CANZUK

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

CANZUK
(Canada, Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom)
Anthem: God Save The Queen
A map highlighting the proposed CANZUK countries and dependencies. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   CANZUK countries .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   Dependencies of CANZUK countries
A map highlighting the proposed CANZUK countries and dependencies.
  CANZUK countries
  Dependencies of CANZUK countries
TypeInternational organisation/free-trade area/freedom of movement area
Membership
Area
• Total
18,187,210 km2 (7,022,120 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.0%
Population
• 2020 estimate
136,649,018[2][3][4][5]
• Density
7.5/km2 (19.4/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$6.456 trillion
• Per capita
$45,919

CANZUK is an acronym for the theoretical cultural, political, and economic community comprising Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom as part of an international body similar in scope to the former European Economic Community.[6] This includes increased trade, foreign policy co-operation, military co-operation and mobility of citizens between the four states.[7] The idea is supported by various organisations and think tanks, such as CANZUK International, the Adam Smith Institute, the Henry Jackson Society,[8] Bruges Group[9] and politicians from the four countries.

History[edit]

The term[edit]

The term CANZUK was first coined by the author William David McIntyre in his 1967 book Colonies into Commonwealth in the context of a "CANZUK Union".[10] The idea of increased migration, trade and foreign policy cooperation between the CANZUK countries was created and popularized in 2015 by CEO and Founder of CANZUK International[11] (formerly the Commonwealth Freedom of Movement Organisation), James Skinner.[12][13]

In the wake of the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum and the decision made by the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, writers such as Andrew Lilico and James C. Bennett, along with academics such as the historian Andrew Roberts also advocated that Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom merge and form a new entity in international politics.[14][15] Andrew Roberts suggested that such a bloc could slot into the international order as a third pillar of the West (alongside the United States and the European Union). Beyond this, Roberts argues that due to its territorial scale, geographic scope and advanced economy that it would qualify as a "great power" and potentially a "global power" (or emerging superpower).[16]

Some advocates such as Roberts favour a federal or confederal union. Others, such as Lilico describe the objective as being the creation of a "geopolitical partnership" akin to the European Economic Community.[17] In the version favoured by Lilico, by the advocacy group CANZUK international and by the Canadian Conservative Party, the proposal would involve the creation of a free-movement zone, a multilateral free trade agreement and a security partnership. The more general concept of deepening trade ties (with or without a multilateral agreement) has many advocates, including figures such as Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison,[18] Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau,[19] former British Prime Minister Theresa May[20] and New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern.[21]

Relationship[edit]

British diaspora by country

Canada, Australia and New Zealand are former settler colonies of the British Empire where people of British ethnic origin came to constitute the majority of the population.[22] Today, the four CANZUK countries maintain a close affinity of cultural, diplomatic and military ties to one another. The Australian and New Zealand flags contain the flag of the United Kingdom in their canton; and the Union Flag is also one of two official flags of Canada (referred to as the Royal Union Flag).

Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom are also Commonwealth realms which share Elizabeth II as constitutional monarch and head of state. The countries share a number of institutional, linguistic and religious similarities such as the use of the Westminster parliamentary system of government, common law, British English terminology and, according to Augusto Zimmermann, the adoption of Christian values.[23] The CANZUK countries form part of the English-speaking world and share a number of Anglosphere military initiatives with each other including the Fincastle Trophy, Five Eyes intelligence, ABCANZ Armies and AUSCANNZUKUS, which are concerned with increased military and naval co-operation. Canada and the United Kingdom are allied through the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation while Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom are allied through the Five Power Defence Arrangements.

Public relations are extremely warm between the four countries, with consistent evidence that people in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regard each other's countries as their country's closest friends and allies in the world.[24][25][26][27]

Since 1983, Australia and New Zealand have had formal trade ties with the Closer Economic Relations (CER) agreement.

