Lockheed C-5 Galaxy
|A United States Air Force C-5 in flight|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Lockheed Corporation |
|First flight||30 June 1968|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Produced||C-5A: 1968–1973 |
|Number built||131 (C-5A: 81, C-5B: 50)|
The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a large military transport aircraft originally designed and built by Lockheed, and now maintained and upgraded by its successor, Lockheed Martin. It provides the United States Air Force (USAF) with a heavy intercontinental-range strategic airlift capability, one that can carry outsized and oversized loads, including all air-certifiable cargo. The Galaxy has many similarities to the smaller Lockheed C-141 Starlifter and the later Boeing C-17 Globemaster III. The C-5 is among the largest military aircraft in the world.
The C-5 Galaxy's development was complicated, including significant cost overruns, and Lockheed suffered significant financial difficulties. Shortly after entering service, cracks in the wings of many aircraft were discovered and the C-5 fleet was restricted in capability until corrective work was completed. The C-5M Super Galaxy is an upgraded version with new engines and modernized avionics designed to extend its service life beyond 2040.
The USAF has operated the C-5 since 1969. In that time, the airlifter supported US military operations in all major conflicts including Vietnam, Iraq, Yugoslavia, and Afghanistan, as well as allied support, such as Israel during the Yom Kippur War and operations in the Gulf War. The Galaxy has also been used to distribute humanitarian aid and disaster relief, and supported the US space program.
CX-X and Heavy Logistics System
In 1961, several aircraft companies began studying heavy jet transport designs that would replace the Douglas C-133 Cargomaster and complement Lockheed C-141 Starlifters. In addition to higher overall performance, the United States Army wanted a transport aircraft with a larger cargo bay than the C-141, whose interior was too small to carry a variety of their outsized equipment. These studies led to the "CX-4" design concept, but in 1962, the proposed six-engined design was rejected, because it was not viewed as a significant advance over the C-141. By late 1963, the next conceptual design was named CX-X. It was equipped with four engines, instead of six in the earlier CX-4 concept. The CX-X had a gross weight of 550,000 pounds (249,000 kg), a maximum payload of 180,000 lb (81,600 kg), and a speed of Mach 0.75 (500 mph or 805 km/h). The cargo compartment was 17.2 ft (5.24 m) wide by 13.5 feet (4.11 m) high and 100 ft (30.5 m) long with front and rear access doors. Meeting the power and range specifications with only four engines required a new engine with dramatically improved fuel efficiency.
The criteria were finalized and an official request for proposal was issued in April 1964 for the "Heavy Logistics System" (CX-HLS) (previously CX-X). In May 1964, proposals for aircraft were received from Boeing, Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed, and Martin Marietta. General Electric, Curtiss-Wright, and Pratt & Whitney submitted proposals for the engines. After a downselect, Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed were given one-year study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the designs shared a number of features. The cockpit was placed well above the cargo area to allow for cargo loading through a nose door. The Boeing and Douglas designs used a pod on the top of the fuselage containing the cockpit, while the Lockheed design extended the cockpit profile down the length of the fuselage, giving it an egg-shaped cross section. All of the designs had swept wings, as well as front and rear cargo doors, allowing simultaneous loading and unloading. Lockheed's design featured a T-tail, while the designs by Boeing and Douglas had conventional tails.
The Air Force considered Boeing's design to be better than that of Lockheed, but Lockheed's proposal was the lowest total-cost bid. Lockheed was selected the winner in September 1965, then awarded a contract in December 1965. General Electric's TF39 engine was selected in August 1965 to power the new transport plane. At the time, GE's engine concept was revolutionary, as all engines before had a bypass ratio less than two-to-one, while the TF39 promised and would achieve a ratio of eight-to-one, which had the benefits of increased engine thrust and lower fuel consumption.
The first C-5A Galaxy (serial number 66-8303) was rolled out of the manufacturing plant in Marietta, Georgia, on 2 March 1968. On 30 June 1968, flight testing of the C-5A began with the first flight, flown by Leo Sullivan, with the call sign "eight-three-oh-three heavy". Flight tests revealed that the aircraft exhibited a higher drag divergence Mach number than predicted by wind tunnel data. The maximum lift coefficient measured in flight with the flaps deflected 40° was higher than predicted (2.60 vs. 2.38), but was lower than predicted with the flaps deflected 25° (2.31 vs. 2.38) and with the flaps retracted (1.45 vs. 1.52).
Robert F. Dorr, aviation historian
Aircraft weight was a serious issue during design and development. At the time of the first flight, the weight was below the guaranteed weight, but by the time of the delivery of the 9th aircraft, had exceeded guarantees. In July 1969, during a fuselage upbending test, the wing failed at 128% of limit load, which is below the requirement that it sustain 150% of limit load. Changes were made to the wing, but during a test in July 1970, it failed at 125% of limit load. A passive load-reduction system, involving uprigged ailerons, was incorporated, but the maximum allowable payload was reduced from 220,000 to 190,000 lb (100,000 to 86,000 kg). At the time, a 90% probability was predicted that no more than 10% of the fleet of 79 airframes would reach their fatigue life of 19,000 hours without cracking of the wing.
