Inserting blasting caps into blocks of C-4 explosive
|Type||High-yield chemical explosive|
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Used by||United States|
War on Terror
|Mass||1.25 lb (0.57 kg)|
|Length||11 in (28 cm)|
|Width||2 in (5.1 cm)|
|Height||1.5 in (3.8 cm)|
|PETN-based detonating cord|
C-4 or Composition C-4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as Composition C. A similar British plastic explosive, based on RDX but with different plasticizer than Composition C-4, is known as PE-4 (Plastic Explosive No. 4). C-4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical.
Characteristics and uses
The Composition C-4 used by the United States Armed Forces contains 91% RDX ("Research Department Explosive", an explosive nitroamine), bound by a mixture of 5.3% dioctyl sebacate (DOS) or dioctyl adipate (DOA) as the plasticizer (to increase the plasticity of the explosive), thickened with 2.1% polyisobutylene (PIB, a synthetic rubber) as the binder, and 1.6% of a mineral oil often called "process oil." Instead of "process oil," low-viscosity motor oil is used in the manufacture of C-4 for civilian use.
The British PE4 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% pentaerythrite dioleate and 11.0% DG-29 lithium grease (corresp. to 2.2% lithium stearate and 8.8% paraffin oil BP) as the binder; a taggant (2,3-dinitro-2,3-dimethylbutane, DMNB) is added at a minimum of 0.10% weight of the plastic explosive, typically at 1.0% mass. The newer PE7 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 11.0% of a binder composed of low molecular mass hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, along with an antioxidant and an agent preventing hardening of the binder upon prolonged storage. The PE8 consists of 86.5% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 12.5% of a binder composed of di(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate thickened with high molecular mass polyisobutylene.
|Theoretical maximum density of the mixture, grams per cubic centimeter||1.75|
|Nominal density, grams per cubic centimeter||1.72658|
|Heat of formation, calories per gram||−32.9 to −33.33|
|Max heat of detonation with liquid water, kilocalories per gram||1.59 (6.7 MJ/kg)|
|Max heat of detonation with gaseous water, kilocalories per gram||1.40 (5.9 MJ/kg)|
|Remains plastic with no exudation, Celsius||−57 to +77|
|Detonation pressure with density of 1.58 grams per cubic centimeter, kilobars||257|
C-4 is manufactured by combining the above ingredients with binder dissolved in a solvent. Once the ingredients have been mixed, the solvent is extracted through drying and filtering. The final material is a solid with a dirty white to light brown color, a putty-like texture similar to modeling clay, and a distinct smell of motor oil.
Depending on its intended usage and on the manufacturer, there are differences in the composition of C-4. For example, a 1990 U.S. Army technical manual stipulated that Class IV composition C-4 consists of 89.9±1% RDX, 10±1% polyisobutylene, and 0.2±0.02% dye that is itself made up of 90% lead chromate and 10% lamp black. RDX classes A, B, E, and H are all suitable for use in C-4. Classes are measured by granulation.
The manufacturing process for Composition C-4 specifies that wet RDX and plastic binder are added in a stainless steel mixing kettle. This is called the aqueous slurry-coating process. The kettle is tumbled to obtain a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is wet and must be dried after transfer to drying trays. Drying with forced air for 16 hours at 50 °C to 60 °C is recommended to eliminate excess moisture.:198
C-4 is very stable and insensitive to most physical shocks. C-4 cannot be detonated by a gunshot or by dropping it onto a hard surface. It does not explode when set on fire or exposed to microwave radiation. Detonation can only be initiated by a shockwave, such as when a detonator inserted into it is fired. When detonated, C-4 rapidly decomposes to release nitrogen, water and carbon oxides as well as other gases. The detonation proceeds at an explosive velocity of 8,092 m/s (26,550 ft/s).
C4 has high cutting ability. For example, the complete severing of a 14WF426 beam (heavy wide flange beam/column with cross sectional area of 808 sq cm, used in major buildings) takes between 5.3 and 6 kg of C4 when properly applied in thin sheets.
Military grade C-4 is commonly packaged as the M112 demolition block. The demolition charge M112 is a rectangular block of Composition C-4 approximately 2 inches by 1.5 inches and 11 inches long, weighing 1.25 lb (0.57 kg). The M112 is wrapped in a sometimes olive color Mylar-film container with a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape on one surface.
The M112 demolition blocks of C-4 are commonly manufactured into the M183 "demolition charge assembly", which consists of 16 M112 block demolition charges and four priming assemblies packaged inside military Carrying Case M85. The M183 is used to breach obstacles or demolish large structures where larger satchel charges are required. Each priming assembly includes a five- or twenty-foot length of detonating cord assembled with detonating cord clips and capped at each end with a booster. When the charge is detonated, the explosive is converted into compressed gas. The gas exerts pressure in the form of a shock wave, which demolishes the target by cutting, breaching, or cratering.
