Transmembrane protein 222

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Transmembrane protein 222
Symbols TMEM222 ; C1orf160
External IDs MGI1098568 HomoloGene11999 GeneCards: TMEM222 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE C1orf160 221512 at tn.png
PBB GE C1orf160 52078 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 84065 52174
Ensembl ENSG00000186501 ENSMUSG00000028857
UniProt Q9H0R3 Q8BVA2
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_032125 NM_025667
RefSeq (protein) NP_115501 NP_079943
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
27.32 – 27.34 Mb
Chr 4:
133.27 – 133.28 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Transmembrane protein 222 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM222 gene.[1][2] One notable feature of the protein encoded by this gene is the presence of three predicted transmembrane domains.[3] The TMEM222 protein is predicted to most likely localize to the secretory vesicles.[4]

Gene Features[edit]

TMEM222 has a domain of unknown function (DUF778).[5] Aliases of this gene include DKFZP564D0478, RP11-4K3__A.4, C1orf160, and MGC111002.[6] Accession NM_032125.2, the longest coding sequence (1629 bp), encodes a protein of 208 amino acid residues (23230 Daltons), which is considered the consensus coding sequence (CCDS297.2).[7] There are two isoforms of the protein encoded by this gene. They are similar except the second (Q9H0R3-2) is lacking the first 96 amino acid residues that are present in the first (Q9H0R3-1).[8]

Gene Expression[edit]

ACEVIEW has labeled TMEM222 as highly expressed with 3.8 times more expression than the average gene in the database.[9] There is expression evidence from 166 tissues including brain, lung, colon, kidney, and placenta.[9]


Orthologs and distant homologs of the human TMEM222 have been identified throughout Eukaryota especially in plants and animals.[10] No paralogs of this gene have been found in the human genome.[11]

Genus/Species Common Name Accession Number Length Similarity Identity
Rattus norvegicus Rat NP_001107252.1 208aa 99% 96%
Canis familiaris Dog XP_852505.1 208aa 98% 96%
Mus musculus Mouse NP_079943.2 208aa 96% 95%
Sus scrofa Pig XP_003127773.1 208aa 97% 94%
Equus caballus Horse XP_001917747.1 207aa 94% 93%
Gallus gallus Chicken XP_417729.1 182aa 90% 85%
Danio rerio Zebrafish NP_001013334.1 174aa 83% 71%
Anopheles gambiae Mosquito XP_320483.3 197aa 66% 53%
Drosophila melanogaster Fruit Fly NP_723362.1 196aa 74% 61%
Caenorhabditis elegans Nematode NP_494762.2 168aa 72% 55%
Phytophthora infestans Late Blight XP_002902629.1 186aa 59% 48%
Zea mays Corn NP_001144071.1 233aa 61% 44%
Oryza sativa Rice NP_001051577.1 204aa 61% 43%
Arabidopsis thaliana Thall cress NP_190673.1 231aa 55% 36%
Homo sapiens Human NP_115501.2 208 - -

Distant Homolog[edit]

A distant homolog of TMEM222,[10] RTH (RTE1-Homolog),[12] is a homolog of RTE1 (Reversion-to-Ethylene Perception 1), which is known to induce conformational changes in ETR1 (Ethylene receptor 1) that result in negative regulation corresponding with loss of ethylene perception.[13]

Protein Interactions[edit]

Evidence from yeast two-hybrid screening exists for two protein interactions with this gene. One is a serine protease (PRSS23)[14] that has been identified to be involved in mouse ovulation and is excreted into the extracellular matrix.[15] The other protein is an ab-hydrolase (HLA-B associated transcript 5)[16] that is integral to the membrane, and its corresponding gene is located in the genome near Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta.[17]


  1. ^ Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Bocher M, Blocker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Dusterhoft A, Beyer A, Kohrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwalder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M, Poustka A (Mar 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome Res 11 (3): 422–35. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072. PMID 11230166. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: C1orf160 chromosome 1 open reading frame 160". 
  3. ^ TMHMM
  4. ^ k-NN
  5. ^ NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology information)
  6. ^ Gene Cards
  7. ^ Uniprot
  8. ^ Uniprot
  9. ^ a b ACEVIEW
  10. ^ a b Homologene
  11. ^ BLAST
  12. ^
  13. ^ Resnick JS, Wen CK, Shockey JA, Chang C (May 2006). "REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1, a conserved gene that regulates ethylene receptor function in Arabidopsis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (20): 7917–22. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602239103. PMC 1458508. PMID 16682642. 
  14. ^ Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H, Wanker EE (September 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell 122 (6): 957–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070. 
  15. ^ Miyakoshi K, Murphy MJ, Yeoman RR, Mitra S, Dubay CJ, Hennebold JD (December 2006). "The identification of novel ovarian proteases through the use of genomic and bioinformatic methodologies". Biol. Reprod. 75 (6): 823–35. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.106.052290. PMID 16870946. 
  16. ^ Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD, Sanderson CM (January 2004). "Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region". Genomics 83 (1): 153–67. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00235-0. PMID 14667819. 
  17. ^ Spies T, Bresnahan M, Strominger JL (November 1989). "Human major histocompatibility complex contains a minimum of 19 genes between the complement cluster and HLA-B". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (22): 8955–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.22.8955. PMC 298409. PMID 2813433. 

Further reading[edit]