Cost overruns and technical problems of the C-5A were the subject of a congressional investigation in 1968 and 1969. The C-5 program has the dubious distinction of being the first development program with a $1‑billion (equivalent to $7 billion today) overrun. Due to the C-5's troubled development, the Department of Defense abandoned Total Package Procurement. In 1969, Henry Durham raised concerns about the C-5 production process with Lockheed, his employer. Subsequently, Durham was transferred and subjected to abuse until he resigned. The Government Accountability Office substantiated some of his charges against Lockheed. Later, the American Ethical Union honored Durham with the Elliott-Black Award. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Management Systems, Ernest Fitzgerald, was another person whose fostering of public accountability was unwelcome.
Upon completion of testing in December 1969, the first C-5A was transferred to the Transitional Training Unit at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. Lockheed delivered the first operational Galaxy to the 437th Airlift Wing, Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina, in June 1970. Due to higher than expected development costs, in 1970, public calls were made for the government to split the substantial losses that Lockheed was experiencing. Production was nearly brought to a halt in 1971 due to Lockheed going through financial difficulties, due in part to the C-5 Galaxy's development, as well as a civilian jet liner, the Lockheed L-1011. The U.S. government gave loans to Lockheed to keep the company operational.
In the early 1970s, NASA considered the C-5 for the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft role, to transport the Space Shuttle to Kennedy Space Center. However, they rejected it in favor of the Boeing 747, in part due to the 747's low-wing design. In contrast, the Soviet Union chose to transport its shuttles using the high-winged An-225, which derives from the An-124, which is similar in design and function to the C-5.
During static and fatigue testing, cracks were noticed in the wings of several aircraft, and as a consequence, the C-5A fleet was restricted to 80% of maximum design loads. To reduce wing loading, load alleviation systems were added to the aircraft. By 1980, payloads were restricted to as low as 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) for general cargo during peacetime operations. A $1.5 billion program (equivalent to $6.7 billion today), known as H-Mod, to re-wing the 76 completed C-5As to restore full payload capability and service life began in 1976. After design and testing of the new wing design, the C-5As received their new wings from 1980 to 1987. During 1976, numerous cracks were also found in the fuselage along the upper fuselage on the centerline, aft of the refueling port, extending back to the wing. The cracks required a redesign to the hydraulic system for the visor, the front cargo entry point.
Restarted production and development
In 1974, Iran, then having good relations with the United States, offered $160 million (equivalent to $829 million today) to restart C-5 production to enable Iran to purchase aircraft for their own air force, in a similar climate as to their acquisition of F-14 Tomcat fighters. However, no C-5 aircraft were ever ordered by Iran, and the prospect was firmly halted by the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
As part of President Ronald Reagan's military policy, funding was made available for expansion of the USAF's airlift capability. With the C-17 program still some years from completion, Congress approved funding for a new version of the C-5, the C-5B, in July 1982, to expand airlift capacity. The first C-5B was delivered to Altus Air Force Base in January 1986. In April 1989, the last of 50 C-5B aircraft was added to the 77 C-5As in the Air Force's airlift force structure. The C-5B includes all C-5A improvements and numerous additional system modifications to improve reliability and maintainability.
In 1998, the Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) began upgrading the C-5's avionics to include a glass cockpit, navigation equipment, and a new autopilot system. Another part of the C-5 modernization effort is the Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP). The program replaced the engines with newer, more powerful ones.
A total of 52 C-5s are contracted to be modernized, consisting of 49 B-, two C- and one A-model aircraft through the RERP. The program features over 70 changes and upgrades, including the newer General Electric engines. Three C-5s underwent RERP for testing purposes. Low-rate initial production started in August 2009 with Lockheed reaching full production in May 2011; 22 C-5M Super Galaxies have been completed as of August 2014. RERP upgrades were completed on 25 July 2018. The Air Force received the last modified aircraft on 1 August 2018.
As of 2014[update], Lockheed is investigating drag reduction by plasma-heating of turbulent transonic airflow in critical points, saving overall weight by reducing fuel consumption. The Air Force Research Laboratory is looking at shape-memory alloy for speed-dependent vortex generators.
The C-5 is a large, high-wing cargo aircraft with a distinctive high T-tail fin (vertical) stabilizer, with four TF39 turbofan engines mounted on pylons beneath wings that are swept 25°. (The C-5M uses newer GE CF6 engines.) Similar in layout to its smaller predecessor, the C-141 Starlifter, the C-5 has 12 internal wing tanks and is equipped for aerial refueling. Above the plane-length cargo deck is an upper deck for flight operations and for seating 80 passengers in rear facing seats (unlike most commercial airplanes) and the embarked loadmaster crew in forward facing seats. Bay doors at both nose and tail open to enable "drive-through" loading and unloading of cargo.
The cargo hold of the C-5 is one foot (30 cm) longer than the entire length of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk. For its voracious consumption of fuel and its maintenance and reliability issues the Galaxy's aircrews have nicknamed it "FRED", for Fucking[N 1] Ridiculous, Economic/Environmental Disaster.
Takeoff and landing distance requirements for the plane at maximum-load gross weight are 8,300 ft (2,500 m) and 4,900 ft (1,500 m), respectively. Its high-flotation main landing gear provides 28 wheels to distribute gross weight on paved or earth surfaces. The rear main landing gear can be made to caster to make a smaller turning radius, and rotates 90° after takeoff before being retracted. "Kneeling" landing gear permits lowering the aircraft when parked, thereby presenting the cargo deck at truck-bed height to facilitate loading and unloading operations.