Composition C-4 exists in the US Army Hazardous Components Safety Data Sheet on sheet number 00077.:323
Impact tests done by the US military indicate composition C-4 is less sensitive than composition C-3 and is fairly insensitive. The insensitivity is attributed to using a large amount of binder in its composition. A series of shots were fired at vials containing C-4 in a test referred to as "the rifle bullet test". Only 20 percent of the vials burned, and none exploded. While C-4 passed the Army's bullet impact and fragment impact tests at ambient temperature, it did in fact fail the shock stimulus, sympathetic detonation and shaped charge jet tests.
Additional tests were done including the "pendulum friction test", which measured a five-second explosion temperature of 263 °C to 290 °C. The minimum initiating charge required is 0.2 grams of lead azide or 0.1 grams of tetryl.
The results of 100 °C heat test are: 0.13 percent loss in the first 48 hours, no loss in the second 48 hours, and no explosions in 100 hours. The vacuum stability test at 100 °C yields 0.2 cubic centimeters of gas in 40 hours. Composition C-4 is essentially nonhygroscopic.
The shock sensitivity of C-4 is related to the size of the nitramine particles. The finer they are the better they help to absorb and suppress shock. Using 3-nitrotriazol-5-one (NTO), or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) (available in two particle sizes (5 µm, 40 µm)), as a substitute for RDX, is also able to improve stability to thermal, shock, and impact/friction stimulus; however, TATB is not cost-effective, and NTO is more difficult to use in the manufacturing process.
|Impact test with 2 kilogram weight / PA APP (% TNT)||>100|
|Impact test with 2 kilogram weight / BM APP (% TNT)||N/A|
|Pendulum friction test, percent explosions||0|
|Rifle bullet test, percent explosions||20|
|Explosion temperature test, Celsius||263 to 290|
|Minimum detonating charge, gram of lead azide||0.2|
|Brisance measured by Sand test (% TNT)||116|
|Brisance measured by plate dent test||115 to 130|
|Rate of detonation at density||1.59|
|Rate of detonation meters per second||8000|
|Ballistic pendulum test percent||130|
C-4 produced for use by the U.S. military, commercial C-4 (also produced in the United States), and C-4 (otherwise known as PE-4) from England each have their own unique properties and are not identical. The analytical techniques of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been demonstrated to discriminate finite differences in different C-4 sources. Chemical, morphological structural differences, and variation in atomic concentrations are detectable and definable.
C-4 has toxic effects on humans when ingested. Within a few hours multiple generalized seizures, vomiting, and changes in mental activity occur. A strong link to central nervous dysfunction is observed. If ingested, patients may be administered a dose of active charcoal to absorb some of the toxins, and haloperidol intramuscularly and diazepam intravenously to help the patient control seizures until it has passed. However, ingesting small amounts of C-4 is not known to cause any long-term impairment.
A variety of methods for explosive residue analysis may be used to identify C-4. These include optical microscope examination and scanning electron microscopy for unreacted explosive, chemical spot tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy for products of the explosive chemical reaction. Small particles of C-4 may be easily identified by mixing with thymol crystals and a few drops of sulfuric acid. The mixture will become rose colored upon addition of a small quantity of ethyl alcohol.
RDX has a high birefringence, and the other components commonly found in C-4 are generally isotropic; this makes it possible for forensic science teams to detect trace residue on fingertips of individuals who may have recently been in contact with the compound. However, positive results are highly variable and the mass of RDX can range between 1.7 and 130 ng, each analysis must be individually handled using magnifying equipment. The cross polarized light images obtained from microscopic analysis of the fingerprint are analyzed with gray-scale thresholding to improve contrast for the particles. The contrast is then inverted in order to show dark RDX particles against a light background. Relative numbers and positions of RDX particles have been measured from a series of 50 fingerprints left after a single contact impression.
Military and commercial C-4 are blended with different oils. It is possible to distinguish these sources by analyzing this oil by high-temperature gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The oil and plasticizer must be separated from the C-4 sample, typically by using a non-polar organic solvent such as pentane followed by solid phase extraction of the plasticizer on silica. This method of analysis is limited by manufacturing variation and methods of distribution.
C-4 is a member of the Composition C family of chemical explosives. Variants have different proportions and plasticisers and include composition C-2, composition C-3, and composition C-4. The original RDX based material was developed by the British during World War II, and redeveloped as Composition C when introduced to US military service. It was replaced by Composition C-2 around 1943, and later redeveloped around 1944 as Composition C-3. The toxicity of C-3 was reduced, the concentration of RDX was increased, it improved safety of usage and storage. Research on a replacement for C-3 was begun prior to 1950, but the new material, C-4, did not begin pilot production until 1956.:125 C-4, was submitted for patent as "Solid Propellant and a Process for its Preparation" March 31, 1958 by the Phillips Petroleum Company.
U.S. soldiers during the Vietnam War era would sometimes use small amounts of C-4 as a fuel for heating rations, as it will burn unless detonated with a primary explosive. However, burning C-4 produces poisonous fumes, and soldiers are warned of the dangers of personal injury when using the plastic explosive.