Country comparison[edit]

Canada[28] Australia[29] New Zealand[30] United Kingdom[31]
Flag Canada Australia New Zealand United Kingdom
Coat of arms Canada Australia New Zealand United Kingdom
Population 37,971,020
(as of 2020)[2]
25,522,169
(as of 2019)[32]
5,021,400
(as of 2020)[33]
66,796,807
(as of 2019)[34]
Area 9,984,670 km2[28] 7,741,220 km2[29] 268,838 km2[30] 243,610 km2[31]
Population density 3.9/km2 3.3/km2 18.3/km2 270.7/km2
Capital city Ottawa Canberra Wellington London
Largest urban areas
(2020)

[28][29][30][31]

Form of government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[28] Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[29] Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy[30] Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy[31]
Head of State Queen Elizabeth II Queen Elizabeth II Queen Elizabeth II Queen Elizabeth II
Head of government PM Justin Trudeau PM Scott Morrison PM Jacinda Ardern PM Boris Johnson
Official languages English
Main religions
(as of 2011)[d]
(as of 2016)[e]
(as of 2018)[f]
(as of 2011)[g]
Currency Canadian dollar Australian dollar New Zealand dollar Pound sterling

Economic comparison[edit]

Using data from 2019, below is a table comparing the CANZUK countries to each other, as well as their combined size as a percentage of the world.

Country Population Total land area (km2) Total land area (mi2) Nominal GDP

(billions USD)[43]

Nominal GDP per capita

(USD)

PPP GDP

(billions USD)[44]

PPP GDP per capita

(USD)

National Wealth

(billions USD)[45]

National Wealth

per capita (USD)

Human Development

Index (2018)[46]

 Canada 38,014,184[47] 9,984,670 3,855,100 $1,820.00 $48,774 $1,931.00 $51,749 $7,407 $202,240 0.926 (very high)
 Australia 25,741,500[3] 7,741,220 2,969,907 $1,500.26 $61,359 $1,235.30 $50,522 $7,329 $299,748 0.939 (very high)
 New Zealand 5,007,330[4] 268,838 104,428 $206 $42,692 $185.748 $42,940 $1,162 $240,821 0.917 (very high)
 United Kingdom 67,886,004[5] 243,610 93,628 $2,936.29 $44,367 $2,880.25 $43,520 $14,073 $212,640 0.922 (very high)
Total 136,649,018 18,238,338 7,023,063 $6,441.01 $48,765 $6,065.08 $45,919 $29,971 $226,913 0.926 (very high)
Global Rank 10 1 3 4 3 12
Total as % of World 1.7% 12.2% 7.4% 4.8% 10.7%

Supporting views[edit]

Several organisations have been set up that promote, to varying degrees, much closer associations between the CANZUK nations. CANZUK International has, as its stated aim, the desire to establish an area of freedom of movement akin to that which existed before the European Communities Act 1972, or as a mirror to the rights of free movement as seen within the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.[48] Other organisations are largely voluntary groupings of those who advocate the more specific idea of transnational union, such as "CANZUK Uniting".[49]

Canada[edit]

Several members of parliament voiced their support for the CANZUK initiative during the Conservative Party of Canada's 2017 leadership election. The eventual winner of the leadership election, Andrew Scheer, stated his support for a CANZUK free trade deal in March 2017. At a debate in Vancouver, British Columbia, Scheer stated, "I very much support a trade deal with those countries. Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have a similar basis of law, they have a common democratic system, they have the same types of legislation and regulations around investment and trade. Those are the types of things we don't enjoy with China".[50][better source needed]

Other candidates for the Conservative Party leadership also adopted CANZUK free trade and free movement as a part of their campaigns platforms, including Erin O'Toole and Michael Chong.[51] In April 2017, O'Toole released a video with CANZUK International, describing the CANZUK initiative as "a no brainer", stating that Canada already offers free trade and free mobility with citizens of the United States and should therefore offer such benefits to "our other closest allies".[52] O'Toole again supported CANZUK during his successful campaign for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada in 2020.[53]

In August 2018, the Conservative Party of Canada adopted CANZUK as official party policy at their 2018 party convention by 215 votes to 7.[54][55] The party presently serves as the Official Opposition in the Parliament of Canada.

