C++20

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C++20 is the name for the revision of the ISO/IEC standard for the C++ programming language following C++17.[1] The standard was technically finalized[2] by WG21 at the meeting in Prague in February 2020,[3] approved on 4 September 2020,[4][5] and published by ISO in December 2020.[6]

History[edit]

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in July 2017 (Toronto) include:[7]

  • concepts (what made it into the standard is a cut-down version; also described as "Concepts Lite"[8])
  • designated initializers
  • [=, this] as a lambda capture
  • template parameter lists on lambdas
  • std::make_shared and std::allocate_shared for arrays

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in the fall meeting in November 2017 (Albuquerque) include:[9][10]

  • three-way comparison using the "spaceship operator", operator <=>
  • initialization of an additional variable within a range-based for statement
  • lambdas in unevaluated contexts
  • default constructible and assignable stateless lambdas
  • allow pack expansions in lambda init-capture
  • string literals as template parameters
  • atomic smart pointers (such as std::atomic<shared_ptr<T>> and std::atomic<weak_ptr<T>>)
  • std::to_address to convert a pointer to a raw pointer

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in March 2018 (Jacksonville) include:[11]

  • removing the need for typename in certain circumstances
  • new standard attributes [[no_unique_address]], [[likely]] and [[unlikely]]
  • calendar and time-zone additions to <chrono>
  • std::span, providing a view to a contiguous array (analogous to std::string_view but span can mutate the referenced sequence)
  • <version> header

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in the summer meeting in June 2018 (Rapperswil) include:[12]

  • contracts (later deferred to a later standard)[13]
  • feature test macros
  • bit-casting of object representations, with less verbosity than memcpy() and more ability to exploit compiler internals
  • conditional explicit, allowing the explicit modifier to be contingent on a boolean expression
  • constexpr virtual functions

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in the fall meeting in November 2018 (San Diego) include:

  • ranges (The One Ranges Proposal)
  • concept terse syntax
  • constexpr union, try and catch, dynamic_cast, typeid and std::pointer_traits.
  • various constexpr library bits
  • immediate functions using the new consteval keyword
  • signed integers are now defined to be represented using two's complement (signed integer overflow remains undefined behavior)
  • refinements of the contracts facility (access control in contract conditions)[14] (see list of features deferred to a later standard)
  • a revised memory model
  • Smart pointer creation with default initialization

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in the winter meeting in February 2019 (Kona) include:[15][16]

  • coroutines
  • modules
  • various improvements to structured bindings (interaction with lambda captures, static and thread_local storage duration)

Changes applied to the C++20 working draft in the summer meeting in July 2019 (Cologne) include:[17][18][19]

  • contracts were removed (see list of features deferred to a later standard)[20]
  • use of comma operator in subscript expressions has been deprecated[21]
  • constexpr additions (trivial default initialization,[22] unevaluated inline-assembly[23])
  • using scoped enums[24]
  • various changes to the spaceship operator[25][26]
  • DR: minor changes to modules[27]
  • constinit keyword
  • changes to concepts (removal of -> Type return-type-requirements[28])
  • (most of) volatile has been deprecated[29]
  • DR: [[nodiscard]] effects on constructors[30]
  • The new standard library concepts will not use PascalCase (rather standard_case, as the rest of the standard library)[31]
  • text formatting[32][33] (chrono integration,[34] corner case fixes[35])
  • bit operations[36]
  • constexpr INVOKE[37]
  • math constants[38]
  • consistency additions to atomics (std::atomic_ref<T>,[39] std::atomic<std::shared_ptr<T>>[40])
  • add the <=> operator to the standard library[41]
  • header units for the standard library[42]
  • synchronization facilities[43] (merged from: Efficient atomic waiting and semaphores,[44] latches and barriers,[45] Improving atomic_flag,[46] Don't Make C++ Unimplementable On Small CPUs[47])
  • std::source_location[48]
  • constexpr containers (std::string,[49] std::vector[50])
  • std::stop_token and joining thread (std::jthread)[51]

Changes applied during the NB comment resolution in the fall meeting in November 2019 (Belfast) include:[52][53][54]

  • Class Types in Non-Type Template Parameters (NTTP): The restriction of no user-defined operator== allowed has been removed as the meaning of template argument equality has been divorced from operator==.[55] This allows also for array members in class-type NTTP.
  • Floating-point types,[56] pointers and references and unions and union-like classes (class types containing anonymous unions) are now allowed as NTTP.
  • Function identity now also includes trailing requires-clauses (P1971)
  • Constrained non-template functions have been removed
  • <compare> is now available in freestanding implementations[57]
  • std::spans typedef was changed from index_type to size_type to be consistent with the rest of the standard library[58]
  • Concept traits have been renamed to follow the renaming of the concepts as a result from the Cologne meeting
  • Several fixes and additions to ranges (P1456R1: Move-only views,[59] P1391R4: Range constructor for std::string_view (constructor from iterator-pair of characters),[60] P1394R4: Range constructor for std::span<ref>,[61] P1870R1: forwarding-range<T> is too subtle[62])
  • Initialization for std::atomic<T> has been changed to make it work with default and list initialization,[63] std::latch and std::barrier can now report the maximum number of threads that the implementation supports through the new member function max()
  • std::weak_equality and std::strong_equality have been removed as they are not used anymore
  • Algorithms in <numeric> have been made constexpr
  • Missing feature-test macros for new or changed features of C++20 have been added[64]

