CASA C-212 Aviocar
|Former CASA C-212 of the Swedish Coast Guard|
|Role||Medium STOL transport aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
|First flight||26 March 1971|
|Primary users||Spanish Air Force
Indonesian Armed Forces
Portuguese Air Force
|Number built||483 + >100 (IPTN)|
The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built by CASA in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under licence in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace (IAe), formerly called IPTN. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.
A total of 478 C-212s of all variants had been delivered through the end of 2008 by EADS-CASA. EADS-CASA predicts that an additional 85 aircraft will be delivered in the 2007–2016 time period. EADS-CASA currently builds only the C-212-400, which received Spanish certification in 1998. In 2013, EADS transferred production of the aircraft to Indonesia. The C-212-200 is currently built in Indonesia, and IAe is also reportedly preparing to begin assembly of −400 models.
Design and development
During the late 1960s, the Spanish Air Force was still operating a number of outdated piston-engined transports, including the three-engined Junkers Ju 52 and two-engined Douglas C-47. In order to meet the Spanish Air Force's needs to modernise its transport force, CASA proposed the C-212, a twin engined 18 seat transport aircraft that would be capable of fulfilling a variety of military roles, including passenger transport, ambulance aircraft and paratroop carrier, while also being suitable for civil use. The first prototype flew on 26 March 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet.
Airlines took note of the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975. In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service around the world.
The C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a boxy fuselage, and a conventional tail. The tricycle undercarriage is non-retractable. It has space for 21–28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 does not have a pressurized fuselage, it is limited to relatively low-flight-level airline usage (below 10,000 ft (3,000 m) MSL). It is thus ideal for short legs and regional airline service.
- Original military production version. Also known as C-212-5, C-212-5 series 100M, and by the Spanish Air Force as the T-12B and D-3A (for medevac aircraft), 129 built.
- VIP transport version, T-12C.
- Six pre-production C-212As converted for photo-reconnaissance missions, TR-12A.
- Original civil version
- Two pre-production C-212As converted for use as navigational trainers, TE-12B.
- Manufactured under licence in Indonesia since 1976, IPTN producing 28 NC-212-100s before switching to NC-212-200.
Stretched version with updated engines (Honeywell TPE331-10R-511C or −512C, rated at 900 shp (671 kW) each), introduced in 1979. The CASA C-212-200 is also a popular skydiving aircraft, known for its large capacity, fast climb, and large tailgate exit ramp.
- C-212 series 200M
- Military version known as T-12D in Spanish service and Tp 89 for the Swedish Air Force. Specialised ASW and maritime patrol aircraft have been built from this version.
- C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN.
- NC-212-200 MPA
- C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN, Designed as Maritime Patrol Aircraft
Standard production version from 1987 on. Engines were Honeywell TPE331-10R-513C, also rated at 900 shp (670 kW) continuous (925 shp maximum). The propellers were changed from four-bladed Hartzell composite blade propellers to four-bladed Dowty-Rotol all-metal propellers. Winglets and a larger vertical stabilizer area provide improved performance, and the addition of a nose baggage compartment gives the nose a more streamlined look than the Series 200. Various systems have been incrementally upgraded, including the addition of an integrated autopilot system.
- C-212-M series 300 (Series 300M)
- Military version.
- C-212 series 300 airliner
- 26 seat regional airliner.
- C-212 series 300 utility
- 23 seat civil utility version.
- C-212 series 300P
- Civil utility version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65 engines
Upgraded version with 925 shp (690 kW) TPE331-12JR-701C engines, increased payload and upgraded avionics moved from under the floor to the nose. First flew 4 April 1997, replacing Series 300 in production from 1998.
- Air Miami
- Bar Harbor Airlines
- Bighorn Airways
- Chaparral Airlines – operating code share service as American Eagle on behalf of American Airlines
- Boston-Maine Airways – operating code share service as Pan Am Express on behalf of Pan Am
- Coastal Airlines
- Evergreen International Airlines
- Executive Airlines – operating code share service as American Eagle in the Caribbean from San Juan, PR (SJU) on behalf of American Airlines
- Fischer Brothers Aviation – operating code share service as Northwest Airlink on behalf of Northwest Airlines and also operating code share service as Allegheny Commuter
- Gulf Air – operating code share service as Air Florida Commuter on behalf of Air Florida
- Inland Empire Airways
- Jet Express – operating code share service as Trans World Express (TWE) on behalf of Trans World Airlines (TWA)
- Mountain Air Cargo
- North American Airlines
- Presidential Airways – Owned and operated by private military contractor Blackwater during the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan to provide supply drops to US troops in remote areas during the conflicts. During the conflict, the planes were piloted by former pilots from 160th "Night Stalkers" Special Operations Regiment.
