buzzard sired Castrel (1801), who sired Pantaloon (1824), who sired Windhound (1847), who sired Thormanby (1857–1875), who sired Atlantic (1871–1891) and Charibert (1876). Buzzard's sire line also continued through Selim, foaled in 1802, who was leading sire of 1814. Selim produced yet another flourishing sire line, most of which died away by the mid 20th century.[29] Selim's sire line continued through Sultan, born in 1816. Sultan was leading sire 6 times.
Bay Middleton
  • Sultan in turn sired Bay Middleton (1833), who was leading sire in 1844 and 1849. Bay Middleton sired several sire sons but most of his line died out by the middle of the 20th century.[30] Bay Middleton's sire line continued through The Flying Dutchman, born in 1846. The Flying Dutchman sired several sons whose lines gradually died out over the course of the 20th century. The Flying Dutchman's line continued through Dollar in 1860, who sired Androcles in 1870, who sired Cambyse in 1884, who sired Gardefeu in 1895, who sired Chouberski in 1902, who sired Bruleur in 1910. Bruleur sired Ksar in 1918.
Ksar, 1921
  • Ksar was a two-time winner of the Arc de Triomphe and the leading sire in France for 1931. Ksar sired Tourbillon in 1928. Tourbillon was three-time leading sire in France. As recently as the 1982 stallion register, four sons of Tourbillon were known to have active stallions (Ambiorix, Coaraze, Djebel, and Timor).[31] Tourbillon's sire line has not had a stallion in the top 100 turf horses as recently as 2018.[32]
  • Djebel sired My Babu, who also won the 2000 Guineas. The My Babu sire line persisted for several generations, leading to Cirrus des Aigles, a Group 1 winner as late as 2014. Unfortunately, Cirrus des Aigles was gelded so the My Babu sire line is on the brink of extinction, though as of 2023, sire Bulleton (Australia, 2003) still serves mares in N.S.W., Australia.[33] His sire is Rubiton, by Century, by Better Boy (Ireland, 1951). Better Boy was 4-time Champion Sire in Australia (1965–66, 1970–71, 1971–72 and 1976–77), Sired 35 stakes winners and was Champion Broodmare Sire in Australia 1978-79.[34] In addition, Japanese horse racing fans have attempted to keep the sire line of Tokai Teio (who is a descendant of My Babu through his son, Milesian)[35] alive by means of crowdfunding, through his son, Quite Fine.[36][37]
  • Djebel also sired Clarion, born in 1944, who, though less successful than My Babu on the track, is the best hope for the survival of the Byerley Turk sire line. Clarion sired Klairon in 1952, whose son Luthier would lead the french sire list four times. Luthier's sire line continued for a few generations but seems to have died out. Klairon also sired Lorenzaccio in 1965, who in turn sired Ahonoora in 1975. Ahonoora proved a very successful sire, with offspring including: Don't Forget Me (2000 Guineas), Dr Devious (Epsom Derby), and Indian Ridge. The Indian Ridge line has hopes primarily through the lineage of four sons: Compton Place (1994), Indian Rocket (1994), Indian Haven (2000), and Luck Money (2005). Pearl Secret (son of Compton Place) is at stud in England, and Captain Chop (son of Indian Rocket) is at stud in France, while Indian Haven was at stud in Ireland until his death in 2023.[34][38][39][40][41] Luck Money[42] was known to be in South America as recently as 2021, but wasn’t covering many mares.[43][44]

Thus, the continuation of the Byerley Turk sire line through Herod in the purebred Thoroughbred now largely depends on the descendants of Djebel, primarily through four descendants of his son Clarion (Captain Chop, Indian Haven, Pearl Secret, and Luck Money: via the Indian Ridge line),[34][39][40][41] and secondarily through two descendants of his son My Babu (Bulleton via the Better Boy line, and Quite Fine via the Milesian line).[33][36][37][35][42][43]