In August 2020, the Conservatives elected Erin O'Toole as their Leader.[56]

Australia[edit]

In August 2017, Liberal Senator for Victoria, James Paterson, published an opinion-piece in the Australian Financial Review declaring support for CANZUK free trade and free movement, stating "With Australia, New Zealand and Canada all lining up to sign post-Brexit trade agreements with the United Kingdom, we have an opportunity to push for a wide-ranging agreement between all four Commonwealth nations...It's an idea whose time has come."[57]

New Zealand[edit]

In New Zealand, ACT New Zealand has expressed support for a "free-movement zone", with leader David Seymour stating, "Successful nations like Britain and New Zealand shouldn't be putting up walls and shutting off from each other when it's the exchange of ideas that has made our nations so prosperous. Brexit provides new options as Britain pivots away from European immigration. Let's approach Britain with a proposal for a two-way free movement agreement".[58]

In April 2018 Simon Bridges MP, then Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the National Party, announced his support for CANZUK.[59]

Leader of the New Zealand First political party Winston Peters called in February 2016 for a Commonwealth Free Trade Area modelled on the one in existence between Australia and New Zealand. In his comments, he suggested the inclusion of the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand in this area, with the possibility of adding South Africa, India, or others, referring to the putative free trade area as a 'Closer Commonwealth Economic Relations' area, or CCER.[60] CCER was included as New Zealand government policy in the Labour-NZ First coalition agreement.[61]

United Kingdom[edit]

On 11 July 2012, Andrew Rosindell MP put forward a private members' bill to the UK Parliament which would involve allowing "subjects of Her Majesty's realms to enter the United Kingdom through a dedicated channel at international terminals", "display prominently a portrait of Her Majesty as Head of State" and the Union flag, and other provisions,[62] which would include citizens of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, with the stated aim of introducing reciprocal border agreements between the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms in the future.[63] The bill was supported by MPs Nigel Dodds (DUP), Rory Stewart (Conservative), Bob Blackman (Conservative), Steve Baker (Conservative), Priti Patel (Conservative), Mark Menzies (Conservative), Kate Hoey (Labour), Ian Paisley (DUP), John Redwood (Conservative) and Thomas Docherty (Labour).[63] The "Bill failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session ... and [made] no further progress."[62]

The Adam Smith Institute expressed its support for CANZUK in early 2018.[64][65][66]

Conservative MEP for South East England Daniel Hannan expressed his support for CANZUK as a guest speaker at the 2018 Canadian Conservative Party convention in Halifax.[67] Scottish Conservative MP Bill Grant also expressed his support for increased ties between the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand on his webpage in 2018 and stated that British Ministers are aware of CANZUK and "are very enthusiastic about our future relationships and trade with each of the countries involved".[68]

Since early 2020, the grassroots Conservative Party movement Conservatives for CANZUK has influenced MPs to build support for a post-Brexit realignment of British foreign policy among Conservative Party members, other MPs, peers and policy makers.[69] Open supporters includes 23 MPs among whom notably include Jeremy Hunt and Paul Bristow - chairman of the CANZUK APPG.[70]

Opposing views[edit]

Critics have suggested that the CANZUK project would not make sense as a geopolitical construct in the 21st century. Nick Cohen wrote in April 2016 that "It's a Eurosceptic fantasy that the 'Anglosphere' wants Brexit", and emphasises the gradual separation that has occurred between each of the states in both legal and political culture since the end of the British Empire.[71] It has been argued that geographical separation limits the value of any such union, in keeping with the mainstream economic opinion that considers the 'distance and the size of trading partners matter more than historical links in determining trading relationships between countries'.[72] Former Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd reiterated this sentiment, stating that "much as any Australian, Canadian and New Zealand governments of whichever persuasion would do whatever they could to frame new free-trade agreements with the UK, the bottom line is that 65 million of us do not come within a bull's roar of Britain's adjacent market of 450 million Europeans", describing the idea as "bollocks".[73]

