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CAESAR self-propelled howitzer

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CAESAR
French artillerymen firing into the Middle Euphrates River Valley (Syria) from within Iraq (December 2018)
TypeSelf-propelled howitzer
Place of originFrance
Service history
In service2008–present
WarsWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)
Cambodian–Thai border stand-off
Operation Serval
Operation Chammal
Battle of Mosul (2016–17)
Battle of Baghuz
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
Designed1992–1999
ManufacturerGIAT Industries (now Nexter Systems)
Produced2004–present
Specifications
Mass17.7 tonnes (6×6)
28.7-30.2 tonnes (8×8)[1]
Length10 m (32 ft 10 in)
12.3 m (40 ft 4 in) (8x8)[1]
Width2.55 m (8 ft 4 in)
2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) (8x8)[1]
Height3.7 m (12 ft 2 in)
3.1 m (10 ft 2 in) (8x8)[1]
Crew5-6 (3, emergency)

Main
armament
155 mm/52-calibre
Secondary
armament
None
EngineDiesel
Suspension6x6 wheel
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi)
Maximum speed On-road: 100 km/h (62 mph)
Off-road: 50 km/h (31 mph)

The Camion Équipé d'un Système d'Artillerie (English: "Truck equipped with an artillery system") or CAESAR[2] is a French 155 mm, 52-caliber self-propelled howitzer that can fire 39/52 caliber NATO-standard shells. It is installed on a 6x6 or 8x8 truck chassis. Equipped with an autonomous weapon network incorporating an inertial navigation system and ballistic computer, the CAESAR can accurately strike targets more than 40 kilometres (25 mi) away using "Extended Range, Full Bore" (ERFB) ammunition with base bleed,[3][irrelevant citation] or targets over 55 kilometres (34 mi) away using rocket-assisted or smart ammunition.

The CAESAR was developed by French defense contractor GIAT Industries (now Nexter Systems) and has been exported to various countries. Units manufactured for the French Army use a 6x6 Renault Sherpa 5 chassis,[4][5] while some export customers have opted for systems integrated on a 6x6 Unimog U2450L or 8x8 Tatra 817 chassis.[6]

In February 2022, the French government awarded Nexter a contract for the development of a new generation CAESAR system. Marketed by the company as the CAESAR Mark II (also commonly referred to as CAESAR NG in France), 109 systems are to be delivered to the French Army between 2026 and 2030.

Development[edit]

In the early 1990s, the French Army operated two artillery systems designed and manufactured by the state-owned company GIAT: the AuF1 tracked self-propelled howitzer, which had reached the end of its production run, and the TRF1 towed howitzer, which was beginning to be delivered, but in reduced numbers. Absent further orders for its products, GIAT might have had to shut down its artillery program for unprofitability, permanently losing an important industrial capability. Since the French Ministry of Defence had expressed no interest in acquiring or funding new artillery designs at the time, the firm had to use its own funds to develop a 155 mm system that could attract export customers.[7]

Per the then-emerging NATO standard, the new design would need a 52-caliber barrel, which would offer greater accuracy and longer range than the 39-caliber barrels on GIAT's existing models. For strategic mobility, the system would have to be air-transportable on a C-130 along with an entire gun crew and 18 rounds of ammunition. Using the TRF1 and its usual tow vehicle, the Renault TRM 10000, as a baseline, the project team determined that mounting the gun directly on a truck bed would reduce overall material costs. After designing a subframe and a rear anchoring platform to filter and dissipate the gun's recoil, the team chose to adapt the Unimog U 2450 truck as the system's base. In cooperation with Unimog importer Lohr Industrie (now Soframe), which supplied the cab and helped design the interface between the truck and the subframe, GIAT produced the first prototype in less than a year and displayed it at the Eurosatory defense industry fair in June 1994.[6][7]