- U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
- Yute Air
- Bering Air
- Ryan Air Cargo
Incidents and accidents
- 2 January 1984, a Royal Jordanian Air Force CASA 212-A3 Aviocar 100 crashed near Al Qatrana/Jordan due to mechanical problems. All 13 people on board the plane were killed.
- 4 March 1987: Northwest Airlink Flight 2268 crashed while landing at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan. Nine of the 19 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- 8 May 1987: American Eagle Flight 5452 crashed while landing in Puerto Rico, killing two.
- 1 February 1988: A Panamanian Air Force C-212 crashed into a mountain near the Panamese-Colombian border, killing all 16 people on board.
- 2 August 1988: Operated by Geoterrex of Ottawa, Canada, the aircraft crashed on approach to Reykjavik, Iceland with the loss of all 3 people on board. The cause was, "the crew lost control of the aircraft most probably because of large fluctuations in the power output of the right engine caused by the shift of an incorrectly installed speeder spring in the right propeller governor."
- 1 December 1989: A United States Army C-212-200 crashed into the Patuxent River while trying to land at the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, killing all five people on board.
- 16 January 1990: SANSA Flight 32 crashed into the Cerro Cedral, a mountain in Costa Rica shortly after takeoff from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose. All 20 passengers and 3 crew on board died in the crash.
- 24 January 1990: A Venezuelan Navy C-212 crashed into a mountain due to poor weather, killing all 24 people on board.
- 27 March 1990: An Angolan government C-212 was shot down by UNITA rebels near Kuito, killing all 25 people on board.
- 7 June 1992: American Eagle Flight 5456, a CASA C-212 flying from Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico crashed short of the runway in Mayagüez, killing both crew members and all three passengers. The investigation led to the discontinuation of use of the C-212 by American Eagle.
- 8 March 1994: A Spanish Air Force CASA C-212 was hit in the tail by a Serbian SA-7 missile east of Rijeka when ferrying UNPROFOR personnel from Sarajevo. The aircraft was part of the Ala 37 deployed in Vicenza, Italy. A Croatian MiG-21 had been shot down over nearby Gvozd (then Vrginmost) on 14 September 1993. The tail control surfaces were damaged, the left engine failed and four passengers were injured by splinters. The crew managed to land the aircraft at Rijeka airport. Spanish technicians were able to repair the damage and have the aircraft back in service in 48 hours.
- 27 November 2004: "Blackwater 61" Presidential Airways CASA C-212-200 (registration: N960BW / serial nr: 231) was contracted by the U.S. Department of Defense to supply American forces deployed in remote areas of Afghanistan. The aircraft entered a box canyon and struck the 14,650-foot (4,470 m) level of Baba Mountain, which has a peak elevation of 16,739 feet (5,102 m). The flight was about 25 nm north of the typical route between Bagram and Farah.
- 22 February 2005: An Indonesian National Police C-212 received engine trouble during landing, causing it to crash into the sea. Of the 18 police officers on board, 15 were killed.
- 26 October 2006: Swedish Coast Guard CASA C-212-200 (registration: SE-IVF/serial nr: KBV 585) crashed in the Falsterbo Canal during a surveillance mission, killing all four on board. Eye-witness accounts suggest that the accident was caused by one of the wings of the aircraft somehow detaching. The preliminary report from the Swedish Accident Investigation Board suggests that the right wing detached due to a fatigue crack which had developed in the load-bearing structure in the wing.
- 15 November 2006: Mexican Navy CASA 212-200 Maritime Patrol (serial AMP-114) crashed in the sea in Campeche coast over the Mexican Gulf during a surveillance mission, all crew managed to survive, due to a smooth maneuver, reasons of the accident still unknown.
- 26 June 2008: Indonesian Military CASA C-212 was flying from the capital to Bogor, carrying 12 military personnel and six civilians, and was due to test a digital mapping camera, but it disappeared in the Salak Mountain region, about 90 km (56 mi) south of Jakarta. An air force spokesman said it was assumed it had crashed.