Continuation of direct sire line through reporting error

Recent research from 2017[45] and 2019[46] has brought into question the lineage of the sire Galopin. The research suggests that Galopin descends, not from the Darley Arabian sire line, but from the Byerley Turk. This is due to the descendants of Galopin possessing the Y chromosome Tb-oB1 rather than Tb-d, which is found in descendants of the Darley Arabian.[47] This line of descent, which is a rare line via sire St. Simon (1881 – 1908), was found to exist as recently as 2023 in Saudi Arabia, from the sons of Pleasant Colony.[25]

Continuation of direct sire line through cloning

Of special note, a direct male descendant by the name of Gem Twist, a three-time American Grand Prix Association champion Thoroughbred show jumper, had three clones produced[48][49] that have successfully produced more than 200 offspring, as of 2023. The clones and any offspring of them are not considered Thoroughbreds, however, as the Jockey Club requires procreation by natural means.[50] Offspring of all three clones of Gem Twist, with the most prolific being Gemini CL, have been registered with the Anglo European Studbook (AES) instead, or as another breed, such as Swedish Warmblood, Zangersheide, and other warmblood horse breeds.[51][52]

Contining influence other than direct sire line

Focusing on the sire line may underestimate the ongoing influence of the Byerley Turk; detailed pedigree analysis shows that he has a higher percentage of blood in the modern Thoroughbred than either of his fellow foundation sires through other lines of descent.[31] Thormanby (1857–1875), a Byerley Turk descendant who sired almost 100 stakes winners, is present in the pedigrees of almost all modern Thoroughbreds through his daughter, Rouge Rose, who produced the Epsom Derby winner Bend Or (Darley Arabian line).[53][54]

Byerley Turk line in crossbreds[edit]

United States
Diomed (b. 1777), an imported grandson of Herod (b. 1758) through Herod's son, Florizel (b. 1768).

The influence of the Byerley Turk has been felt through other horse breeds through his direct male descendants Diomed (American Quarter Horse and Standardbred),[55][56][57][58] Denmark (American Saddlebred),[59] and Justin Morgan (Morgan horse).[60] Denmark, Justin Morgan, and Sir Archy[61] (son of Diomed), are key foundation sires for their respective breeds.[59][60] Therefore, the Byerley Turk overall sire line lives on today more prominently in the United States through the American Quarter Horse, American Saddlebred, and Morgan horse, as opposed to the purebred Thoroughbred.

The German-born Thoroughbred stallion Fenék (b. 1883), one of the founders of the Kisbér Félvér breed.
The imported Thoroughbred stallion Black Sky (b. 1966), of the Djebel line, an influential sire of European dressage and German warmbloods.
The German-born, 3/4 Thoroughbred stallion Bolero (1975 – 1987), registered as a Hanoverian, who was a prominent sire of European dressage and warmblood horses.

A rare breed founded in Hungary called the Kisbér Félvér has a direct sire line link to the Byerley Turk. The lineage can be traced to the German-born Thoroughbred stallion Fenék (b. 1883), who was by the British stallion Buccaneer - a descendant of Herod (b. 1758) through Herod's son, Highflyer (b. 1774) - out of the mare Hélène Triomphante, of the Godolphin Arabian line. Fenék was transferred to the Kisbér Stud in Hungary in 1894, where he had a stud fee of £30 for foreign-owned mares, and £20 for Hungarian-owned mares.[62][63]

In the Trakehner, a German warmblood breed that was developed in Prussia (Germany) from the early 1800s onwards, the Byerley Turk also had a major influence. From 1800 to 1860, a recorded 68 English Thoroughbred stallions stood at the stud at Trakehnen, comprising 18% (1 in 5) of all breeding stallions. Later on, from 1861 to 1925, a total of 116 English Thoroughbreds stood at the stud, making up 51% (1 in 2) of all stallions. Of these, seven Thoroughbred stallions would go on to have a significant impact on the breed, including Byerley Turk sire line descendant Snyders (b. 1833), a male-line descendant of Herod (b. 1758); and Perfectionist, a member of the disputed Galopin line. The German Thoroughbred stallion Lehnsherr (b. 1927), a Byerley Turk male-line descendant through Atlantic (1871–1891) through his son, the French Thoroughbred stallion Le Sancy (b. 1884), would also become an influential sire in the Trakehner breed.[64]

The Byerley Turk sire line also lives on through the Polish Anglo-Arabian stallion Ramzes (b. 1937), who was sired by the gray Belgian Thoroughbred stallion Rittersporn (b. 1917) out of the Shagya Arabian mare Jordi. Rittersporn was a male-line descendant of the English Thoroughbred racing stallion Herod (b. 1758) through Herod's son, Woodpecker (b. 1773), and Woodpecker's son, Buzzard (b. 1787).