Economic, geographical, political and social complexities would limit the influence that this bloc could exert. Only one of the countries (the United Kingdom) has significant military capabilities, and it is the only one with a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. The UK economy is considerably bigger than those of each of the three other countries.[74]

An editorial in Canada's Globe and Mail, which described CANZUK as "a silly name", pointed out that those Commonwealth countries with which advocates of Brexit were most enamoured were "ex-Dominions where white people predominate" and that even if it were broadened to include populous countries like Nigeria and India, the group had "nowhere near the latent appetite for trade with Britain that would make the scheme credible".[75] In an article published in The New York Times in April 2018, historian Alex von Tunzelmann stated that "no doubt, the advocates of reviving Britain's links with Canada, Australia and New Zealand can cite myriad reasons that have nothing to do with racism to explain why South Africa, India, Pakistan or the Caribbean nations are just different. Still, majority-nonwhite nations will notice if they are treated as them rather than us, because this will not be the first time that has happened."[76]

In academia, Duncan Bell criticises contemporary 'Anglospheric discourse' and concludes that modern political commentary is "a pale imitation of previous iterations", lacking support across the political spectrum.[77] International affairs professor Srdjan Vucetic expands on this idea further, describing CANZUK as "the latest variant of a long line of projects seeking to consolidate the British settler empire, projects that were until deep into the second half of the twentieth century justified in explicitly racist terms" and questioned the viability of a CANZUK defence pact without the inclusion of the United States, as in the Five Eyes and ABCANZ alliances.[78]

Official views[edit]

On a visit to Australia in September 2019, the UK International Trade Secretary Liz Truss stated that the British government would raise free movement between Australia and the UK during post-Brexit negotiations for a free-trade agreement.[79]

In January 2020, it was reported that Australia's Morrison Government was opposed to expanding freedom of movement between Australia and the UK. Australian trade minister Simon Birmingham had said he "can't imagine full and unfettered free movement" would be discussed during post-Brexit negotiations for a free-trade agreement.[80] Australian prime minister Scott Morrison had earlier said in September 2019 that "the New Zealand arrangement is quite unique and it's not one we would probably ever contemplate extending".[81]

Public opinion[edit]

2015[edit]

Public opinion polling conducted by research firm YouGov in 2015 found that 58 per cent of British people would support freedom of movement and work between the citizens of the United Kingdom and the citizens of Australia, Canada and New Zealand, with 19 per cent opposed to the idea and 23 per cent undecided, with support for the proposals found in all four countries of the United Kingdom.[82] The research also found that British people valued free mobility between the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand more than they valued free mobility between the United Kingdom and the European Union at 46 per cent to 35 per cent.[83] Opinion polls from other firms was not published.

2016[edit]

Opinion poll surveys commissioned by the Royal Commonwealth Society in 2016 found that 70 per cent of Australians said they were supportive of the proposal, with 10 per cent opposed to it; 75 per cent of Canadians said they supported the idea and 15 per cent were opposed to it and 82 per cent of New Zealanders stated that they supported the idea, with 10 per cent opposed.[83] All of the respective provinces, states and territories of Australia, Canada and New Zealand registered majority support for the proposals.[83]

2017[edit]

Further polling of 2,000 people conducted in January 2017 found support for free movement of people and goods with certain limitations on citizens claiming tax-funded payments on entry across Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, with undecideds included. Counting undecideds as giving support makes these results somewhat questionable. Support in Australia was at 72 per cent, 77 per cent in Canada, 81 per cent in New Zealand and 64 per cent in the United Kingdom.[84][85]

2018[edit]