The C-5 features a malfunction detection analysis and recording system to identify errors throughout the aircraft. The cargo compartment is 121 ft (37 m) long, 13.5 ft (4.1 m) high, and 19 ft (5.8 m) wide, or just over 31,000 cu ft (880 m3). It can accommodate up to 36 463L master pallets or a mix of palletized cargo and vehicles. The nose and aft cargo-bay doors open the full width and height of the cargo bay to maximize efficient loading of oversized equipment. Full-width ramps enable loading double rows of vehicles from either end of the cargo hold.
The C-5 Galaxy is capable of moving nearly every type of military combat equipment, including such bulky items as the Army armored vehicle launched bridge, at 74 short tons (67 t), from the United States to any location on the globe; and of accommodating up to six Boeing AH-64 Apache helicopters or five Bradley Fighting Vehicles at one time.
The first C-5A was delivered to the USAF on 17 December 1969. Wings were built up in the early 1970s at Altus AFB, Oklahoma; Charleston AFB, South Carolina; Dover AFB, Delaware; and Travis AFB, California. The C-5's first mission was on 9 July 1970, in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. C-5s were used to transport equipment and troops, including Army tanks and even some small aircraft, throughout the later years of the US action in Vietnam. In the final weeks of the war, prior to the Fall of Saigon, several C-5s were involved in evacuation efforts. During one such mission, a C-5A crashed while transporting a large number of orphans, with over 140 killed.
C-5s have also been used to deliver support and reinforce various US allies over the years. During the Yom Kippur War in 1973, multiple C-5s and C-141 Starlifters delivered critical supplies of ammunition, replacement weaponry and other forms of aid to Israel, the US effort was named as Operation Nickel Grass. The C-5 Galaxy's performance in Israel was such that the Pentagon began to consider further purchases. The C-5 was regularly made available to support American allies, such as the British-led peacekeeper initiative in Zimbabwe in 1979.
On 24 October 1974, the Space and Missile Systems Organization successfully conducted an air-launched ballistic missile test, where a C-5A Galaxy aircraft air dropped an 86,000-pound (39,000 kg) Minuteman ICBM from 20,000 feet (6,100 m) over the Pacific Ocean. The missile descended to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) before its rocket engine fired. The 10-second engine burn carried the missile to 20,000 feet (6,100 m) again before it dropped into the ocean. The test proved the feasibility of launching an intercontinental ballistic missile from the air. Operational deployment was discarded due to engineering and security difficulties, though the capability was used as a negotiating point in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Aircraft 69–0014, "Zero-One-Four" used in the test was retired to the Air Mobility Command Museum at Dover Air Force Base.
The C-5 has been used for several unusual functions. During the development of the secretive stealth fighter, the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, Galaxies were often used to carry partly disassembled aircraft, leaving no exterior signs as to their cargo. The C-5 remains the largest aircraft to operate in the Antarctic, capable of operating from Williams Field near McMurdo Station. The C-5 Galaxy was a major supply asset in the international coalition operations in 1990–91 against Iraq in the Gulf War. C-5s have routinely delivered relief aid and humanitarian supplies to areas afflicted with natural disasters or crisis; multiple flights were made over Rwanda in 1994. The C-5 is also used to transport Marine One.
The wings on the C-5As were replaced during the 1980s to restore full design capability. The USAF took delivery of the first C-5B on 28 December 1985 and the final one in April 1989. The reliability of the C-5 fleet has been a continued issue throughout its lifetime, however the C-5M upgrade program seeks in part to address this issue. Their strategic airlift capacity has been a key logistical component of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Following an incident during Operation Iraqi Freedom where one C-5 was damaged by a projectile, the installation of defensive systems has become a stated priority.
The C-5 AMP and RERP modernization programs plan to raise mission-capable rate to a minimum goal of 75%. Over the next 40 years, the U.S. Air Force estimates the C-5M will save over $20 billion. The first C-5M conversion was completed on 16 May 2006 and C-5Ms began test flights at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in June 2006. In 2008, the USAF decided to convert remaining C-5Bs and C-5Cs into C-5Ms with avionics upgrades and re-engining. The C-5As will receive only the avionics upgrades. The last of 52 C-5Ms was delivered to Air Mobility Command in August 2018.
In response to Air Force plans to retire older C-5 aircraft, Congress implemented legislation that set limits on retirement plans for C-5As in 2003. As of November 2013, 45 C-5As have been retired, 11 have been scrapped, parts of one (A/C 66-8306) are now a cargo load trainer at Lackland AFB, Texas and one was sent to the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) for tear down and inspection to evaluate structural integrity and estimate the remaining life for the fleet.
The U.S. Air Force began to receive refitted C-5M aircraft in December 2008. Full production of C-5Ms began in the summer of 2009. In 2009, the Congressional ban on the retirement of C-5s was overturned. The Air Force seeks to retire one C-5A for every 10 new C-17s ordered. In October 2011, the 445th Airlift Wing based at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base replaced all remaining C-5s with C-17s. The C-5M reached initial operating capability (IOC) on 24 February 2014 with 16 aircraft delivered.
On 13 September 2009, a C-5M set 41 new records and flight data was submitted to the National Aeronautic Association for formal recognition. The C-5M had carried a payload of 176,610 lb (80,110 kg) to over 41,100 ft (12,500 m) in 23 minutes, 59 seconds. Additionally, 33 time to climb records at various payload classes were set, and the world record for greatest payload to 6,562 ft (2,000 m) was broken. The aircraft was in the category of 551,200 to 661,400 lb (250,000 to 300,000 kg) with a takeoff weight of 649,680 lb (294,690 kg) including payload, fuel, and other equipment.