- 9 October 2009: Uruguayan Air Force CASA C-212 FAU-531, being operated as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti crashed west of Fonds-Verettes killing all 11 on board.
- 19 June 2010: a Cameroon Aero Service CASA C212 chartered by Sundance Resources crashed in dense jungle after departing Cameroon for Congo, killing all 11 people on board, including Australian mining magnate Ken Talbot and Sundance personnel, Chairman Geoff Wedlock, Chief Executive Officer Don Lewis, company secretary John Carr-Gregg and non-executive directors John Jones and Craig Oliver. At the time of the accident Talbot was a director of Sundance and its largest shareholder.
- 12 February 2011: Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter CASA C-212, PK-ZAI, carrying five crew, crashed after takeoff from Batam, Indonesia, during a test flight following engine maintenance. All five crew members were killed.
- 1 April 2011: FUGRO Aviation Canada Limited CASA C-212, C-FDKM, carrying three crew, crashed while attempting to land at Saskatoon Airport, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, after declaring an emergency with an engine failure. The aircraft crashed on Wanuskewin Drive in Saskatoon and hit a concrete barrier, resulting in one person being killed and two injured.
- 2 September 2011: A Chilean Air Force CASA C-212, carrying 21 people, crashed 500 miles from Chile's Pacific coastline in the Juan Fernández Islands, with no survivors. Felipe Camiroaga, a most popular Chilean TV presenter, was one of those on board the aircraft. Also on board was businessman Felipe Cubillos, who had been working on post-earthquake reconstruction efforts.
- 29 September 2011: An Indonesian Aerospace CASA C-212, registration PK-TLF, built in 1989, carrying 18 people (14 passengers, three crew and the pilot) on a flight between Medan, North Sumatra and Kutacane, Aceh operated by Nusantara Buana Air crashed into Gunung Kapur, a 1,600 metre high mountain in the Bukit Barisan mountain range, a 10 km walk from the village of Bukit Lawang in Bohorok district Gunung Leuser National Park. There were no survivors. The accident occurred between 07.28 and 08.05 local time about 36 miles northwest of Medan, North Sumatra.
- 16 June 2016: A CASA C-212-400 operated by Vietnam People's Air Force from Gia Lam Airport en route to the Gulf of Tonkin went missing and was presumed crashed during a search for a downed Su-30MK2 and its pilots a few days before. It was reported that the crash site was located 44 nautical miles south-southwest of Bach Long Vi Island. As of 18 June 2016, some of the debris was found, but there was no sign of the crew. The Vietnam Coast Guard and the Navy claimed that the airframe and the aircraft's black box has been found 15 nautical miles southwest of Bach Long Vi and only 5 nm from the Vietnamese-Chinese border on the gulf. All 9 crew members were lost
- 9 February 2017: A Botswana Defence Force CASA C-212 crashed in the general area of Thebephatshwa village in the evening, minutes after leaving the Thebephatshwa Air Base. All 3 people on board died in the crash. The aircraft was on its way to the capital, Gaborone, which is 90km away. 
Specifications (Series 300)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89
- Crew: Two (pilot and co-pilot)
- Capacity: 26 passengers (civil version), 24 paratroops or 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) cargo
- Length: 16.20 m (53 ft 1¾ in)
- Wingspan: 20.28 m (66 ft 6½ in)
- Height: 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in)
- Wing area: 41.0 m² (441 ft²)
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Aspect ratio: 10.0:1
- Empty weight: 3,780 kg (8,333 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 7,700 kg (16,975 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-10R-513C turboprop engines, 617 kW (900 shp) each
- Maximum speed: 370 km/h (200 kts, 230 mph)
- Cruise speed: 300 km/h (162 knots, 186 mph) (econ cruise)
- Stall speed: 145 km/h (78 knots, 90 mph)
- Range: 1,811 km (978 nmi, 1,125 miles) econ cruise, max fuel
- Service ceiling: 7,925 m (26,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 8.3 m/s (1,630 ft/min)
- Up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of weapons on two hardpoints. Typically, machine gun pods or rocket launchers.
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Antonov An-28
- DHC-6 Twin Otter
- Dornier Do 228
- Evektor EV-55 Outback
- Harbin Y-12
- IAI Arava
- Short Skyvan
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