Ramzes was an influential warmblood sire of show jumping and dressage horses who stood at various studs, including the Janów Podlaski Stud Farm in Poland, and would go on to have a strong influence on the Westphalian, Holsteiner, and other German warmblood horse breeds.[65] The Grand Prix and 1996 Olympic dressage team stallion Rubinstein I (1986 – 2000), a Westphalian, was one of Ramzes' most influential descendants among German warmblood and sport horse breeders, siring 89 state premium mares and 66 approved stallions.[66]

Rubinstein I went on to have an exemplary career at stud, siring over 400 mares in different German warmblood registries, as well as numerous stallions, particularly in the Oldenburg and Hanoverian breeds.[67] The performances of his get placed him 4th on the dressage index for older stallions.[68] Another influential Hanoverian stallion of the Byerley Turk line includes Bolero (1975 – 1987), by the Thoroughbred stallion Black Sky (b. 1966) of the Djebel line, out of the Hanoverian/Thoroughbred mare Baronesse (b. 1970).[69]

Black Sky was imported to Germany in 1972, where stood at stud at Schmidt-Ankum and Landesbrück; he was a less popular sire than Cardinal (b. 1964), a male-line descendant of the Darley Arabian. During a performance test, his son Bolero performed only moderately, placing 6th out of 30 stallions in his 100-day test. In his nine seasons at stud, he sired 47 licensed stallions, including the champion of his year, Buenos Aires; his most influential stallion sons have been Brentano II (b. 1983, Hanoverian) and Bismarck (b. 1980, Hanoverian). Bolero’s progeny proved to be excellent dressage horses, but showed little jumping ability.

Nevertheless, Bolero proved to be successful broodmare sire, fathering a total of 316 registered broodmares, of which 98 were awarded State Premium status. In 2002, the last year he appeared in the Hanoverian stallion book, Bolero was represented by 417 competition horses, with collective winnings of more than €725,000. There were 16 horses that had won more than €10,000 in dressage competitions. The most successful of Bolero's get were the mare Boney M, with more than €105,00, followed by the gelding Borsalino (over €95,000); Bini Bo (over €28,000); and the stallion Beauvalais (over €27,000). All were registered as Hanoverians. Beauvalais (b. 1987), ridden by the Spanish rider Beatriz Ferrer-Salat, won the individual silver medal and team bronze at the 2002 World Equestrian Games, as well as the team silver and individual bronze for Spain at the 2004 Summer Olympics.[70]

One of Bolero's female descendants, the Hanoverian mare Brentina (1991 – 2021),[71] began her international career at 8 years old with rider Debbie McDonald at the 1999 Pan American Games in Winnipeg, Canada, becoming the first U.S. equestrian double gold medalist at the Pan American Games since 1983. Brentina also earned a team silver medal and finished fourth individually in the 2002 World Equestrian Games; became the first American horse to take the FEI World Cup Final in 2003; made the shortlist for the 2004 Summer Olympics; and was also named to the 2006 World Equestrian Games team, earning a bronze medal in the latter for the United States.[72] Brentina was retired from competitions after the 2009 World Cup Finals in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States at the age of 18, and became a broodmare.[73] Brentina's achievements are widely credited with helping the development of dressage in the United States.

