|A CASA CN-235 of the Maritime Safety and Rescue Society|
|Role||Transport aircraft/maritime patrol aircraft|
|National origin||Spain and Indonesia|
|First flight||11 November 1983|
|Introduction||1 March 1988|
|Primary users||Turkish Air Force|
French Air and Space Force
Indonesian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force
|Number built||285 (+ > 57 IPTN)|
|Variants||EADS HC-144 Ocean Sentry|
|Developed into||EADS CASA C-295 |
Indonesian Aerospace N-245
The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by CASA of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey, which has 59 aircraft.
Design and development
The project was a joint venture between Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) and Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), formerly known as IPTN, which formed Airtech International to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.
Design began in January 1980 with the first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and CASA's FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988
In 1994 the Irish Air Corps took delivery of two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft having used one on loan from CASA from 1992 while their own aircraft were being built.
In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.
In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft plus 10 transport planes but the operation was halted because the United States government refused to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the avionics.
In January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.
In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.
One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Indonesian Aerospace to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.
In August 2006, three CASA CN-235-10 aircraft remained in airline service, in Africa, with Safair (two) and Tiko Air (one). Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines, correct as of June/July 2007.
In early July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CASA CN-235s from Spain. In April 2010, Hervé Morin, French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.
In 2011, Indonesian Aerospace was still working on 4 CN-235-110 MPAs for South Korea Coast Guard with amount of $96 million.
The Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s in 2010 and August 2012 under a $13 million contract. They plan to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties. The Air Force is also interested in the maritime patrol version of the aircraft. They ordered two MPA in 2018 and received the first one in 2021.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2020)
Although the CN-235 was initially designed as a military transport, it was also offered as a commercial airliner. However, it did not achieve much success in this role compared to competing 50-seat commuter aircraft such as the Fokker50, ATR 42 and De Havilland Canada DHC-8. Iberia LAE, Spain's flag carrier, bought four CN-235s from CASA for regional routes, and in 1992 Aerolíneas Argentinas (then also a subsidiary of Iberia) ordered two aircraft to be operated by its subsidiary, Austral.
In 2015, Indonesian Aerospace announced that they are currently planning a new variant of CN-235 called N-245 that will be designed specially for civil operation and able to carry up to 60 passengers. Previously also known as CN-235NG, this variant planned to be fully launched after Indonesian Aerospace N-219 project is done and expected to be fully certified in 2019. Further planned development is N-270, a stretched version of N-245 able to carry up to 70–90 passengers and planned to be developed between 2019 and 2024.
- Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
- Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.
- Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built. Series 220 still in production.
- CASA Modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurization and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
- CN-235-330 Phoenix
- Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16,800 kg/37,037 lb MTOW, to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.
- CN-235 MPA
- Maritime patrol version with 6 hardpoints to carry AM-39 Exocet-Missiles or Mk.46-Torpedoes.
- HC-144 Ocean Sentry
- United States Coast Guard designation for a planned twenty-two aircraft fleet bought to replace the small HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2019[update], eighteen had been delivered.
- A light gunship modified with integrated weapons pylons to carry AGM-114 Hellfire missiles and 70 mm rockets, has a side-mounted 30 mm cannon, and a Synthetic aperture radar. The collaborative effort was made by King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau of Jordan, and the U.S. Defense company Orbital ATK
- The Colombian Air Force and the Colombian National Navy operate a total of five CN-235 aircraft.
- The Indonesian Air Force operates the CN-235 and Indonesian Navy operates the CN235MPA. As 2018 eight CN-235 in service with the airforce and five CN-235 in service with the navy.
- The Irish Air Corps operates 2 CN235-100 employed as maritime patrol aircraft. Delivery took place in 1994
- The Royal Malaysian Air Force operates CN-235. From the total of eight aircraft seven remained in service as 2018 due to one aircraft crashed in 2016. In 17 June 2022 Royal Malaysian Air Force receive the first from 3 modified CN235-220M MSA as part of the Malaysian Maritime Security Initiative program.
- The Mexican Navy operates eight CN235-300MPA. The first two were delivered in September 2010.
- The Nepalese Army's Aviation Brigade signed a deal on 16 June 2017 to purchase its very first CN235-220, and began negotiations in February 2018 to purchase a second from Indonesian Aerospace.
- The Republic of Korea Air Force operates 20 airframes; 12 built by CASA in Spain, 8 by IPTN in Indonesia
- The Korean Coast Guard operates four aircraft.
- The Spanish Air and Space Force operates eighteen aircraft.
- The Spanish Civil Guard operates 5 aircraft for surveillance duties.
- The United States Air Force operates thirteen aircraft.
- The United States Coast Guard operates eighteen aircraft – see EADS CASA HC-144 Ocean Sentry.
Former military operators
- The Royal Jordanian Air Force operated two AC-235 gunships, as of December 2018 they are both up for sale.
- The Malagasy Air Force received a single CN-235 (formerly operated by the Botswana Defence Force) in June 2019. It was seized by the supplier Sofema at Johannesburg in November 2020 owing to a failure of Madagascar to keep up payments for the aircraft.
- Yemen Air Force (1x CN-235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on March 25, 2015.
Government and paramilitary operators
- Royal Oman Police (2 x CN-235-M100)
- Sociedad de Salvamento y Seguridad Marítima (Spanish Maritime Safety Agency) (3 X CN-235 MPA)
- Royal Thai Police (2 x CN235-200,220)
- Inter Austral airlines, a subsidiary of Austral Líneas Aéreas, was later integrated into Aerolíneas Argentinas, one ex-Binter.
- Merpati Nusantara Airlines once operated 15
- Tiko Air had one (C012)
- Air Namibia operated one from 2001 to 2006
- Safair had two CN-235s sold in 2006 and 2008
- Binter Canarias and Binter Mediterraneo, both then subsidiaries of Iberia, operated four and five respectively from 1989 to 1997
- Prescott Support Company Inc, operating two CASA CN-235
- Flight International and Flight Turbo AC with one each
- L-3 Communication Systems acquired two aircraft.
- Presidential Airways, Operates one former Binter Canarias.
- Air Venezuela had 2 (1999–2001)
On 11 Feb 2013 a CN-235 crashed into a forest 45 km south of Monrovia, Liberia, 8 km to Roberts International Airport, killing 11 people amongst them Souleymane Kelefa Diallo, Guinea army chief.
Aircraft on display
- SAAF 8026 (cn: P3) South African Air Force on display at the South African Air Force Museum AFB Swartkop, Pretoria. This was one of three CN235 prototypes and served with the Bophutatswana Air Force before service with the SAAF.
Data from Airbus Military
- Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
- Capacity: 51 passengers, 35 paratroops, 18 stretchers or four HCU-6/E pallets including one on the ramp and 6,000 kg (13,100 lb)
- Length: 21.40 m (70 ft 2.5 in)
- Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
- Height: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
- Wing area: 59.10 m2 (636.1 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 11.27:1
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Empty weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 16,100 kg (35,420 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9C3 turboprops, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) each (take-off)
- Cruise speed: 450 km/h (286 mph, 248 kn) at 4,575 m (15,000 ft)
- Stall speed: 156 km/h (97 mph, 84 kn) (flaps down)
- Range: 4,355 km (2,706 mi, 2,350 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.8 m/s (1,780 ft/min)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
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