C♯ (musical note)

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C (C-sharp) is a musical note lying a chromatic semitone above C and a diatonic semitone below D. C-sharp is thus enharmonic to D. It is the second semitone in the French solfège and is known there as do dièse. In some European notations, it is known as Cis. In equal temperament it is also enharmonic with Bdouble sharp (Hisis).

When calculated in equal temperament with a reference of A above middle C as 440 Hz, the frequency of C4 (the C above middle C) is about 277.18 Hz. See pitch (music) for a discussion of historical variations in frequency.

Designation by octave[edit]

Scientific designation Helmholtz designation Bilinear music notation Octave name Frequency (Hz)
C-1 C͵͵͵ or ͵͵͵C or CCCC (-uC) Subsubcontra 8.662
C0 C͵͵ or ͵͵C or CCC (-vC) Subcontra 17.324
C1 C͵ or ͵C or CC (-wC) Contra 34.648
C2 C (-xC) Great 69.296
C3 c (-yC) Small 138.591
C4 c (zC) One-lined 277.183
C5 c′′ (yC) Two-lined 554.365
C6 c′′′ (xC) Three-lined 1108.731
C7 c′′′′ (wC) Four-lined 2217.461
C8 c′′′′′ (vC) Five-lined 4434.922
C9 c′′′′′′ (uC) Six-lined 8869.844
C10 c′′′′′′′ (tC) Seven-lined 17739.688


Common scales beginning on C[edit]

  • C Major: C D E F G A B C
  • C Natural Minor: C D E F G A B C
  • C Harmonic Minor: C D E F G A B C
  • C Melodic Minor Ascending: C D E F G A B C
  • C Melodic Minor Descending: C B A G F E D C

Diatonic scales[edit]

  • C Ionian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Dorian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Phrygian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Lydian: C D E Fdouble sharp G A B C
  • C Mixolydian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Aeolian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Locrian: C D E F G A B C

Jazz Melodic Minor[edit]

See also[edit]