On 18 July 2017, C-5s based at Dover were ordered to stand down so maintenance crews could determine the cause for some nose landing gear failing.
The C-5A is the original version of the C-5. From 1969 to 1973, 81 C-5As were delivered to the Military Airlift Command of the U.S. Air Force. Due to cracks found in the wings in the mid-1970s, the cargo weight was restricted. To restore the C-5's full capability, the wing structure was redesigned. A program to install new strengthened wings on 77 C-5As was conducted from 1981 to 1987. The redesigned wing made use of a new aluminum alloy that did not exist during the original production. As of August 2016, there were 10 A-models in service flown by the Air Force Reserve Command's 433d Airlift Wing at Lackland AFB / Kelly Field, Texas, and 439th Airlift Wing at Westover ARB, Massachusetts. The last operational C-5A was retired on 7 September 2017.
The C-5B is an improved version of the C-5A. It incorporated all modifications and improvements made to the C-5A with improved wings, simplified landing gear, upgraded TF-39-GE-1C turbofan engines and updated avionics. 50 examples of the new variant were delivered to the U.S. Air Force from 1986 to 1989.
The C-5C is a specially modified variant for transporting large cargo. Two C-5s (68-0213 and 68-0216) were modified to have a larger internal cargo capacity to accommodate large payloads, such as satellites. The major modifications were the removal of the rear passenger compartment floor, splitting the rear cargo door in the middle, and installing a new movable aft bulkhead further to the rear. The official C-5 technical manual refers to the version as C-5A(SCM) Space Cargo Modified. Modifications also included adding a second inlet for ground power, which can feed any power-dependent equipment that may form part of the cargo. The two C-5Cs are operated by U.S. Air Force crews for DOD spacecraft programs and NASA, and are stationed at Travis AFB, California. Both C-5Cs #68-0213 and #68-0216 have been modified into C-5Ms as of 2017.
C-5 AMP and C-5M Super Galaxy
Following a study showing 80% of the C-5 airframe service life remaining, Air Mobility Command (AMC) began an aggressive program to modernize all remaining C-5Bs and C-5Cs and many of the C-5As. The C-5 Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) began in 1998 and includes upgrading avionics to Global Air Traffic Management compliance, improving communications, new flat panel displays, improving navigation and safety equipment, and installing a new autopilot system. The first flight of a C-5 with AMP (85-0004) occurred on 21 December 2002.
The Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP) began in 2006. It includes new General Electric F138-GE-100 (CF6-80C2) engines, pylons and auxiliary power units, upgrades to aircraft skin and frame, landing gear, cockpit and pressurization systems. Each CF6 engine produces 22% more thrust (50,000 lbf or 220 kN), providing a 30% shorter takeoff, a 38% higher climb rate to initial altitude, an increased cargo load and a longer range.[specify] Upgraded C-5s are designated C-5M Super Galaxy.
Lockheed also planned a civilian version of the C-5 Galaxy, the L-500, the company designation also used for the C-5 itself. Both passenger and cargo versions of the L-500 were designed. The all-passenger version would have been able to carry up to 1,000 travelers, while the all-cargo version was predicted to be able to carry typical C-5 volume for as little as 2 cents per ton-mile (in 1967 dollars). Although some interest was expressed by carriers, no orders were placed for either L-500 version, due to operational costs caused by low fuel efficiency, a significant concern for a profit-making carrier, even before the oil crisis of the 1970s, keen competition from Boeing's 747, and high costs incurred by Lockheed in developing the C-5 and later, the L-1011 which led to the governmental rescue of the company.
C-5 Shuttle Carrier
- 22nd Airlift Squadron, 1972–present
- 9th Airlift Squadron, 1971–present
- 312th Airlift Squadron, 1973–present
- 337th Airlift Squadron, 1987–present
- 709th Airlift Squadron, 1973–present
- 60th Military Airlift Wing/Air Mobility Wing – Travis Air Force Base, California
- 21st Airlift Squadron, 1993–2006
- 75th Military Airlift Squadron, 1970–1992
- 436th Military Airlift Wing/Airlift Wing – Dover Air Force Base, Delaware
- 3d Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 1973–2007
- 31st Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 1989–1994
- 437th Military Airlift Wing – Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina
- 3d Military Airlift Squadron, 1970–1973
- 443d Military Airlift Wing – Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma
- 56th Military Airlift Squadron, 1969–1992
- 97th Air Mobility Wing – Altus AFB, Oklahoma
- 56th Military Airlift/56th Airlift Squadron, 1992–2007
- 349th Military Airlift Wing/Air Mobility Wing (Associate) – Travis Air Force Base, California
- 301st Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 1973–2006
- 89th Airlift Squadron, 2006–2012
- 512th Military Airlift Wing/Airlift Wing(Associate) – Dover Air Force Base, Delaware
- 326th Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 1973–2007
- 137th Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 1985–2012
- 164th Military Airlift Wing/Airlift Wing – Memphis, Tennessee
- 155th Military Airlift Squadron/Airlift Squadron, 2004–2013
- 167th Military Airlift/167th Airlift Squadron, 2006–2015
Incidents and accidents
Three C-5 Galaxy aircraft have been lost in crashes along with two class-A losses resulting from ground fire, with a combined total of 169 fatalities. At least two other C-5 crashes have resulted in major airframe damage, but the aircraft were repaired and returned to service.