Four years later, a pre-production model underwent trials with the French Army in 1998 and the Malaysian Army in 1999. Based on this early performance, the Direction Générale de l'Armement (DGA) ordered five additional prototypes for further testing in September 2000. After delivery was completed in June 2003, these vehicles were organized into a complete, "experimental" artillery section to evaluate possible operational procedures for the CAESAR. The findings convinced the French Army to order more CAESARs instead of continuing to upgrade its AuF1 self-propelled howitzers to the AuF2 standard. Thus, in December 2004, the DGA awarded GIAT a €300 million contract to produce 72 new CAESARs, upgrade the five vehicles already delivered, supply an initial amount of ammunition, and provide maintenance to the fleet for five years. The new systems would use a new purpose-built truck chassis, the Sherpa 5 by Renault Trucks Defense (RTD), instead of the Unimog-Soframe chassis of the first five.[6][8][9][10][11]

In 2006, the year that the company would be reorganized and renamed to Nexter, GIAT received the first export orders for the CAESAR, from the Royal Thai Army (RTD chassis) and the Saudi Arabian National Guard (Unimog-Soframe chassis).[6][12][13][14]

In peacetime the production rate at Nexter was reportedly 10 CAESARs per year.[15] The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine boosted demand. By early 2023 Nexter's factory in Bourges was producing between two and four units per month in continuous operation. The next milestone expected is to produce eight CAESARs a month by December 2023.[16]

The gun uses a special kind of shell, the LU 211, which is produced at Les Forges de Tarbes,[17] within the confines of the town arsenal.[18] The forge was privatized in November 2021 by a French firm which had recently been recapitalized by €100 million.[18][19] In 2020, the Minister of the Armed Forces signed a contract worth €25 million for the plant to supply shells to the French Army for the decade. The privatization furnished €9 million each year for the 2021–2024 period. In autumn 2021, the firm supplied an extra €2 million to modernize the plant, which also produces 120 mm ammunition for the Leclerc tank.[20]

Design[edit]

CAESAR 6x6 Mark I[edit]

A CAESAR howitzer of the French Army's 9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade during the 2013 Bastille Day Parade

The CAESAR is a wheeled, 155 mm 52-caliber self-propelled howitzer. It holds 18 rounds and is typically operated by a crew of five, though if necessary the CAESAR can be operated by a crew of three.[21] It can be transported by a C-130 or an A400M aircraft. It has a firing range of approximately 42 kilometres (26 mi) using an Extended Range, Full Bore (ERFB) shell,[22][irrelevant citation] and more than 50 kilometres (31 mi) using rocket-assisted shells. The CAESAR has an autonomous weapon system featuring an inertial navigation system (the SIGMA 30), a ballistic computer and an optional muzzle velocity radar; the system is adaptable to any C4I system (fully integrated with the ATLAS FCS). At Eurosatory 2016, the CAESAR was exhibited with an automated laying system based on the SIGMA 30.[23] Tailored for shoot-and-scoot tactics, the CAESAR is fast to set up, taking around 60 seconds for the crew to be ready to fire and 40 seconds to leave after the shots. It can fire six rounds per minute.[21][1]

CAESAR 8x8[edit]

CAESAR 8x8 of the Royal Danish Army on a Tatra 817 chassis

The CAESAR 8x8 uses a modified Tatra 817 8x8 chassis, allowing a higher degree of mobility.[24] It is fitted with an unarmoured forward control four-person cabin as standard, with an optional fully-armoured cabin. Gross vehicle weight would depend on the level of armour protection but is about 30 tonnes. It is powered by a 410 hp diesel engine[25] and can hold 36 rounds.[26] It was unveiled by Nexter at DSEI 2015.

