This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|C-802, CSS-N-8 Saccade|
A model of the C-802A on display at the Farnborough International Air Show 2010.
|Place of origin||People's Republic of China|
|Used by||See operators list|
|Manufacturer||China Haiying Electromechanical Technology Academy (中国海鹰机电技术研究院)|
|Warhead||165 kg time-delayed semi-armour-piercing high-explosive (C-802)
190 kg (C-802A)
190 kg (C-802KD)
285 kg (CM-802AKG)
|Wingspan||1.22 m (unfolded); 0.72 m (folded)|
|≈500 km (C-805)
350+ km (C-803)
280 km (CM-802AKG)
180 km (C-802A)
120 km (C-802)
|Flight altitude||3–5 m (attacking); 5–7 m (cruising)|
|Inertial and terminal active radar|
|ground-based vehicles, naval ships, fixed-wing aircraft|
The C-802 is the export upgraded version of the Chinese anti-ship missile YJ-8 (Chinese: 鹰击-8, literally "Eagle Strike"; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade), first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. Due to the Yingji-82 missile's small radar reflectivity, low attack flight path (only five to seven meters above the sea surface) and strong anti-jamming capability of its guidance system, target ships have a very small chance of intercepting the missile. The single shot hit probability of the Yingji-82 is unknown, though one unreferenced source claims it to be as high as 98%. The Yingji-82 can be launched from airplanes, surface ships, submarines and land-based vehicles.
The C-802 anti-ship missile was derived from the Chinese YJ-8 (C-801) with extended range. The YJ-82 is externally similar to the YJ-8, and has the same solid-propellant rocket booster and guidance system as the YJ-8. The most distinctive difference on the YJ-82 is that it employs a turbojet with paraffin (kerosene)-based fuel to replace the original solid rocket engine. For this reason the fuselage was extended to accommodate the extra fuel. The maximum range of the missile has also been extended from the original 40 km (or 80 km for YJ-81/C-801A) to 120 km.
The YJ-82 is almost identical to the YJ-8 in appearance apart from a slightly longer fuselage and an air inlet for the turbojet engine. The missile has a slim body and ovoid nose. There are four front delta wings, four smaller control surfaces, and four large tail stabilising wings. The tail wings are mounted on the rocket booster and are lost when the booster detaches from the missile body. The air inlet is located between the main fins under the missile body. The front and tail wings are folded when the missile is in the launcher.
When the missile is launched, the solid rocket propellant booster accelerates the speed of the missile to Mach 0.9 in a few seconds. After the booster burns out, it detaches from the missile body and the missile's turbojet engine starts. Controlled by the inertial autopilot system and radio altimeter, the missile flies at a cruising speed of Mach 0.9, and the cruise altitude is reduced to 10–20 metres (depending on the sea state) from the original 20–30 metres of the C-801/YJ-81.
When entering the terminal phase of flight, the missile switches on its terminal guidance radar to search for the target. Once within a few kilometers of the target, the missile drops to 3–5 meters above sea level, about the same as a French Exocet missile. This altitude is slightly lower than the original 5–7 metres of the C-801/YJ-81. The missile may also maneuver during the terminal phase to make it a more difficult target for shipborne air defense systems. When approaching the target, the missile dives to hit the waterline of the ship to inflict maximum damage. At the 6th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2006, the manufacturer revealed that the "pop-up" approach and the checkpoint flight functions are being worked on.
As well as its terminal guidance radar, the midcourse guidance is inertial. During the inertial guidance, the YJ-8 missile is also equipped with a radio altimeter for use with its autopilot during cruise. The missile's terminal guidance radar with monopulse system possesses high anti-jamming capabilities. The high precision radio altimeter allows the missile to have a minimum-altitude flight above the sea, normally 20–30 m.
The missile uses a 165 kg semi-armor-piercing anti-personnel blast warhead which relies on the missile's kinetic energy to pierce the deck of a ship, penetrate into and explode in the ship's interior. The YJ-82 might have a higher single hit probability than the YJ-8/YJ-81.
Most upgrades of C-802 are funded not by the Chinese government but by the manufacturers and trading firms themselves. Most upgrades focused on the guidance systems.
The radar altimeter can be replaced by a newly developed laser altimeter, which is much less likely to be detected via ESM. The laser altimeter can be retrofited to all models of this anti-ship missile family.
One of the first upgrades included the incorporation of infrared homing guidance so that there is a dual guidance system similar to that of the Taiwanese Hsiung Feng II missile. Imaging infrared seeker and a television seeker similar to that of the C-701 anti-ship missile became available later. The imaging infrared seeker is reportedly derived from the imaging infrared seeker technology developed for Chinese air-to-air missiles. These three seekers are interchangeable with the original radar seeker, and can be fitted at naval bases rather than the factory.