Features[edit]

C++20 adds more new major features than C++14 or C++17.[65] Changes that have been accepted into or have been discussed for inclusion into C++20 include:[66]

Language[edit]

  • concepts,[67] with terse syntax[68]
  • modules[69]
  • designated initializers[70] (based on the C99 feature, and common G++ extension)
  • [=, this] as a lambda capture[71]
  • template parameter lists on lambdas[72]
  • three-way comparison using the "spaceship operator", operator <=>
  • initialization of an additional variable within a range-based for statement[73]
  • lambdas in unevaluated contexts[74][75]
  • default constructible and assignable stateless lambdas[74][76]
  • allow pack expansions in lambda init-capture[74][77]
  • string literals as template parameters[74][78]
  • removing the need for typename in certain circumstances[79]
  • new standard attributes [[no_unique_address]],[80] [[likely]] and [[unlikely]][81]
  • conditional explicit, allowing the explicit modifier to be contingent on a boolean expression[82]
  • expanded constexpr: virtual functions,[83] union,[84] try and catch,[85] dynamic_cast and typeid,[86] std::pointer_traits[87]
  • immediate functions using the new consteval keyword[88]
  • signed integers are now defined to be represented using two's complement (signed integer overflow remains undefined behavior)[89]
  • a revised memory model[90]
  • various improvements to structured bindings (interaction with lambda captures, static and thread_local storage duration)[91][92]
  • coroutines[93]
  • using on scoped enums[24]
  • constinit keyword[94]

Library[edit]

  • ranges (The One Ranges Proposal)[95]
  • std::make_shared and std::allocate_shared for arrays[96]
  • atomic smart pointers (such as std::atomic<shared_ptr<T>> and std::atomic<weak_ptr<T>>)[97]
  • std::to_address to convert a pointer to a raw pointer[98]
  • calendar and time-zone additions to <chrono>[99]
  • std::span, providing a view to a contiguous array (analogous to std::string_view but span can mutate the referenced sequence)[100]
  • std::erase and std::erase_if, simplifying element erasure for most standard containers[101]
  • <version> header[102]
  • std::bit_cast<> for type casting of object representations, with less verbosity than memcpy() and more ability to exploit compiler internals[103]
  • feature test macros[104]
  • various constexpr library bits[105]
  • smart pointer creation with default initialization[106]
  • std::map::contains method[107]
  • bit operations, such as leading/trailing zero/one count,[36] and log2 operations[108][109][110]
  • std::bind_front[111]

New and changed keywords[edit]

Many new keywords added (and the new "spaceship operator", operator <=>), such as concept, constinit,[94] consteval, co_await, co_return, co_yield, requires (plus changed meaning for export), and char8_t.[112] And explicit can take an expression since C++20.[113] Most of the uses of the volatile keyword have been deprecated.[29]

In addition to keywords, there are identifiers with special meaning, including new import and module.

New attributes in C++20: [[likely]], [[unlikely]], and [[no_unique_address]][114]

Published as Technical Specifications[edit]

Deferred to a later standard[edit]

  • Contracts – a new study group (SG21) has been formed to work on a new proposal[119]
  • Reflection[120][121]
  • Metaclasses[122]
  • Executors[123]
  • Networking extensions,[124][125] including async, basic I/O services, timers, buffers and buffer-oriented streams, sockets, and Internet protocols (blocked by executors)
  • Properties[126]
  • Extended futures[127]

Removed features and deprecation[edit]

C++20 also removed some features.[128]

  • The C-derived headers <ccomplex>, <ciso646>, <cstdalign>, <cstdbool> and <ctgmath> were removed, as they serve no purpose in C++. (The corresponding <*.h> headers remain, for compatibility with C.)
  • The use of throw() as an exception specification was removed.
  • Some previously deprecated library features were removed, including std::uncaught_exception, std::raw_storage_iterator, std::is_literal_type, std::is_literal_type_v, std::result_of and std::result_of_t.

Deprecated features include:

  • Use of comma operator in subscript expressions has been deprecated[21]
  • (most of) volatile has been deprecated[29]

Compiler support[edit]

Developers of major compilers have prepared for the final C++20 standard by implementing experimental support for various features from the C++20 drafts.

  • Clang has partial C++20 support that can be enabled with the option -std=c++20 (version 10 and later) or -std=c++2a (version 9 and earlier).[129]
  • EDG eccp started implementing C++20 features in version 5.0 and as of version 6.1 supports most C++20 core language features.[130]
  • GCC added partial, experimental C++20 support in 2017[131] in version 8 through the option -std=c++2a. Like Clang, GCC replaced this option with -std=c++20 in version 10. It also has an option to enable GNU extensions in addition to the experimental C++20 support, -std=gnu++20.[132]
  • Microsoft Visual Studio supports some C++20 features through its std:c++latest option. An option /std:c++20 to enable C++20 mode is expected as soon as the compiler is C++20 feature complete.[133]

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External links[edit]

  • JTC1/SC22/WG21 – the ISO/IEC C++ Standard Working Group (a.k.a. the C++ Standards Committee)
  • Ranges (range-v3) github repository, by Eric Niebler