- On 27 May 1970, C-5A AF Serial No. 67-0172 was destroyed during a ground fire at Palmdale, California after an Air Turbine Motor (ATM) started backwards and quickly overheated, setting the hydraulic system on fire and consuming the aircraft. The engines were not running at the time of the fire. Five crew escaped, and seven firefighters suffered minor injuries fighting the blaze.
- On 17 October 1970, C-5A AF Serial No. 66-8303 was destroyed during a ground fire at the Lockheed Aircraft plant at Dobbins AFB in Marietta, Georgia. The fire started during maintenance in one of the aircraft's 12 fuel cells. One worker was killed and another injured. This was the first C-5 aircraft produced.
- On 27 September 1974, C-5A Serial No. 68-0227 crashed after over-running the runway at Clinton, Oklahoma Municipal Airport during an emergency landing following a serious landing gear fire. The crew mistakenly aligned the aircraft for the visual approach into the wrong airport, landing at Clinton Municipal Airport, which has a 4,400 ft (1,300 m) runway—instead of the airfield at Clinton-Sherman Industrial Airpark (former Clinton-Sherman Air Force Base), which has a 13,500 ft (4,100 m) runway. This was the first operational loss of a C-5 Galaxy.
- On 4 April 1975, C-5A Serial No.68-0218 crashed while carrying orphans out of Vietnam during Operation Babylift. This accident is one of the most notorious C-5 accidents to date. The crash occurred while trying to make an emergency landing at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, Saigon, following a rear pressure door lock failure in flight. 144 people (including 78 children) were killed out of the 313 aboard (243 children, 44 escorts, 16 flight crew and 10 medical crew). Use of the C-5 was heavily restricted for several months following this high-profile accident.
- On 31 July 1983, C-5A Serial No. 70-0446 crashed on landing at Shemya, Alaska. The C-5 approached below the glide slope in heavy fog, hit landing light poles and an embankment short of the runway and stopped at the 5,000 foot mark on the runway with the nose gear at the side of the runway embankment. Structural damage was extensive and the two aft main landing gear bogies were sheared from the aircraft. There were no fatalities. A joint USAF–Lockheed team made repairs, enabling a ferry flight from Shemya to the Lockheed plant in Marietta, Georgia later that year. There, the aircraft was dubbed Phoenix II and permanent repair efforts got under way. In addition to the structural repairs, the aircraft also received an improved landing gear system (common to the then-new C-5B), wing modification, and a color weather radar upgrade. The aircraft was returned to service.
- In July 1983, C-5A Serial No. 68-0216 landed gear up at Travis Air Force Base, California. There were no injuries. The accident occurred while the crew was performing touch-and-go landings, and did not lower the landing gear during the final approach of the day. The aircraft received significant damage to the lower fuselage, ramp, and clamshell doors, and main landing gear pods. The C-5A was later flown to Marietta for repairs. While there, the aircraft was selected to be the first C-5A converted to the C-5C configuration.
- On 30 December 1988, a C-5A caught fire after landing during a training mission at Travis Air Force Base. None of the crew were seriously injured.[importance?]
- On 29 August 1990, C-5A Serial No. 68-0228 crashed following an engine failure shortly after take-off. The aircraft took off from Ramstein Air Base in Germany in support of Operation Desert Shield. It was flown by a nine-member reserve crew from the 68th Airlift Squadron, 433d Airlift Wing based at Kelly AFB, Texas. As the aircraft started to climb off the runway, one of the thrust reversers suddenly deployed. This resulted in loss of control of the aircraft and the subsequent crash. Of the 17 people on board, only four survived the crash. All four were in the rear troop compartment. The sole crew member to survive, Staff Sgt. Lorenzo Galvan, Jr., was awarded the Airman's Medal for his actions in evacuating the survivors from the wreckage.
- On 3 April 2006, C-5B Serial No. 84-0059 crashed following a cockpit indication that the thrust reverser on No.2 engine was not locked. The crew shut down No.2 engine as a safeguard. The C-5B assigned to the 436th Airlift Wing and flown by a reserve crew from the 709th Airlift Squadron, 512th Airlift Wing crashed about 2,000 ft (610 m) short of the runway while attempting a heavyweight emergency landing at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The aircraft had taken off from Dover 21 minutes earlier and reported an in-flight emergency ten minutes into the flight. All 17 people aboard survived, but two received serious injuries. The Air Force's accident investigation board report concluded the cause to be human error, most notably the crew had been manipulating the throttle of the (dead) number-two engine as if it were still running while keeping the (live) number-three engine at idle. The situation was further worsened by the crew's decision to use a high flap setting that increased drag beyond normal two-engine capabilities. The aircraft was one of the first to receive the new avionics and glass flight displays for C-5 Avionics Modernization Program (AMP). This accident led to a redesign of the cockpit engine displays, particularly the visual indicators of a non-active engine. The aircraft was declared a total hull-loss and the airframe was scrapped, but the forward fuselage became a C-5 AMP test bed.
Aircraft on display
- C-5A, AF Ser. No. 70-0451, has been delivered to the Travis Air Force Base Heritage Center at Travis Air Force Base for future display. This is the penultimate operational C-5A, with the last operational C-5A delivered to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base for spare parts.
- C-5A, AF Ser. No. 69-0014, is on display at the Air Mobility Command Museum at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. This is the first C-5 aircraft to go on museum display.