As the imaging infrared seeker and the television seeker are significantly smaller than the radar seeker, the manufacturer has taken advantage of the extra space to develop a variety of combined seekers for dual guidance, which include: radar and imaging infrared guidance, television and imaging infrared guidance, dual band (infrared and imaging infrared) guidance, and television and infrared guidance. These combined seekers can also be fitted at naval bases. The manufacturer says that as of the last quarter of 2006 no orders had been received for any of the combined seekers except the radar and infrared guidance, due to funding problems.
A datalink associated with the radar seeker and the dual radar and infrared guidance seeker armed C-802 was added to enable the missile to receive target information provided by aircraft, and this later became a standard feature. The first successful test fire of the C-802 with the datalink was conducted with Harbin SH-5 ASW equipped with British radar, and soon after, with Y-8X Maritime Patrol Aircraft equipped with Litton Canada radar. This datalink was originally developed for YJ-83/C-803, the successor of the YJ-82/C-802, and adopted for the YJ-82/C-802 upgrade.
Based on the datalink associated with the radar seeker, a newer datalink that was compatible with all three types of seekers was also successfully developed, enabling the missile to significantly improve its attack capability by allowing the pilot of the aircraft or the crew of the ship to view the images provided by the television or the imaging infrared seekers, and thus to select the potential targets, just like the way A-10 pilots used the images provided by the imaging infrared seekers of AGM-65 Maverick Air-to-surface missiles for targeting during the Persian Gulf War. Land attack capability is the greatest beneficiary since mobile targets on land can be engaged as a result, though only when the missile is equipped with television and imaging infrared seekers, but not the radar seeker. Like the datalink only associated with the radar seeker, the newer datalink allows the operators to alter the course of the missile and change targets after launching. However, there are no reports to support the claim that the operator can terminate the attack via the datalink like that of the Harpoon missile. This new datalink has very little difference from radar seeker associated datalink it is developed from in terms of hardware; the major difference is the software programs.
For the air-launched version, a universal missile launching rail system was also developed for the C-802, reducing the installation time significantly. The new system also allowed virtually any aircraft in the Chinese inventory to be armed with the YJ-82K.
For the surface-launched version, China developed a new launcher/storage container that is able to handle YJ-8 (C-801), YJ-82 (C-802) and CY-1 ASW missiles, and this new container became standard.
- Type 051B (Luhai class) DDG, Type 053H3 (Jiangwei-II class) FFG
- Alvand (Saam)-class (Vosper Mk5 type) Frigates, Moudge-class frigate (Iran/Noor)
- Houdong class a.k.a. Thondor-class (Iran/Noor)
- Kaman class (Combattante II type), Sina-class (Iran/Noor)
- F-22P Zulfiquar class frigates (Pakistan)
- Jalalat II class Missile Boats (Pakistan)
- PNS Azmat PNS Azmat Class Attack Boat (Pakistan)
- BNS Osman, Type 053H1 (Jianghu-II) class frigate (Bangladesh)
- BNS Abu Bakar and BNS Ali Haider, Type 053H2 (Jianghu-III) class frigate (Bangladesh)
- Shadhinota Class corvettes.
- Djebel Chenoua corvette (Algeria)
- Land-based semi-mobile/mobile launcher
- C-802: Original variant with French Microturbo TRI 60-2 turbojet engines (a total of 150 were sold to China by the mid-1990s), with 120 km range.
- YJ-83: Second variant equipped with domestic Chinese engine, which is reverse engineered from the original Microturbo TRI 60 purchased from France.
- C-802A: C-802 improvement that is 9 mm shorter than the original C-802, but thanks to the application of all solid-state electronics, the missile has a larger warhead of 190 kg instead of the original 165 kg, and a greater range of 180 km, an increase by a half from the original 120 km.
- YJ-83K: air launched AShM version of YJ-83 without the rocket booster.
- YJ-83KH: air launched AShM version of YJ-83K with imaging infrared seeker replacing the original active radar seeker of YJ-83K.
- C-803: Development of C-802/YJ-83 that incorporates a terminal stage rocket motor to boost the terminal speed to supersonic, first revealed in the national day parade in 1999. The range of subsonic – supersonic flight mode is 150 km. The terminal stage rocket motor can be replaced with additional fuel tanks to increase the range to 250 km when the entire flight is subsonic.
- C-802AK: Export version of air launched variant of C-802A with a maximum range of 225–250 km.
- C-802KD: Semi-active radar guided air-to-surface version of C-802A debuted in 2005 DESI exhibition. Armed with 190 kg warhead and weighing 600 kg, the max range is 180 km.
- KD-88 (KongDi-88): Land attack version of YJ-81 equipping PLAAF, revealed in 2006, range 180~200 km, 165 kg high-explosive warhead. Guided by INS, mid-course correction data-link and three different methods of terminal guidance: TV, IR or anti-radiation. KD-88 series is usually launched by Xian JH-7 fighter-bomber and Xian H-6 medium bomber. Upgrades include imaging infrared and GPS guidance.