Opinion polling of 13,600 respondents from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom conducted between January and March 2018 found increased support for reciprocal free trade and movement of people between the countries when compared to 2017, with support at 73 per cent in Australia (up 1 per cent); 76 per cent in Canada (down 1 per cent); 82 per cent in New Zealand (up 1 per cent); and 68 per cent in the United Kingdom (up 4 per cent).[86] The opinion polling indicated greater support for the proposals in the North and South Islands of New Zealand at 83 per cent and 81 per cent support respectively; British Columbia and Ontario in Canada at 82 per cent and 80 per cent support respectively; and New South Wales and Victoria in Australia at 79 per cent support each, while lesser support was observed in the province of Quebec in Canada at 63 per cent support; Northern Ireland and Scotland in the United Kingdom at 64 per cent and 66 per cent support respectively; and Western Australia at 65 per cent support.[87]

2020[edit]

After his victory in the 2020 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election, Erin O'Toole, made CANZUK a priority in his platform.[88]

Andrew Lilico wrote a positive piece in the Telegraph in September, remarking on the "endless opportunities" of CANZUK.[89][relevant? ]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ English is a de facto official language due to its widespread use[41]
  2. ^ Welsh is a de jure official language in Wales under the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011[42]
  3. ^ a b "Christian" includes Christian denominations that are not separately listed here for the country.
  4. ^ Canadian religions are 2011 estimates.[28]
  5. ^ Australian religions are 2016 estimates.[29]
  6. ^ New Zealand religions are "based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one."[30]
  7. ^ United Kingdom religions are 2011 estimates.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 'CANZUK' alliance idea makes waves with Indo-Pacific in flux
  2. ^ a b "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. 18 June 2020. doi:10.25318/1710000901-eng. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  3. ^ a b Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of (18 March 2020). "Population clock". www.abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Population clock". archive.stats.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  6. ^ Andrew Roberts. "CANZUK: after Brexit, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Britain can unite as a pillar of Western civilisation". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  7. ^ Andrew Lilico. "CANZUK is calling. Will Britain respond?". CAPX. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  8. ^ Henry Jackson Society (February 2019). "Global Britain: A Twenty-First Century Vision" Archived 1 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine. London: Henry Jackson Society. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  9. ^ Bruges Group (11 August 2020). "Kiwis and CANZUK: A Bridge Too Far No More?". London: Bruges Group. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  10. ^ Colonies Into Commonwealth Archived 28 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine, William David McIntyre, Walker, 1967, page 375
  11. ^ Global News (21 January 2018). "Push for free movement of Canadians, Kiwis, Britons and Australians gains momentum" Archived 12 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Global News. Canada. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  12. ^ The Express (2 February 2020). "Britain’s plan for post-Brexit union with Canada, Australia and New Zealand REVEALED" Archived 2 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine. The Express. London. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  13. ^ The Spectator (28 October 2020). "Erin O'Toole on CANZUK: A bolder, bigger, and better Union? | The Spectator's Alternative Conference" YouTube. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  14. ^ Andrew Lilico (7 August 2016). "From Brexit to CANZUK: A call from Britain to team up with Canada, Australia and New Zealand" Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Financial Post. London. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  15. ^ James C. Bennett (2016). A Time for Audacity: New Options Beyond Europe. Pole to Pole Publishing. ASIN: B01H4U7FAQ. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  16. ^ Andrew Roberts (13 September 2016). "CANZUK: After Brexit, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Britain can unite as a pillar of Western civilisation" Archived 3 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine. The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  17. ^ "CANZUK Uniting". CANZUK Uniting. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  18. ^ Press release. "PM meeting with PM Morrison" Archived 2 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine(1 December 2018). British Government. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  19. ^ BBC News. "Justin Trudeau wants 'seamless' UK trade deal after Brexit" Archived 17 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine(18 April 2018)
  20. ^ BBC News. "New Zealand happy to forget the UK's 'betrayal'" Archived 23 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine(24 May 2018)
