From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Descriptioncarbohydrate-active enzymes database
Research centerAFMB, French National Centre for Scientific Research
LaboratoryGlycogenomics group
Primary citationLombard & al. (2014)[1]

CAZy is a database of Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZymes).[2][1] The database contains a classification and associated information about enzymes involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and recognition of complex carbohydrates, i.e. disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. Included in the database are families of glycoside hydrolases,[3] glycosyltransferases,[4] polysaccharide lyases,[5] carbohydrate esterases,[6] and non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules.[7] The CAZy database also includes a classification of Auxiliary Activity redox enzymes involved in the breakdown of lignocellulose.[8]

CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the protein sequence-based family classification of CAZymes,[1] which was originally developed in early 1990s to classify the glycoside hydrolases.[9] New entries are added shortly after they appear in the daily releases of GenBank. The rapid evolution of high-throughput DNA sequencing has resulted in the continuing exponential growth of the CAZy database,[9][2][1] which now covers hundreds of thousands of sequences.[10] CAZy continues to be curated and developed by the Glycogenomics group at AFMB, a research centre affiliated with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and Aix-Marseille University.[11][12]

The CAZy database is coupled with CAZypedia, which was launched in 2007 as a research community-driven, wiki-based encyclopedia of CAZymes.[13]


CAZy identifies evolutionarily related families of glycosyl hydrolases using the classification introduced by Bernard Henrissat.[14][3][9] These families are given a number to identify them, so for example Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 contains enzymes that possess a TIM barrel fold. These families are clustered into 14 different clans that share structural similarity. CAZy contains 94 families of Glycosyl transferase enzymes,[4] 22 families of polysaccharide lysases[5] and 16 families of carbohydrate esterases.


  1. ^ a b c d Lombard, V.; Golaconda Ramulu, H.; Drula, E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Henrissat, B. (2014). "The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy) in 2013". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (D1): D490–D495. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1178. PMC 3965031. PMID 24270786.
  2. ^ a b Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B (January 2009). "The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for Glycogenomics". Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D233–8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn663. PMC 2686590. PMID 18838391.
  3. ^ a b Henrissat, B.; Davies, G. (1997). "Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 7 (5): 637–644. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(97)80072-3. PMID 9345621.
  4. ^ a b Coutinho, P. M.; Deleury, E.; Davies, G. J.; Henrissat, B. (2003). "An evolving hierarchical family classification for glycosyltransferases". Journal of Molecular Biology. 328 (2): 307–317. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00307-3. PMID 12691742.
  5. ^ a b Lombard, V.; Bernard, T.; Rancurel, C.; Brumer, H.; Coutinho, P. M.; Henrissat, B. (2010). "A hierarchical classification of polysaccharide lyases for glycogenomics". Biochemical Journal. 432 (3): 437–444. doi:10.1042/BJ20101185. PMID 20925655.
  6. ^ Nakamura, Aline M.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Polikarpov, Igor (2017). "Structural diversity of carbohydrate esterases". Biotechnology Research and Innovation. 1 (1): 35–51. doi:10.1016/j.biori.2017.02.001.
  7. ^ Armenta, Silvia; Moreno-Mendieta, Silvia; Sánchez-Cuapio, Zaira; Sánchez, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina (2017). "Advances in molecular engineering of carbohydrate-binding modules". Proteins. 85 (9): 1602–1617. doi:10.1002/prot.25327. PMID 28547780.
  8. ^ Levasseur A, Drula E, Lombard V, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B (March 2013). "Expansion of the enzymatic repertoire of the CAZy database to integrate auxiliary redox enzymes". Biotechnol Biofuels. 6 (1): 41. doi:10.1186/1754-6834-6-41. PMC 3620520. PMID 23514094.
  9. ^ a b c Davies GJ, Sinnott ML (2008). "Sorting the diverse: The sequence‑based classifications of carbohydrate‑active enzymes" (PDF). The Biochemist. 30 (4): 26–32.
  10. ^ Current statistics are available on each Glycoside Hydrolase, Glycosyltransferase, Polysaccharide Lyase, Carbohydrate Esterase, Auxiliary-Activity, and Carbohydrate-Binding Module section page.
  11. ^ "About". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  12. ^ "AFMB UMR 7257 - UMR7257 : CNRS - AIX MARSEILLE UNIV". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  13. ^ CAZypedia Consortium (2018). "Ten years of CAZypedia: a living encyclopedia of carbohydrate-active enzymes". Glycobiology. 28 (1): 3–8. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwx089. PMID 29040563.
  14. ^ Henrissat, B. (1991). "A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities". The Biochemical Journal. 280 (Pt 2): 309–316. doi:10.1042/bj2800309. PMC 1130547. PMID 1747104.

External links[edit]