New generation[edit]

CAESAR 6x6 Mark II[edit]

CAESAR NG

In February 2022, Nexter was awarded an initial €600 million contract by the French defence procurement agency (the DGA) for the development and acquisition of the CAESAR 6x6 Mark II new generation artillery system.[27] The deal initiated a four-year development phase, after which the CAESAR Mark II (or CAESAR NG) is planned to enter production. In January 2024, the DGA announced that it had awarded Nexter an additional €350 million contract on December 30, 2023. 109 CAESAR NG systems are to be produced for the French Army.[28][29] Nexter, the industrial prime contractor, will be working in particular with Arquus (chassis) and Safran (electronics), the main partners involved in the development and implementation of this program.[30]

From mobility to connectivity, and from ballistic protection to increased firing efficiency, as well as accuracy further refined by artificial intelligence,[31] the improvements remain those set out in 2022 when the program was launched.[29] The CAESAR Mark II will feature a new six-wheel chassis provided by Arquus, a new cabin with improved armor and, this time, four doors for improved agility.[29] The system will also feature a new 460 hp engine, more than twice as powerful as the previous one (215 hp), as well as a new automatic gearbox. It will incorporate a new version of its velocity radar and new fire control software, as well as Safran's Geonyx inertial navigation system to replace the SIGMA 30, which promises enhanced geolocation and pointing accuracy in environments with no GNSS signal. Another differentiating feature is a more powerful hydraulic pump, enabling the stabilizer to be lowered and raised more quickly. This development could, in theory, shave a few precious seconds off engagement and disengagement maneuvers.[29] Finally, the cabin will be predisposed to receive the vetronics of the SCORPION combat information network, such as the NCT-t (noeud de communication tactique - terre) software radio from the CONTACT program and the ECLIPSE anti-IED jammer from Thales, a technology that could be extended to anti-drone warfare, and which Belgium has chosen to integrate natively.[29] The new armored cabin to protect against mines and ballistic projectiles is expected to raise the CAESAR Mark II's weight to 25 tonnes (27.56 tons) but the system will remain air-transportable, an indispensable French requirement.[28]

All 109 units ordered for the French Army are expected to be delivered between 2026 and 2030.[28] Belgium and Lithuania are the first export customers of the new system and have respectively ordered 28 and 18 units.[29][32]

Operational deployment[edit]

Eight CAESARs were sent to Afghanistan during the summer of 2009 to support French operations. They were deployed on 1 August 2009 by the 3rd Marine Artillery Regiment (3è RAMa), followed by five others, deployed as a firebase in FOB Tora, Tagab and Nijrab. They were fitted with cabin armor add-ons, with fireports.[33][34]

The French Army deployed this system in southern Lebanon as part of the UNIFIL peacekeeping force.

During Operation Serval in Mali, four CAESARs were deployed by the 68e régiment d'artillerie d'Afrique (68th African Artillery Regiment).[35]

In April 2011, the Royal Thai Army used the CAESAR against Cambodia's BM-21. The Thai Army claimed that they destroyed two or more BM-21 systems.[36]

Several CAESARs were deployed in Mali by France during Operation Serval, in which they saw action in the Battle of Ifoghas, amongst others. France also deployed four CAESARs to Iraq for the Battle of Mosul, where French forces supported the Iraqi Army's operation to reclaim Mosul from ISIS from October 2016 to July 2017.[37] Multiple CAESARs were deployed to Iraq on the Syrian border from 8 November 2018 to April 2019 to support the Syrian Democratic Forces in the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani, the ultimately successful operation to capture the final town held by the Islamic State group. They were deployed to Firebase Saham, a base freshly constructed by the United States Army to provide fire support during the battle, especially during cloudy days when U.S. aircraft could not see to conduct airstrikes.[38]

CAESAR howitzers may have been used by the Saudi Arabia National Guard during the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen along the Saudi-Yemeni frontier, conducting defensive shelling of Houthi forces as well as backing up Yemeni government troops and Saudi armed forces in their progression into Yemeni territory.[39]

France provided the CAESAR 6x6 howitzer to Ukraine from May 2022 onwards in the context of the Russo-Ukrainian War,[40] delivering a total of 30 units.[41][42] Denmark also announced that it had delivered all 19 of its CAESAR 8x8 howitzers to Ukraine by the end of April 2023.[43] As of January 2024, 5 CAESARs were confirmed to have been destroyed (4 CAESAR 6x6 and 1 CAESAR 8x8) and a further 2 damaged and repaired.[44][45]