  21. ^ Ardern, Jacinda (20 January 2019). "Whatever Britain decides about its new place in the world, New Zealand stands with you". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  22. ^ Marshall 2001, p. 254.
  23. ^ Augusto Zimmermann (2014) "CONSTITUTING A 'CHRISTIAN COMMONWEALTH': CHRISTIAN FOUNDATIONS OF AUSTRALIA'S CONSTITUTIONALISM" Archived 9 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Canada-US Relations Tracking". Nanos Research. 2018. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  25. ^ "Poll". Lowy Institute. 2018. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  26. ^ "Poll: Who's New Zealand's best friend?". 22 June 2017. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via www.newshub.co.nz.
  27. ^ "From the Outside In: G20 views of the UK before and after the EU referendum'" (PDF). British Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  28. ^ a b c d e "North America :: Canada — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d e "Australia - Oceania :: Australia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d e "Australia - Oceania :: New Zealand — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Europe :: United Kingdom — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  32. ^ "Main Features - Key statistics". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  33. ^ "Estimated Resident Population (Mean Quarter Ended)". Statistics New Zealand. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  34. ^ "Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". Office for National Statistics. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  35. ^ https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1710014201&geocode=A00054806016
  36. ^ "Ottawa - Gatineau [Census metropolitan area], Ontario/Quebec and Ontario [Province] (table). Census Profile. 2016 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001". Statistics Canada. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  37. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  38. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2018–19". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2020
  39. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2018–19, ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION – States and Territories - Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, 30 June 2019". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020
  40. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18: Population Estimates by Significant Urban Area, 2008 to 2018". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018.
  41. ^ [1], (PDF) (Report). p. 89. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. "In addition to the Māori language, New Zealand Sign Language is also an official language of New Zealand. The New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 permits the use of NZSL in legal proceedings, facilitates competency standards for its interpretation and guides government departments in its promotion and use. English, the medium for teaching and learning in most schools, is a de facto official language by virtue of its widespread use. For these reasons, these three languages have special mention in the New Zealand Curriculum.".
  42. ^ "Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 30 May 2016. The Welsh language has official status in Wales.
  43. ^ "Projected GDP Ranking (2018-2023)". statisticstimes.com. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  44. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  45. ^ "Global Wealth Report 2017 Databook". Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 18 September 2018.
  46. ^ Selim Jahan; et al. "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  47. ^ "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019.
  48. ^ CANZUK International Archived 23 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  49. ^ CANZUK Uniting Archived 16 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  50. ^ "Pro-CANZUK Politician Elected As Federal Party Leader". CANZUK International. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  51. ^ "Erin O'Toole campaign website – "CANZUK"". Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  52. ^ Erin O'Toole for Leader/pour chef (18 February 2017), James Skinner and Erin O'Toole on CANZUK, archived from the original on 12 March 2017, retrieved 28 May 2018
  53. ^ "CANZUK". Erin O'Toole. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  54. ^ "Canadian Conservatives Vote Overwhelmingly to Implement a CANZUK Treaty - CPC Convention 2018". Archived from the original on 15 February 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2018 – via www.youtube.com.
  55. ^ Bateman, Sophie (28 August 2018). "Canada Conservatives vote for free movement, trade with New Zealand". Newshub. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  56. ^ Lao, David (24 August 2020). "Erin O'Toole: A look at the new Conservative leader and what he is promising". Global News.