Bolero's sire line has achieved renewed prominence in recent years, thanks largely to the efforts of Belisimo M (b. 1999, Rhenish Warmblood) and Breitling W (b. 1991, Hanoverian) as well as the sons of Breitling W: Burlington FRH (b. 2003, Hanoverian) and Burlington II (b. 2011), and the Burlington I son, Bodyguard (b. 2009, Hanoverian). Belisimo M is a grandson of Bolero through his son, Beltain (b. 1984, Hanoverian), and Breitling W is a grandson of Bolero through another son, Bismarck (b. 1980, Hanoverian).However, Bolero's most successful son was the Hanoverian stallion Brentano II (1982 – 2010), who sired Brentina and Poesie, the dam of the Brandenburger mare Poetin (1997 - 2005).[74]


Gem Twist (June 12, 1979 – November 18, 2006) was a 16.3 hands (67 inches, 170 cm) world champion American Thoroughbred show jumping gelding registered under the name "Icey Twist".[75], bred by equestrian Frank Chapot.[76] Gem Twist was a male-line descendant of the Byerley Turk through his ancestor, the gray French Thoroughbred sire Le Sancy (b. 1884), and his sire, Atlantic (1871–1891), a chestnut British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire who won the 2000 Guineas and the Epsom Derby. After his retirement, Atlantic was exported to France, where he became a successful and influential sire of stakes winners. Gem Twist's gray coat came from Le Sancy, who was out of Gem of Gems (b. 1873), a gray Thoroughbred broodmare.[77][78] After Gem Twist's death in 2006, three clones of him were produced to use in German warmblood sport horse breeding programs in Europe.

In May 2012, it was revealed that Gemini CL (c. 2008), the first clone of Gem Twist, had successfully sired his first crop of foals, primarily out of German warmblood mares, and through the use of artificial insemination (AI). He was also bred to the Thoroughbred mare Otherwise Engaged, a descendant of the Irish Thoroughbred racehorse Turn-To (1951–1973),[79] who gave birth to a healthy chestnut colt.[80] The colt was born at Park Avenue Stables in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in March 2012, and he was named "The Proposal".

Any offspring of clones are not considered Thoroughbreds, and cannot be registered with the Jockey Club, as the breed requires natural procreation for the bloodlines to qualify for the stud book; as such, "The Proposal" was registered with the Anglo European Studbook (AES) instead.[51] However, Thoroughbred clones and their offspring would still be eligible to compete in Olympic competitions,[50] with Gemini CL primarily being bred to produce show jumping horses.

As of 2023, Gemini CL was listed by Groupe France Elevage for stud services through artificial insemination (AI), with fresh semen being available for warmblood and sport horse breeding in France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany, and frozen semen being available for breeding worldwide. His booking fee was listed at €350, and his pregnancy fee was listed at €850. He is advertised as "passing blood, power and an incredible technique" to his offspring.[81] He was exported from the United States to the Netherlands, where he currently stands at stud as a sire of German warmblood sport horses and show jumpers. Starting in 2013, Gemini CL also started being regularly bred to Zangersheide mares.

The website Horse Telex Pedigree listed a total of 217 offspring sired by Gemini CL as of 2023. Most were registered as German warmbloods, but one foal - the filly Obora's Guapa (b. 2016) - was listed as a purebred Thoroughbred, out of the mare Emirates (Pop Rock x Enamaqua, by Namaqualand, a son of Mr. Prospector).[82] The foal was registered as a Swedish Warmblood[83] due to Jockey Club restrictions on cloned Thoroughbreds. Another offspring, the bay filly Rocana Twist (b. 2018), is ¾ Thoroughbred, being by Gemini CL out of the partbred Thoroughbred mare Rocana II (by Ituango, a German Thoroughbred stallion of the Dark Ronald line, out of Rose, an Oldenburg mare).[84]

Two other clones of Gem Twist, Murka's Gem and Gem Twist Alpha Z, were registered in the Anglo European Studbook (AES) and the Zangersheide studbook, respectively.[85][86][87] The latter, Alpha Z, was bred by Frank Chapot, who also bred the original Gem Twist, and is primarily used in Zangersheide (Belgian Warmblood) sport horse breeding programs.

Sire line tree[edit]

Byerley Turk descendants (click to expand)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Note that "family" refers to matrilineal descent, while "sire line" refers to patrilineal descent.