- Crew: 7 typical (aircraft commander, pilot, 2 flight engineers, 3 loadmasters) ; 4 minimum (pilot, copilot, two flight engineers)
- Length: 247 ft 1 in (75.31 m)
- Wingspan: 222 ft 9 in (67.89 m)
- Height: 65 ft 1 in (19.84 m)
- Wing area: 6,200 sq ft (580 m2)
- Airfoil: root: NACA 0012.41 mod; tip: NACA 0011 mod
- Empty weight: 380,000 lb (172,365 kg)
- Gross weight: 840,000 lb (381,018 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 920,000 lb (417,305 kg) [N 2]
- Fuel capacity: 51,150 US gal (42,590 imp gal; 193,600 l)
- Powerplant: 4 × General Electric CF6-80C2 turbofan engines, 51,000 lbf (230 kN) thrust each
- Maximum speed: 462 kn (532 mph, 856 km/h)
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.79
- Cruise speed: 450 kn (520 mph, 830 km/h) / M0.77
- Range: 4,800 nmi (5,500 mi, 8,900 km) with a 120,000 lb (54,431 kg) payload. 2,300 nmi (4,260 km; 2,647 mi) with maximum cargo capacity.
- Ferry range: 7,000 nmi (8,100 mi, 13,000 km) with no cargo on board.
- Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,000 m) at 750,000 lb (340,194 kg)
- Rate of climb: 2,100 ft/min (11 m/s)
- Thrust/weight: 0.26
- Take-off run: 5,400 ft (1,646 m)
- Landing run: 3,600 ft (1,097 m)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Antonov An-124 Ruslan – Soviet/Ukraine four–engine large military transport aircraft
- Antonov An-225 Mriya – Soviet/Ukrainian six-engine heavy strategic cargo aircraft
- Boeing C-17 Globemaster III – Four engine military transport aircraft
- Boeing 747 – American wide-body long–range commercial jet aircraft
- Bakse 1995, p. 91.
- "C-5 A/B/C Galaxy and Super Galaxy". U.S. Air Force. United States Air Force. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "C-5 history." GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- Bakse 1995, p. 39.
- Norton 2003, pp. 8–9.
- "Boeing CX-HLS proposal, artist concept". boeingimages.com. "Image 1". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. "Image 2". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
- Norton 2003, pp. 12–13.
- "Boeing CX-HLS Model at Boeing Corporate Archives – 1963/64". Airway News. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014.
- "B747기의 전신 - 미 공군 CX-HLS 초대형수송기 사업 보잉사 설계안" [B747 aircraft - US Air Force CX-HLS super large transport business – Boeing company design] (in Korean). 29 August 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2019. "Next page". Archived from the original on 12 September 2016.
- Norton 2003, p. 11.
- Erving 1993, pp. 189–190.
- Bakse 1995, pp. 39, 74.
- Phillips 2004, p. 127.
- Veronico and Dunn 2004, p. 62.
- Garrard, Wilfred C. "The Lockheed C-5 Case Study in Aircraft Design". AIAA Professional Study Series.
- Tillman 2007, p. 82.
- "Plane costs suppressed, Colonel says." Milwaukee Journal, 30 April 1969.
- "C-5A Foe says Pentagon stripped him of duties." The New York Times, 18 November 1969.
- Garwood, Darrell. "Newest Air Force planes grounded." Times-News, 17 January 1970.
- Nalty 2003, pp. 192–193.
- "A Whistle-blower on the C-5A Gets a New Life." People Magazine, 15 July 1974.
- Rice 1971
- "General asks U.S. to share Lockheed loss." Spokane Daily Chronicle, 29 June 1970.
- "New Life for TriStar." Time, 17 May 1971. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
- Aspin, Les. "The Lockheed Loan revisited." The New York Times, 29 August 1972.
- Miles, Marvin. "Jumbo Jet will ferry Space Shuttle Piggyback across U.S." Los Angeles Times, 19 June 1974.
- Goebel, Greg. "Antonov An-225 Mriya ("Cossack")." The Antonov Giants: An-22, An-124, & An-225. vectorsite.net, 1 November 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2006.
- Norton 2003, pp. 31–36.
- National Research Council 1997, p. 90.
- Finney, John W. "C-5A jet repairs to cost 1.5 billion; Pentagon outs outlay to fix Wing Defects at 1.3 Billion as 'Overruns' continue." The New York Times, 15 December 1975.
- Coates, James. "Disputed C-5 jet gets Pentagon nod." Chicago Tribune, 21 January 1982.
- Norton 2003, pp. 53–56.
- Congressional Budget Office 1986, p. 46.
- Neely, Mike. "Lockheed C-5 Galaxy". www.theaviationzone.com.
- "Iran may fund new production of Lockheed C-5." Los Angeles Times, 8 May 1974.
- Wright, Robert A. "Lockheed considers Textron merger; Profitable division Iranian offer is reported." The New York Times, 8 May 1974.
- Marder, Murray. "Oil pact with U.S. firm: Iran signs agreement."[dead link] Victoria Advocate, 26 July 1973.
- "Vital US military technology has been lost to new Iranian regime." Lewiston Evening Journal, 16 February 1979.
- "U.S. cuts off plane parts to Iran." Chicago Tribune, 9 November 1979.
- Storer, Rowley. "House gives Reagan victories on MX, C-5." Chicago Tribune, 22 July 1982.
- "U.S. Air Force wants to double Airlift capacity." Times Daily, 27 January 1982.
- Nalty 2003, p. 367.