- YJ-2: Similar to KD-88, uses GPS guidance.
- YJ-85 (C-805): Land-attack cruise missile variant of YJ-8 family, believed to be guided by GPS and TERCOM.
- CM-802AKG: Air-to-surface missile developed from C-802A with imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and two-way datalink added, so that operator can manually change targets after launch. C-802AKG weighs 670 kg with a 285 kg warhead, and a max range of 230 km. Remote control range is 280 km.
- Noor: Iranian variant.
- CM-708UNA: submarine launched naval variant with 128 km range.
- CM-708UNB: submarine launched naval variant with 290 km range.
- Algerian National Navy – Arms three Djebel Chenoua corvettes + three Corvettes C28A
- Bangladesh Navy – Bangladesh armed the frigates BNS Osman, BNS Abu Bakar and BNS Ali Haider and has installed some shore based launch platforms. Also in use on the new Shadhinota Class corvettes.
- People's Liberation Army Navy – In service with the PLAN
- Indonesian Navy – Arms the FPB 57 Nav 5 fast attack craft (license-built Albatros class FAC) and Ahmad Yani class frigate.
- Islamic Republic of Iran Navy – Iran reportedly possesses 60 of the YJ-82, deployed in coastal batteries at Qeshm Island. Iran originally ordered 150 of the YJ-82 in the immediate aftermath of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, but due to American pressure, the Chinese suspended shipments of the missile to Iran in 1996 after 60 were delivered. It is also suggested that China exported 15 patrol boats equipped with these missiles to Iran. A version of the C-802 is called the Noor.
- North Korea Korean People's Navy
- Pakistan Navy – 70 ordered, arms the F-22P Zulfiquar class frigates and Jalalat II class FAC.
- Myanmar Navy – Arms the Aung Zeya class frigate, Anawratha class corvettes and 55 series fast attack craft.
- Royal Thai Navy – 16 ordered, replaced C-801/YJ-81 with C-802/YJ-82, arming the Type 053HT class frigates.
- Syrian Navy Seen on Syrian National TV. in a military drill by the Syrian Arab Army in 2011 and again in 2012
YJ-82 is deployed by the latest Chinese surface combatants, including destroyers and frigates, and earlier vessels have been upgraded with the missile. Airborne radar systems, carried by fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters, are also deployed to provide over-the-horizon targeting. The YJ-82K air-launched variant arms the JH-7 fighter-bomber, which can carry 4 of the missiles. The missile is also deployed in the land attack role for shore bombardment.
News reports indicate that this was the missile used on July 14, 2006, in the 2006 Lebanon War when Hezbollah fired two at Israeli warships. One missile hit the corvette INS Hanit, causing significant damage and four fatalities. Iran, the reported supplier of the missile to Hezbollah, refused to formally confirm or deny the claim. The Hanit suffered severe damage, but stayed afloat, got itself out of the line of fire, and made the rest of the journey back to Ashdod for repairs on its own.
The Israeli ship possessed sophisticated multi-layered missile defense capability: a Phalanx CIWS gun, Barak 1 anti-missile missiles, Chaff and ECM. These should have been able to prevent an anti-ship missile attack such as the YJ-82, but according to the Israeli military, these were intentionally disabled at the time of the alleged missile hit due to:
- a lack of intelligence indicating Hezbollah possessed such a missile; and
- the presence of many Israeli Air Force aircraft conducting operations in the vicinity of the ship which might have accidentally set off the ship's anti-missile/aerial threats system, with the danger of shooting down a friendly aircraft. However, the ship has an (optionally installed, especially during wartime) Identification friend or foe interrogator system to prevent attacking friendly aircraft.
- "C-802". GlobalSecurity.org. 2006-07-16. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- "YJ-8 series AShM". Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "Yingji-8 series AShM". Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "Chinese Military Aviation". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "C-803". Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- "C-802AKG & 803". Retrieved April 27, 2012.
- "C-802KD". Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "KongDi-88 Air-Launched Land-Attack Cruise Missile". SinoDefence.com.
- "Global Defence News and Defence Headlines - IHS Jane's 360". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "C-802AKG". Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "C-802AKG ASM". Retrieved 2012.
- "CM-708UNA". Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=4275032[dead link]
- "Sword / F-22P Class Frigates - Naval Technology". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "YJ-83". Deagel. 2008-03-24. Retrieved 2008-03-26.
- Mazzetti, Mark (2009-01-01). "Striking Deep Into Israel, Hamas Employs an Upgraded Arsenal". The New York Times.
- "DEBKAfile, Political Analysis, Espionage, Terrorism, Security". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "IDF Finds Bodies of Missing Sailors Aboard Damaged Navy Ship". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Strike on Israeli Navy Ship". NAVSEA. 2006-07-19.