  1. ^ a b "Byerley Turk Horse Pedigree". Retrieved June 2, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), "Thoroughbred Breeding of the World", Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970
  3. ^ Cunningham, E. P.; Dooley, J. J.; Splan, R. K.; Bradley, D. G. (2001). "Microsatellite diversity, pedigree relatedness and the contributions of founder lineages to thoroughbred horses". Animal Genetics. 32 (6): 360–364. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2052.2001.00785.x. PMID 11736806.
  4. ^ General Stud Book, Vol., I, p. 389
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Byerley Byerly Turk". Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  6. ^ Byles, Tony (January 14, 2015). 101 Interesting Facts on the History of Horse Racing. Apex Publishing Limited.
  7. ^ Hoppert, Melissa (22 May 2015). "So, Who Misspelled American Pharoah?". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  8. ^ Whyte, James Christie (July 1840). "History of the British Turf: from the earliest history to the present day". Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Peters, Anne. "Byerley Turk". Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  10. ^ "Goldsborough Hall History". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  11. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 90.
  12. ^ "Basto Horse Pedigree". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  13. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines - Tregonwell's Natural Barb Mare - Family 1". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  14. ^ "Family 1". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  15. ^ "Bowes' Byerley Turk Mare - Family 3 Index". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  16. ^ "Family 3 - Dam of the Two True Blues". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  17. ^ "Family 8". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  18. ^ "Byerley Turk Mare - Family 41". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  19. ^ Wentworth, Lady, "Thoroughbred Racing Stock", George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 1960, Warne & Co, London & New York, 1960
  20. ^ Morris, Simon; Tesio Power 2000 – Stallions of the World, Syntax Software
  21. ^ Churchill, Jennifer, Australia and New Zealand – Sires for '87, Racetrack Magazine
  22. ^ "Foundation Sire Lines". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  23. ^ "Highflyer Sire Line". Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  24. ^ The Meaning of the death of Midnight Bourbon
  25. ^ a b The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Has Four Horses From The Nearly Dead St. Simon Sire Line
  26. ^ "Herod / Diomed sire line". Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  27. ^ American Classic Pedigrees (1914-2002)
  28. ^ "Buzzard Sire Line". Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  29. ^ "Selim's Sire Line". Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  30. ^ "Sire Lines Bay Middleton". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  31. ^ a b "On Herod and Matchem but not Eclipse". Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  32. ^ Northern Dancer and turf: soon only a few other sire lines may effectively exist
  33. ^ a b Horse deals: Bulleton
  34. ^ a b c Foundation Byerley Turk Sire Line Drying Up In Australia And Beyond
  35. ^ a b Quite Fine Pedigree
  36. ^ a b "トウカイテイオー後継種牡馬プロジェクト・クワイトファイン種牡馬入りへの道". (in Japanese). Retrieved 2023-04-30.
  37. ^ a b "トウカイテイオーの血を令和に繋ぎたい!ファンの支援が後継種牡馬を送り出す - スポニチ Sponichi Annex ギャンブル". スポニチ Sponichi Annex (in Japanese). Retrieved 2023-04-30.
  38. ^ Texas breeder responds to shrinking Man o’ War line
  40. ^ a b Pearl Secret Progeny
  41. ^ a b Captain Chop Progeny
  42. ^ a b Toward a single bloodline in stallions
  43. ^ a b The Byerley Turk line set to vanish from Australia
  44. ^ Chapel Stud announces death of Byerley Turk line sire and Irish 2,000 Guineas winner Indian Haven at 23
  45. ^ Turkoman Sires at the Root of Thoroughbred Male Lines
  46. ^ The horse Y chromosome as an informative marker for tracing sire lines
  47. ^ Galopin - New Research and an answer to an old question
  48. ^ Clone of top jumper Gem Twist born
  49. ^ Cloned horses may now compete says FEI
  50. ^ a b Genaro, Teresa. "Cloned Horses Good Enough For The Olympics, But Thoroughbred Racing Says "Neigh"". Forbes. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  51. ^ a b "The Proposal". Anglo European Studbook. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  52. ^ "Emirates xx". Swedish Warmblood Association. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  53. ^ Patricia Erigero. "Thormanby". Retrieved 2012-01-07.