- Norton 2003, pp. 56–58.
- Schanz, Marc V., Assoc. Editor. "Life with the C-5." Air Force Magazine, Volume 90, Issue 6, June 2007, pp. 59–60. ISSN 0730-6784.
- Tirpak, John A. "Saving the Galaxy." Air Force Magazine, January 2004.
- "Lockheed Martin Delivers Second Production C-5M Super Galaxy To U.S. Air Force" Lockheed Martin Press Release, 12 April 2011.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Lockheed Martin inducts first C-5B for C-5M modifications." Flight International, 21 August 2009.
- "Double Deuce".
- Jonathan Bell (7 August 2018). "Galaxy wraps upgrades to become C-5M Super Galaxy". Official United States Air Force Website. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Graham Warwick and Guy Norris. "AFRL Seeks Drag-Reduction Technologies For Mobility Aircraft" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 September 2014. Accessed: 26 September 2014. Archived on 26 September 2014(subscription required)
- "C-5 design." Globalsecurity.org, 20 January 2010.
- "The Five First Flights." thewrightbrothers.org, 23 July 2008.
- Lippincott 2006, p. 4.
- Goebel, Greg. "The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter & C-5 Galaxy". Air Vectors, 1 April 14.
- Gustin, Emmanuel. "Aircraft nicknames". mit.edu. Retrieved: 6 December 2012.
- Air International. February 1984, p. 63.
- Coughlin, William J. "C-5A in first S. Viet flight." Los Angeles Times, 10 July 1970.
- Norton 2003, pp. 43–44.
- "Portrait of tragedy." Evening Independent, 4 April 1975.
- "The Crew of the C-5".
- Norton 2003, pp. 45–46.
- Dunstan 2007, pp. 56, 88.
- "C-5 Performance in Israel may spur Pentagon to order more." Los Angeles Times, 9 November 1973.
- "U.S. Cargo Jets to play Zimbabwe role." Los Angeles Times, 7 December 1979,
- "Thursday, 01 January 1970 – Sunday, 31 December 1989." Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Air Force, Inside the AF.MIL Heritage section.
- Marti and Sarigul-Klijn. "A Study of Air Launch Methods for RLVs. Doc No. AIAA 2001–4619." Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Dept, University of California, Davis, California.
- Patterson, Thom (9 August 2013). "The 'radical' nuclear missile test that made history". CNN.
- Jenkins 2001, p. 84.
- Dole, Ronald D. "Six Months "On Ice": Living And Working At The Bottom Of The World." KA1EFO . Retrieved: 23 August 2011.
- "Runway Project Clears the Way for Improved Antarctic Airlift." National Science Foundation, 20 February 2002. Retrieved 20 January 2007.
- Evans, David. "The Gulf airlift has moved only the tip of the spear." Chicago Tribune, 24 August 1990.
- Brenner, Elliot. "Massive airlift, sealift equals moving a town." Daily Gazette, 22 August 1990.
- Chant 2001, p. 47.
- Plunkett, A.J. "More troops leave on Rwandan mission." Daily Press, 4 August 1994.
- "On Board Marine One, Presidential Fleet". National Geographic, 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Norton 2003, p. 58.
- Leary, William M. "Strategic Airlift: Past, Present, and Future." Air University Review, September–October 1986.
- Anderson, Brian H. "The Mobility Traid and Challenges for the Operational Commander." Naval War College Newport, 5 February 1999, p. 8.
- Government Accountability Office 2006, pp. 125–156.
- McGowan, Laura. "C-5 still going strong." Archived 4 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine US Air Force, 21 June 2006.
- Warick, Graham. "Pentagon cancels re-engining of USAF's older Lockheed C-5s." Flightglobal.com, 15 February 2008.
- "Air Force C-5 Galaxy modernization program certified." U.S. Air Force, 15 February 2008.
- "After 17 years of upgrades, the Air Force's biggest plane is ready to stay in the air for decades". 14 August 2018.
- Weinberger, Sharon. "Congress Moves To Limit C-5A Retirement." Defense Daily, 14 November 2003.
- "AMARC Experience". AMARC Experience.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Lockheed delivers first upgraded C-5M Super Galaxy." Flight International, 11 December 2008.
- "Lockheed Martin delivers third C-5M Super Galaxy to United States Air Force." Bloomberg, 27 February 2009.
- Trimble, Stephen. "More C-17 sales possible after C-5A retirement ban lifted." Flight International, 11 September 2009.
- Rolfsen, Bruce, "C-5A swap for new C-17s has hitch." Air Force Times, 12 January 2010.
- "445th C-5 era comes to an end" Archived 27 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine 445th Airlift Wing Public Affairs, 4 October 2011.
- Upgraded C-5M Super Galaxies gain IOC designation - Upi.com, 24 February 2014.
- "Lockheed Martin C-5M Super Galaxy Sets World Aviation Records." Lockheed Martin, 15 September 2009.
- Panzino, Charlsy (7 August 2017). "Air Mobility Command stands down C-5 flying operations at Dover AFB". airforcetimes.com.
- "C-5A." GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- User, Super. "AMARC Experience - Search the Database". www.amarcexperience.com.
- "Last C-5A Galaxy Arrives at AMARG". dvidshub.net.
- "C-5B." GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved: 21 January 2010.
- Miller 2003, p. 53.
- Norton 2003, pp. 62, 78.
