C9 League

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C9 League
Simplified Chinese 九校联盟
Traditional Chinese 九校聯盟

The C9 League is an alliance of nine elite universities in mainland China, analogous to the AAU in the United States, the U15 in Canada, the Russell Group in the UK, and the Go8 in Australia. The members of the C9 League are Fudan University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Nanjing University, Peking University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, and Zhejiang University.[1] Together they account for 3% of the country's researchers but receive 10% of national research expenditures. They produce 20% of the academic publications and 30% of total citations.[2]



University Year Founded Authorities Location
Fudan University 1905 Ministry of Education (MOE) Shanghai
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) 1920 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) Harbin, Heilongjiang; Weihai, Shandong; Shenzhen, Guangdong
Nanjing University 1902 Ministry of Education (MOE) Nanjing, Jiangsu
Peking University 1898 Ministry of Education (MOE) Beijing
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) 1896 Ministry of Education (MOE) Shanghai
Tsinghua University 1911 Ministry of Education (MOE) Beijing
University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) 1958 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Hefei, Anhui
Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) 1896 Ministry of Education (MOE) Xi'an, Shaanxi
Zhejiang University 1897 Ministry of Education (MOE) Hangzhou, Zhejiang



University ARWU World (2016)[3] QS World (2016)[4] THE World (2015/16)[5] CWTS Leiden (2016)[6]
Fudan University 101-150 43 201-250 36
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) 151-200 278 501-600 77
Nanjing University 201-300 115 251-300 67
Peking University 71 39 42 23
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) 101-150 61 301-350 6
Tsinghua University 58 24 47 17
University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) 101-150 104 201-250 91
Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) 151-200 318 501-600 74
Zhejiang University 101-150 110 251-300 4


The C9 League was established by the Chinese central government on May 4, 1998 with the goal of advancing the Chinese higher education system. The establishment of the C9 League was a part of the Chinese central government's Project 985. In the first phase, the nine universities were selected and allocated funding for an initial period of three years. On October 10, 2009, these nine universities made up the C9 League.[7][8]


The aim of the C9 is to serve as a network of elite universities to improve education and research in China.[9][10] More importantly, they have committed themselves to world-class excellence.[10] However, the central government also directs special resources to a number of other universities outside the C9 League to ensure that they reach the goal to become world class universities, such as Renmin University of China,[11] Wuhan University[12] and Sun Yat-sen University.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Education Ministry supports formation of China's"Ivy League"". Ministry of Education of People's Republic of China. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  2. ^ "Eastern stars: Universities of China's C9 League excel in select fields". 
  3. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2016". www.shanghairanking.com. Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  4. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  5. ^ "World University Rankings 2015-16". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  6. ^ "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016". Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  7. ^ "九校高校签订《一流大学人才培养合作与交流协议书》". 
  8. ^ Sainsbury, Michael (4 November 2009). "China establishes group of Ivy League universities". The Australian. 
  9. ^ "China's 'Ivy League'". 
  10. ^ a b http://brand.hjenglish.com/b1094/p15877/
  11. ^ "纪宝成:为建设"人民满意、世界一流"大学而奋斗". Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  12. ^ "武汉大学迎来120岁生日 剑指世界一流大学". Retrieved March 2, 2014. 

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