  57. ^ "Let's fold UK and Canada into the Closer Economic Relations treaty". Senator James Paterson. 28 August 2017. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  58. ^ ACT New Zealand (October 2016). "ACT proposes free movement with Britain, Oz and Canada" Archived 9 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Scoop News. Auckland. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  59. ^ "New Zealand Opposition Leader Backs CANZUK International's Campaign". CANZUK International. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  60. ^ "Winston Peters calls for free trade among Commonwealth". NZHerald.co.nz. 24 February 2016. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  61. ^ Lilico, Andrew (24 October 2017). "New Zealand is taking the initiative on trade — Brexit Britain should respond in kind". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  62. ^ a b "United Kingdom Borders Bill 2012-13". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 11 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018. A Bill to allow subjects of Her Majesty's realms to enter the United Kingdom through a dedicated channel at international terminals, to ensure that all points of entry to the United Kingdom at airports, ports and terminals display prominently a portrait of Her Majesty as Head of State, the Union Flag and other national symbols; to rename and re-establish the UK Border Agency as 'Her Majesty's Border Police'; and to enhance the Agency's powers to protect and defend the borders of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
  63. ^ a b "House of Commons: Oral Answers to Questions". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 11 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  64. ^ Dr. Madsen Pirie (31 January 2018). "Some things that are not right about the Britain of today". Adam Smith Institute. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  65. ^ Matt Kilcoyne (16 April 2018). "Our CANZUK friends should be welcome in post-Brexit Britain". City A.M. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  66. ^ Dr. Madseon Pirie (17 April 2018). "Yes we CANZUK". Adam Smith Institute. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  67. ^ Daniel Hannan (20 September 2018). "Speech at Conservative Party's 2018 convention in Halifax". YouTube. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  68. ^ Bill Grant MP. "Foreign and Commonwealth Office". Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  69. ^ "Conservatives for CANZUK". Conservatives for CANZUK. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  70. ^ "Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the UK (CANZUK) APPG". www.parallelparliament.co.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  71. ^ Nick Cohen (12 April 2016). "It's a Eurosceptic fantasy that the 'Anglosphere' wants Brexit". Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Spectator. London. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  72. ^ Chris Giles. "UK trade deal far from top priority for Canada" Archived 27 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine (November 2016). Financial Times. London. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  73. ^ "Think the Commonwealth can save Brexit Britain? That's utter delusion" Archived 30 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine (11 March 2019). The Guardian..
  74. ^ Dunham, Jackie (15 December 2018). "Increased push for free movement between Canada, U.K., Australia, New Zealand". CTV News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  75. ^ With Brexit looming, Britain suddenly remembers the Commonwealth Archived 26 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine,Globe and Mail, 20 April 2018
  76. ^ von Tunzelmann, Alex (24 April 2018). "The Empire Haunts Britain". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  77. ^ Duncan Bell (2016). 'The Project for a New Anglospheric Century' in Reordering the World: Essays on Liberalism and Empire. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13878-7. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 206-207.
  78. ^ Bell, Duncan; Vucetic, Srdjan (9 November 2018). "Brexit, CANZUK and the Legacy of Empire". SocArXiv: 29. doi:10.31235/osf.io/qw25z. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019.
  79. ^ "Britain will aim for freedom of movement deal with Australia". The Guardian. 19 September 2019. Archived from the original on 19 September 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  80. ^ "Morrison government rules out visa-free travel between Australia, UK". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  81. ^ "UK flags possibility of freedom of movement deal with Australia". News.com.au. 18 September 2019. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  82. ^ "YouGov | Freedom of movement within Commonwealth more popular than within EU". YouGov: What the world thinks. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  83. ^ a b c "UK public strongly backs freedom to live and work in Australia, Canada and New Zealand" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  84. ^ "Survey Reveals Support For CANZUK Free Movement". CANZUK International. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  85. ^ Kilcoyne, Matt (16 April 2018). "Our CANZUK friends should be welcome in post-Brexit Britain". Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  86. ^ "Latest Poll Shows Significant Public Support For CANZUK Free Movement". CANZUK International. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  87. ^ "CANZUK International – "National and Regional Polling Results - April 2018"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  88. ^ "CANZUK". Erin O'Toole. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  89. ^ Lilico, Andrew (30 September 2020). "We should join our partners in embracing the endless opportunities of Canzuk". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 October 2020.