Operators[edit]

Operators

(September 2023)

Orders Deliveries Donation

[ + / - ]

Known Losses

[ - ]

Operational
Caesar (Mk1) Caesar NG (Mk2) Sherpa 5

6×6

Unimog U2450L

6×6

Tatra 817

8×8

Caesar NG (Mk2)

Armis [fr]

6×6

Armenia Armenia 36 (+ 36) 0
Belgium Belgium 28 (+ 28) 0
Czech Republic Czechia 52 + 10 (+ 62) 0
Danish Realm Denmark 15 + 4 19 - 19[46] 0
Estonia Estonia 12 (+ 12) 0
France France 77 + 30 109[47] 77 (+ 30) (+ 109) - 30[48] -1 46
Indonesia Indonesia 37 + 18 55 55
Lithuania Lithuania 18 (+ 18) 0
Morocco Morocco 36 36 36
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 156 156 156
Thailand Thailand 6 6 6
Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine: 6 Coalition: 12 6 (+ 12) 6×6: + 30

8×8: + 19

6×6: -5
8×8: -1[49]
49
TOTAL 507 155 180 156 19 0 0 - 7 348
662 355
  To be produced and delivered
  Transfer for Ukraine
  • The Danish Army didn't use the CAESAR operationally before its transfer to Ukraine
Map of CAESAR operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

  • France - French Army: The first order (for 5 howitzers) was placed on 20 September 2000. The first five units were delivered in 2003. Following the evaluation, the main order of 72 CAESAR 6x6 howitzers was made in late 2004. In July 2008, the first cannon of the first batch of eight units was delivered to the French Army.[50]
  • Indonesia - Indonesian Army: The Indonesian Army acquired 37 CAESAR units for $240 million, the first two arriving in mid-September 2012. Another 18 were purchased in a follow-up order signed in February 2017.[51][52]
  • Morocco - Royal Moroccan Army: In January 2020, Morocco agreed to purchase CAESAR 6x6 howitzers, at a total cost of €170 million for the artillery pieces and €30 million for the ammunition.[53] In early September 2022, the Royal Moroccan Artillery received 36 of up to 60 systems available to order under this contract.[54][55][56]
  • Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabian National Guard: In 2006, GIAT announced a 76-unit sale plus a 4-unit option to an unspecified foreign customer, later confirmed to be Saudi Arabia.[57] The 4 optional units became firm sales in January 2007, with the first two units to be assembled in France and the other 78 in Saudi Arabia.[58] In March 2010, the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) was delivered its first four units.[59] All 80 units were delivered by 2018.
  • Thailand - Royal Thai Army: 6 CAESARs mounted on Sherpa 6x6 truck chassis were ordered in 2006 and have been operated by the Royal Thai Army (RTA) since 2010.[2][57]
  • Ukraine - Ukrainian Ground Forces: Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, France and Denmark provided Ukraine with several Caesar guns.
    • Donations:
      • 12 announced by France in April 2022, seen on the field from May 2022 (Caesar Mk1 6×6) [60][40][61]
      • 6 announced by France in June 2022, delivered by July 2022 (Caesar Mk1 6×6) [62]
      • 12 announced by France in January 2023 (Caesar Mk1 6×6) [42]
      • 19 announced by Denmark in January 2023, all delivered by 28th of April 2023 (Caesar Mk1 8×8)[43][63][64]
    • Caesar coalition for Ukraine: At the launch, on 18 January 2024, of the Artillery Coalition led by France and the United States to support the Ukrainian war effort, the French defense minister, Sébastien Lecornu, announced the production of 6 CAESAR 6×6 artillery systems with the intent to produce 72 additional units for Ukraine in 2024.[65][66][67][68]
      • The first order of 6 CAESAR was initiated by Ukraine itself
      • 12 CAESAR will be financed by France
      • The other 22 members of the coalition are expected to each contribute financing for the remaining 60 systemsDeliveries of the coalition order:
      • As of end of March, 6 delivered to Ukraine [69]