Among field troops in Vietnam it became common knowledge that ingestion of a small amount of C-4 would produce a "high" similar to that of ethanol. Others would ingest C-4, commonly obtained from a Claymore mine, to induce temporary illness in the hope of being sent on sick leave.
Use in terrorism
Composition C-4 is recommended in al-Qaeda’s traditional curriculum of explosives training. In October 2000, the group used C-4 to attack the USS Cole, killing 17 sailors. In 1996, Saudi Hezbollah terrorists used C-4 to blow up the Khobar Towers, a U.S. military housing complex in Saudi Arabia. Composition C-4 has also been used in improvised explosive devices by Iraqi insurgents.
- Pike, J. "Explosives – Compositions". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Composition C-4 (PDF). Paul Lezica. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Reardon, Michelle R.; Bender, Edward C. (2005). "Differentiation of Composition C4 Based on the Analysis of the Process Oil". Journal of Forensic Sciences. Ammendale, MD: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Forensic Science Laboratory. 50 (3): 1–7. doi:10.1520/JFS2004307. ISSN 0022-1198.
- Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF).
- Harris, Tom. "How C-4 Works". How Stuff Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Introduction to Explosives" (PDF). C4: Characteristics, Properties, and Overview. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF), pp. 8–37–38 (124–125).
- Owens, Jim. "Recent Developments in Composition C-4: Towards an Alternate Binder and Reduced Sensitivity" (PDF). Holston Army Ammunition Plant: BAE Systems OSI. Cite journal requires
- Nagy, Brian. "Grosse Point Blank Microwave C4 Mercury Switch". Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "C4 product page". Ribbands Explosives.
- Nordin, John. "Explosives and Terrorists". The First Responder. AristaTek. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Use of Mine, Antitank: HE, Heavy, M15 as a Substitute for Charge Assembly Demolition, M37 Or M183. Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1971.
- "M112" (PDF). American Ordnance. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- "Military Explosives". ATF Law Enforcement Guide to Explosives Incident Reporting (PDF). Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF), pp. A-13 (323).
- Mahoney, Christine M.; Fahey, Albert J.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Benner, Bruce A.; Lareau, Richard T. (2010). "Characterization of Composition C4 Explosives using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy". Analytical Chemistry. 82 (17): 7237–7248. doi:10.1021/ac101116r. PMID 20698494.
- Stone, William J.; Paletta, Theodore L.; Heiman, Elliott M.; Bruce, John I.; Knepshield, James H. (December 1969). "Toxic Effects Following Ingestion of C4 Plastic Explosive". Arch Intern Med. 124 (6): 726–730. doi:10.1001/archinte.1969.00300220078015.
- Woody, Robert C.; Kearns, Gregory L.; Brewster, Marge A.; Turley, Charles P.; Sharp, Gregory B.; Lake, Robert S. (1986). "The Neurotoxicity of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) in a Child: A Clinical and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation". Clinical Toxicology. 24 (4): 305–319. doi:10.3109/15563658608992595.
- K Fichtner, MD (May 2002). "A plastic explosive by mouth". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. U.S. Army Hospital, Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo. 95 (5): 251–252. doi:10.1258/jrsm.95.5.251. PMC 1279680. PMID 11983768.
C4 contains 90% cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)
- Committee on Marking, Rendering Inert, and Licensing of Explosive Materials; National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications (27 May 1998). Containing the Threat from Illegal Bombings: An Integrated National Strategy for Marking, Tagging, Rendering Inert, and Licensing Explosives and Their Precursors. National Academies Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-309-06126-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Allman, Jr., Robert. "Explosives". chemstone.net. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Brown, Lew. "Thresholding in Imaging Particle Analysis (A four part series)" (PDF). www.particleimaging.com. ParticleImaging.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Verkouteren, Jennifer R.; Coleman, Jessica L.; Cho, Inho (2010). "Automated Mapping of Explosives Particles in Composition C-4 Fingerprints" (PDF). Journal of Forensic Sciences. 55 (2): 334–340. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01272.x.
- Rudolf Meyer; Josef Köhler; Axel Homburg (September 2007). Explosives. Wiley-VCH. p. 63. ISBN 978-3-527-31656-4.
- D, G.E. "US Patent 3,018,203". Google Patents. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Chapter 1: Military Explosives". FM 3–34.214 (FM 5–250) Explosives and Demolitions (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army. 27 August 2008. p. 6.
Composition C4 explosive is poisonous and dangerous if chewed or ingested; its detonation or burning produces poisonous fumes.
- Herr, Michael (1977). Dispatches. Knopf. ISBN 9780679735250.
- Whitaker, Brian (21 August 2003). "Bomb type and tactics point to al-Qaida". The Guardian. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Ashcroft, John (21 June 2001). "Attorney General, on Khobar Towers Indictment" (Press release).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to C-4 explosive.|