- Jablonski, David A. "Air Force Fleet Viability Board releases C-5A assessment". Air Force Print News, 15 July 2004.
- "First Flight For AMP C-5". Code One Magazine, April 2003.
- Hooker, John; Hoyle, David; Bevis, Dwayne (2006). "The Application of CFD for the Aerodynamic Development of the C-5M Galaxy". 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. doi:10.2514/6.2006-856. ISBN 978-1-62410-039-0.
- "C-5 modernization program". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- "Lockheed Martin C-5M 'Super Galaxy' Expands U.S. Air Force 'Global Reach' Capability at Lower Cost" Archived 3 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Lockheed Martin, 16 May 2006.
- "Second C-5M Super Galaxy takes flight". U.S. Air Force, 20 November 2006.
- "Aircraft: The Biggest Bird." TIME, 12 July 1968.
- "Lockheed L-500 Galaxy proposed UAL colors, c. 1968." Archived 2 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine doraplane.com. Retrieved: 3 January 2011.
- "After 17 years of upgrades, the Air Force's biggest plane is ready to stay in the air for decades". Business Insider, 13 August 2018.
- San Bernardino Sun, 28 May 1970.
- "C-5 crash doesn't diminish historian's view of aircraft." US Air Force, 4 April 2006.
- "305 aboard giant craft; 100 survive." Boca Raton News, 4 April 1975.
- "Airforce imposes curbs on C-5 use." The New York Times, 12 April 1975.
- Lippincott 2006, p. 35.
- Lippincott 2006, p. 28.
- "Fire broke out on a huge Air Force C-5A". United Press International. United Press International. 31 December 1988. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "San Antonio air base mourns reservists killed in C-5 crash." Austin American-Statesman, 30 August 1990.
- "U.S. plane crashes, killing 13." Deseret News, 29 August 1990.
- "C-5 accident investigation board complete." Archived 27 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine US Air Force, 13 June 2006.
- "USAF Crash Investigation Video." youtube.com.
- "Air Force blames crew for C-5 crash" DelawareOnline, 14 June 2006.
- "Pilot Performance Based Selection of Engine Display Features." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Vol. 54, no. 1, September 2010, pp. 65–69.
- Langley, Nicole. "Gone with the wings: C-5 removal process in full swing." US Air Force, 19 January 2007.
- "Travis Heritage Center acquires AF's largest static display". Travis Air Force Base. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- "Off to the Boneyard for Westover's last C-5A". Greenfield Recorder. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- C-5 goes on display at AMC museum airforcetimes.com
- "C-5A Galaxy". Air Mobility Command Museum. AMC Museum Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Loftin, L.K., Jr. "NASA SP-468: Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft." NASA, 1985.
- Frawley, Gerald. The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fishwick, Act, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- "C-5 A/B/C Galaxy and C-5M Super Galaxy fact sheet." US Air Force, January 2014. Retrieved: 29 January 2014.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Aging of U.S. Air Force Aircraft: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, National Academies, 1997.
- Bakse, Colin. Airlift Tanker: History of U.S. Airlift and Tanker Forces. New York: Turner Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1-56311-125-X.
- Chant, Christopher. Air War in the Gulf 1991. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-295-4.
- Dunstan, Simon. The Yom Kippur War: the Arab-Israeli War of 1973. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-84603-288-1.
- "The Giants of Georgia". Air International, Vol. 26, No. 2, February 1984, pp. 61–68, 87–90. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Government Accountability Office. Military Readiness: DOD Needs to Identify and Address Gaps and Potential Risks in Program Strategies and Funding Priorities for Selected Equipment. Darby, Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-4223-0444-2.
- Improving Strategic Mobility: The C-17 Program and Alternatives. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, United States Congress, September 1986. ISBN 1-4379-0071-2.
- Irving, Clive. Wide Body: The Triumph of the 747. New York: W. Morrow, 1993. ISBN 0-688-09902-5.
- Jenkins, Dannis J. Lockheed Secret Projects: Inside the Skunk Works. St. Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-0914-0.
- Miller, David. Conflict Iraq: Weapons and Tactics of the US and Iraqi Forces. St. Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-1592-2.
- Nalty, Bernard C. Winged Shield, Winged Sword 1950–1997: A History of the United States Air Force. Minerva Group, 2003. ISBN 1-4102-0902-4.
- Lippincott, Richard. C-5 Galaxy in Action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 2006. ISBN 0-89747-504-6.
- Norton, Bill. Lockheed Martin C-5 Galaxy. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58007-061-2.
- Philips, Warren F. Mechanics of Flight. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. ISBN 0-471-33458-8.
- Reed, Chris. Lockheed C-5 Galaxy. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-1205-7.
- Rice, Berkeley (1971), The C-5A Scandal, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 9780395121030, OCLC 785825369.
- Tillman, Barrett. What We Need: Extravagance and Shortages in America's Military. Zenith Imprint, 2007. ISBN −076032-869-2.
- Veronico, Nick and Jim Dunn. 21st Century U.S. Air Power. St. Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2004. ISBN 0-7603-2014-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed C-5 Galaxy.|
- C-5 A/B/C Galaxy and C-5M Super Galaxy U.S. Air Force fact sheet
- C-5M page on LockheedMartin.com
- C-5 Galaxy page on GlobalSecurity.org
- "Fatigue and Related Human Factors in the Near Crash of a Large Military Aircraft". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Volume 77, Number 9, September 2006, pp. 963–970.
- C5 wing vortex study (NASA video)