Future deliveries[edit]

  • Armenia - Armenian Armed Forces: Alongside the Eurosatory 2024 Exhibition, the Defense Ministry of Armenia and the KNDS defense company signed a military-technical agreement. A day later, the French defense minister Sébastien Lecornu announced the signing of a contract with Armenia for the acquisition of CAESAR Mk1 howitzers. With the sale to Croatia and Estonia, the total reached 60 systems, meaning 36 for Armenia.[70][71][72]
  • Belgium - Belgian Land Component: Following the acquisition of the Griffon and Jaguar within the CaMo-program, Belgium decided in 2021 to order 9 CAESAR NG 6x6 howitzers in a contract of approximately €48 million. In June 2022 a €62 million contract was signed for an additional 19 CAESAR NG. Delivery of the first units is expected in 2027.[73][74]
  • Czech Republic - Czech Land Forces: In June 2020, Nexter won a €200 million contract to provide the CAESAR 8x8 to the Czech Army. 52 systems integrated on the Czech Tatra 815–7T3RC1 8×8 chassis were ordered.[75] 10 additional units were ordered in December 2022.[76]
  • Estonia - Estonian Land Forces: On 19 June 2024, Estonia ordered 12 French-made CAESAR Mk1 howitzers. Six will be delivered in 2024, and another six in 2025. The agreement has an option to buy additional units.[77][72]
  • France - French Army: 109 CAESAR NG are on order for the French Army and will be delivered from 2026 onwards.[78]
  • Lithuania - Lithuanian Land Forces: In June 2022 Lithuania joined the CAESAR NG (Mk2) program with an order for 18 units, with first deliveries expected in 2026.[79][32]

Potential operators[edit]

  • Croatia - Croatian Army: Framework agreement signed at Eurosatory 2024 with France, without an obligation to purchase it in the Mk2 variant.[80][72]
  • Malaysia - Malaysian Army: Offered by KNDS in May 2024, and to be assembled and integrated in the industrial facilities of ADSSB in Segamat. [81]
  • Slovenia - Slovenian Army: In July 2024, the Slovenian MOD signed a Letter of Intent with the French MOD on the European joint procurement of Caesar artillery systems.[82][72]

Former operators[edit]

  • Danish Realm - Royal Danish Army: On 14 March 2017 the CAESAR 8x8 was chosen to become the new artillery system of the Royal Danish Army. 15 howitzers were ordered in May 2017 and an additional 4 in October 2019 for a total of 19 CAESAR units.[83][84][85] Delivery of the first 15 units was expected to take place by summer 2020 but the COVID pandemic led to the delivery of a first batch being delayed to spring 2021, with delivery of all 19 units expected in 2023.[86] However, following discussions with France, Denmark decided on 19 January 2023 to donate all systems to Ukraine in the context of the 2022 Russian invasion.[63][87] The capability gap that arose from this decision led to a new bid for which Nexter, once again, and Israel's Soltam Systems competed. Denmark opted for the ATMOS 2000 system over the CAESAR, with the production backlog of the CAESAR and Soltam's ability to quickly deliver the howitzers being cited among the reasons for said choice.[88] Denmark's interest in purchasing 8 PULS rocket artillery systems from Elbit Systems as well as the fact that it already operated the Cardom 120 mm self-propelled mortar, which is produced by Soltam as well, had reportedly also favored the acquisition of the ATMOS as it meant having a sole supplier (Israel) for the artillery segment.[89]

Failed bids[edit]

