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Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11
Protein CCL11 PDB 1eot.png
PDB rendering based on 1eot.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols CCL11 ; SCYA11
External IDs OMIM601156 MGI103576 HomoloGene7929 GeneCards: CCL11 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CCL11 210133 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6356 20292
Ensembl ENSG00000172156 ENSMUSG00000020676
UniProt P51671 P48298
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002986 NM_011330
RefSeq (protein) NP_002977 NP_035460
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
34.29 – 34.29 Mb
Chr 11:
82.06 – 82.06 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

C-C motif chemokine 11 also known as eosinophil chemotactic protein and eotaxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL11 gene. This gene is encoded on three exons and is located on chromosome 17.[1][2]


CCL11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. CCL11 selectively recruits eosinophils by inducing their chemotaxis, and therefore, is implicated in allergic responses.[3][4][5] The effects of CCL11 are mediated by its binding to a G-protein-linked receptor known as a chemokine receptor. Chemokine receptors for which CCL11 is a ligand include CCR2,[6] CCR3[1] and CCR5.[6] However, it has been found that eotaxin-1 (CCL11) has high degree selectivity for its receptor, such that they are inactive on neutrophils and monocytes, which do not express CCR3.[7]

Clinical significance[edit]

Increased CCL11 levels in blood plasma are associated with aging in mice and humans.[8] Additionally, it has been demonstrated that exposing young mice to CCL11 or the blood plasma of older mice decreases their neurogenesis and cognitive performance on behavioural tasks thought to be dependent on neurogenesis in the hippocampus.[8]

Higher plasma concentrations of CCL11 have been found in current cannabis users compared to past users and those who had never used. CCL11 has also been found in higher concentrations in people suffering from schizophrenia; cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia.[9]


  1. ^ a b Kitaura M, Nakajima T, Imai T, Harada S, Combadiere C, Tiffany HL, Murphy PM, Yoshie O (1996). "Molecular cloning of human eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (13): 7725–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.13.7725. PMID 8631813. 
  2. ^ Hein H, Schlüter C, Kulke R, Christophers E, Schröder JM, Bartels J (1997). "Genomic organization, sequence, and transcriptional regulation of the human eotaxin gene". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 237 (3): 537–42. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7169. PMID 9299399. 
  3. ^ Jose PJ, Griffiths-Johnson DA, Collins PD, Walsh DT, Moqbel R, Totty NF, Truong O, Hsuan JJ, Williams TJ (1994). "Eotaxin: a potent eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine detected in a guinea pig model of allergic airways inflammation.". J. Exp Med. 179 (3): 881–7. doi:10.1084/jem.179.3.881. PMC 2191401. PMID 7509365. 
  4. ^ Ponath PD, Qin S, Ringler DJ, Clark-Lewis I, Wang J, Kassam N, Smith H, Shi X, Gonzalo JA, Newman W, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Mackay CR (1996). "Cloning of the human eosinophil chemoattractant, eotaxin. Expression, receptor binding, and functional properties suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of eosinophils". J. Clin. Invest. 97 (3): 604–12. doi:10.1172/JCI118456. PMC 507095. PMID 8609214. 
  5. ^ Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT, Celestin J, Leder P, Luster AD (1996). "Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia". Nat. Med. 2 (4): 449–56. doi:10.1038/nm0496-449. PMID 8597956. 
  6. ^ a b Ogilvie P, Bardi G, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Uguccioni M (2001). "Eotaxin is a natural antagonist for CCR2 and an agonist for CCR5". Blood 97 (7): 1920–4. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.7.1920. PMID 11264152. 
  7. ^ Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B (1997). "Human chemokines: an update". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15: 675–705. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.15.1.675. PMID 9143704. 
  8. ^ a b Villeda SA, Luo J, Mosher KI, Zou B, Britschgi M, Bieri G, Stan TM, Fainberg N, Ding Z, Eggel A, Lucin KM, Czirr E, Park JS, Couillard-Després S, Aigner L, Li G, Peskind ER, Kaye JA, Quinn JF, Galasko DR, Xie XS, Rando TA, Wyss-Coray T (September 2011). "The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function". Nature 477 (7362): 90–4. doi:10.1038/nature10357. PMC 3170097. PMID 21886162. 
  9. ^ Fernandez-Egea E, Scoriels L, Theegala S, Giro M, Ozanne SE, Burling K, Jones PB (June 2013). "Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers". Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 46: 25–8. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.06.011. PMID 23820464. 

Further reading[edit]