  54. ^ "Bend Or Sire Line". Retrieved 2012-01-10.
  55. ^ "Copperbottom" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  56. ^ "Lost Bloodline". Archived from the original on 2019-10-28. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  57. ^ Duroc
  58. ^ "American Star". Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  59. ^ a b Kentucky's Saddlebred Heritage
  60. ^ a b Origin of the Morgan Horse
  61. ^ The Bloodlines Chart
  62. ^ Portrait: Buccaneer
  63. ^ The Kisber Felver
  64. ^ Von Velsen, Eberhard. "The Trakehner Breed & The Thoroughbred". American Trakehner Association. Trakehner Hefte. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  65. ^ "Ramzes". The Horse Magazine. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  66. ^ "Rubinstein I (Archived)". Superior Equine Sires, Inc. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  67. ^ "Rubinstein". Global Equine Sires. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  68. ^ "Germany's Favourite Sire "Rubinstein I" passed away". EuroDressage. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  69. ^ "The Hanoverian". Hanoverian Horse Society of Australia. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  70. ^ "Bolero". The Horse Magazine. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  71. ^ "Debbie McDonald's Career Making Horse, Brentina, Passed Away". Eurodressage. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  72. ^ "USEF Announces Short List For 2004 Olympic Dressage Team". The Chronicle of the Horse. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  73. ^ "Brentina". Horse Stars Hall of Fame. U.S. Equestrian Federation. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  74. ^ Ratliff, Laura. "Brentano II, Sire Of Brentina, Dies". The Chronicle of the Horse. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  75. ^ "Gem Twist, U.S. Star, To Take His Final Bows". Finn, Robin. The New York Times. 10/28/97. Referenced January 2, 2008.
  76. ^ "Show Jumping Legend Gem Twist Dies". Equisearch. Referenced January 2, 2008.
  77. ^ "Gem Twist Pedigree". Pedigree Online: All Breed Database. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  78. ^ "Le Sancy". Thoroughbred Heritage Portraits. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  79. ^ "Otherwise Engaged Pedigree". Pedigree Online: Thoroughbred Database. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  80. ^ "Gem Twist, ET clones produce first foals - News". 4 May 2012.
  81. ^ "Gemini CL". Groupe France Elevage. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  82. ^ "Obora's Guapa Pedigree". Horse Telex Pedigree. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  83. ^ "Emirates xx". Swedish Warmblood Association. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  84. ^ "Rocana Twist Pedigree". Horse Telex Pedigree. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  85. ^ "Murka's Gem". The Chronicle of the Horse. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  86. ^ "Gem Twist Alpha xx Z". Horse Telex Pedigree. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  87. ^ "Gem Twist clone introduced to public". Equnews. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  88. ^ Byerley Portraits
  89. ^ Byerley Turk
  90. ^ Byerley Turk Tree
  91. ^ Byerley Turk Line
  92. ^ Byerley Sirelines
  93. ^ Foundation Sire: Jigg
  94. ^ Foundation Sire: Old Partner
  95. ^ Biography: Partner
  96. ^ a b Foundation Sires: P
  97. ^ Foundation Sire: Sedbury
  98. ^ Biography: Sedbury
  99. ^ Studbook: Early B
  100. ^ Foundation Sire: Tartar
  101. ^ Biography: Tartar
  102. ^ Foundation Sire: Old Traveller
  103. ^ Biography: Traveller
  104. ^ The Life and Times of Figure
  105. ^ Foundation Sire: Basto
  106. ^ Biography: Basto
  107. ^ Foundation Sire: Soreheels


  • The Byerley Turk by Jeremy James, publ. Merlin Unwin Books, ISBN 978-1-873674-98-7 is a fictionalized account of the life of the Byerley Turk. It describes the Battle of Vienna and the Battle of Buda (1686), with a Turkish perspective.
  • Whyte, James Christie (1840). History of the British turf, from the earliest period to the present day, Volume I. London: H. Colburn. OL 6544990M.
  • The Horse as a Cultural Icon: The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World edited by Peter Edwards, Karl A E Enenkel and Elspeth Graham, publ. BRILL 14 Oct 2011. The chapter by Richard Nash Beware a Bastard Breed - Notes Towards a Revisionist History Of The Thoroughbred Racehorse details Nash's research into the origins of the Byerley Turk.

External links[edit]