  • Colombia - National Army of Colombia: The Caesar was one of the competitors of the program "Soberana", intended to provide the future 155 mm artillery system. The other competitors were the ATMOS 2000 and the Turkish Yavuz SPh 6x6 by MKE. On 1 January 2023, Indodefensa announced that the Colombian Army favored the French system and that the government was about to notify the contract for the Caesar 6x6 to Nexter for US$101.7 million.[93] However, on 3 January 2023, Colombia announced the order of 18 ATMOS 2000 for US$101.7 million.[94] It was reported the value of the CAESAR contract notified by Nexter exceeded the budget allocated to the program, leading to the negotiations falling through and Colombia choosing the ATMOS instead.[94][95]
  • Norway - Norwegian Army: In January 2016, Norway had shortlisted CAESAR, the K9 Thunder, the PzH 2000 and a modernized version of the M109 Paladin proposed by Switzerland's RUAG to replace the 18 M109A3GN self-propelled guns in service with the Norwegian Armed forces. The K9 was selected for purchase in December 2017.[96]
  • United Kingdom - British Army: The army was looking for a replacement for the AS-90 tracked self-propelled howitzers by 2032 (under a project named Mobile Fire Platform). All types of self-propelled howitzers were being considered. 116 units are to be acquired.[97] The UK had already acquired 14 Archer Artillery Systems as a short-term solution to replace the 30 AS-90 transferred to Ukraine. The 8x8 Archer variant is offered as part of the MFP program.[98] Other prominent bidders included Hanwha Aerospace with its K9 Thunder[99] and KNDS (Nexter and KMW) with the 8x8 CAESAR and the RCH 155. In April 2024, the United Kingdom selected the RCH 155. [100]

Evaluation only[edit]

  • India - Indian Army: The army is looking to modernize its artillery. The Field Artillery Rationalisation Plan defined in 2021 the way to be followed, focusing on the Made in India. The Indian Army is expecting[101] 814 truck-mounted guns (MGS program = multi-terrain gun system). An RFI was issued on 3 April 2021, with the intent to acquire a truck-mounted howitzer capable of being deployed in deserts, high altitude and mountainous terrains.[102][103] CAESAR was offered in 2014 as part of a collaboration between Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro. The system is mounted on an Ashok Leyland Super Stallion 6x6. India was initially interested in an MGS, 200 that would be ordered off-shelf, and later 614 manufactured locally. The tender initially opened to foreign bidders was, however, scrapped for the sake of the Make in India initiative, favoring local designs.
  • United States - United States Army & United States Marine Corps: The Army was interested in a mobile platform. Some "Mobile Howitzer Trials and Shoot-Off" had been occurring in 2021.[97] The systems tested were the CAESAR, the BRUTUS, the ATMOS 2000, the Archer and the Nora B-52. The Army was very positive with the Caesar,[104] but ultimately did not move forward with acquiring a wheeled howitzer system.[105]


Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Genys, Andrius. "CAESAR 8x8: 155 mm self-propelled gun-howitzer". Military Today. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  2. ^ a b "Caesar self propelled gun". Defense Update. 26 July 2006. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  3. ^ "155 mm HE ER FB-BB (OFd M3-DV)". MSM GROUP. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Renault Sherpa chassis chosen for CAESAR". ResearchGate.
  5. ^ Izard, Laurent (5 November 2021). "Pulls militaires fabriqués au Maroc: «Le gouvernement a le devoir moral de choisir, à qualité d'offre équivalente, des producteurs français»" [Military sweaters made in Morocco: “Given products of equal quality, the government has the moral duty to choose French producers”]. Le Figaro (Interview) (in French). Interviewed by Ronan Planchon. Paris, France: Groupe Figaro. Retrieved 21 June 2024. Le canon automoteur Caesar (que nous venons de vendre à la Belgique) produit par Nexter, en constitue une parfaite illustration : son châssis, français, est un Renault Sherpa 5 d'Arquus (ex-Renault Trucks Defense)...En revanche, le châssis «export» est un Mercedes-Benz Unimog. [The Caesar self-propelled cannon (which we have just sold to Belgium), produced by Nexter, constitutes a perfect example: its French chassis is a Renault Sherpa 5 from Arquus (ex-Renault Trucks Defense)...On the other hand, its "export" chassis is a Mercedes-Benz Unimog.]
  6. ^ a b c d Foss, Christopher Frank (2011). Jane's Armour and Artillery 2011-2012. London, England: IHS Global Limited. pp. 879–881. ISBN 978-0-7106-2960-9.
  7. ^ a b Girard, Philippe (28 March 2023). "Le CAESAR, ou la genèse atypique d'un matériel d'armement" [The CAESAR, or the unusual genesis of a weapon system]. Le magazine des ingénieurs de l'armement (in French). Paris, France: Confédération Amicale des Ingénieurs de l'Armement. Retrieved 20 June 2024.
  8. ^ "Caesar à l'honneur" [Caesar in the spotlight] (PDF). GIAT Magazine (in French). Paris, France: GIAT Industries. April 2001. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2024.
  9. ^ "Commande de canons CAESAR à Giat Industries" [Order for Caesar howitzers from Giat Industries] (Press release) (in French). Paris, France: Délégation à l’Information et à la Communication de la Défense. 20 September 2000. Archived from the original on 11 June 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2024.
  10. ^ "Delivery of Caesar artillery systems to the French Army" (Press release). Versailles-Satory, France: GIAT Industries. 24 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2 August 2003. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  11. ^ "La France commande 72 canons d'artillerie Caesar® à Giat Industries" [France orders 72 Caesar artillery cannons from Giat Industries] (Press release) (in French). Versailles-Satory, France: GIAT Industries. 13 December 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  12. ^ "First export contract for CAESAR artillery systems" (Press release). Versailles-Satory, France: GIAT Industries. 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
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  14. ^ Perrimond, Guy, ed. (February 2007). "IDEX 2007: Premiers enseignements" [IDEX 2007: First lessons]. TTU Online. Dossiers (in French). Certes SARL. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2024. Les succès du Caesar à l'exportation, avec le contrat conclu avec l'armée de terre thaïlandaise (six Caesar/RTD) et la Garde nationale saoudienne (76 Caesar), devraient lui ouvrir les portes des autres pays du Golfe (Koweït, Oman, Qatar et EAU), qui ont déjà manifesté leur intérêt. [The success of the Caesar in exports, with the contract concluded with the Thai army (six Caesar/RTD) and the Saudi National Guard (76 Caesar), should open the doors of other Gulf countries (Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the UAE) who have already expressed interest.]
  15. ^ Kotlarski, Amael (18 June 2022). "Eurosatory 2022: Lithuania signals intent to acquire CAESAR SPH". Janes Information Services. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2024.
  16. ^ Gastal, Alain (22 February 2023). "Ça fait voir que la France est armée : à l'usine Caesar à Bourges, on est fier de voir le canon livré à l'Ukraine" [This shows that France is armed: In the Caesar factory in Bourges, one is proud of seeing the gun delivered to Ukraine]. France Info (in French). Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  17. ^ "Avec la guerre en Ukraine, les besoins en obus relancent une usine d'armement à Tarbes" [With the war in Ukraine, the need for shells revives an arms factory in Tarbes]. Le Parisien (in French). Paris, France: LVMH. 7 April 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2024.
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  20. ^ Gain, Nathan (12 October 2021). "Un nouveau cap pour les Forges de Tarbes" [A new direction for the Tarbes forges]. Forces Operations Blog (in French). Retrieved 20 June 2024.
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  22. ^ Yakout, Hassan; Abdel-Kader, Mohamed S. (14–16 May 1991). Asessment of ERFB-BB Projectile (PDF). Fourth ASAT Conference. Cairo: Military Technical College. MF-366.
  23. ^ "Safran dévoile à Eurosatory 2016 sa nouvelle gamme de centrales d'artillerie Sigma 30" [Safran unveils its new line of Sigma 30 artillery control units at Eurosatory 2016] (Press release) (in French). Safran. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2024.
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