CCL4 is a major HIV-suppressive factor produced by CD8+ T cells.
Perforin-low memory CD8+ T cells that normally synthesize MIP-1-beta.
CCl4 is produced by: monocytes, B Cells, T Cells, Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.
Concentration of this chemokine has been shown to be inversely related with MicroRNA-125b. Concentration of CCl4 within the body increases with age, which may cause chronic inflammation and liver damage.
^Bystry RS, Aluvihare V, Welch KA, Kallikourdis M, Betz AG (December 2001). "B cells and professional APCs recruit regulatory T cells via CCL4". Nature Immunology. 2 (12): 1126–32. doi:10.1038/ni735. PMID11702067.
^Guan E, Wang J, Norcross MA (April 2001). "Identification of human macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta as a native secreted heterodimer". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12404–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006327200. PMID11278300.
Muthumani K, Desai BM, Hwang DS, Choo AY, Laddy DJ, Thieu KP, Rao RG, Weiner DB (April 2004). "HIV-1 Vpr and anti-inflammatory activity". DNA and Cell Biology. 23 (4): 239–47. doi:10.1089/104454904773819824. PMID15142381.
Conti L, Fantuzzi L, Del Cornò M, Belardelli F, Gessani S (2005). "Immunomodulatory effects of the HIV-1 gp120 protein on antigen presenting cells: implications for AIDS pathogenesis". Immunobiology. 209 (1–2): 99–115. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2004.02.008. PMID15481145.
Zhao RY, Bukrinsky M, Elder RT (April 2005). "HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 121 (4): 270–86. PMID15817944.
Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Research. 15 (11–12): 923–34. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290370. PMID16354571.
Napolitano M, Modi WS, Cevario SJ, Gnarra JR, Seuanez HN, Leonard WJ (September 1991). "The gene encoding the Act-2 cytokine. Genomic structure, HTLV-I/Tax responsiveness of 5' upstream sequences, and chromosomal localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (26): 17531–6. PMID1894635.
Brown KD, Zurawski SM, Mosmann TR, Zurawski G (January 1989). "A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes". Journal of Immunology. 142 (2): 679–87. PMID2521353.
Zipfel PF, Balke J, Irving SG, Kelly K, Siebenlist U (March 1989). "Mitogenic activation of human T cells induces two closely related genes which share structural similarities with a new family of secreted factors". Journal of Immunology. 142 (5): 1582–90. PMID2521882.
Chang HC, Reinherz EL (June 1989). "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a putative cytokine which is induced by stimulation via the CD2 structure on human T lymphocytes". European Journal of Immunology. 19 (6): 1045–51. doi:10.1002/eji.1830190614. PMID2568930.
Miller MD, Hata S, De Waal Malefyt R, Krangel MS (November 1989). "A novel polypeptide secreted by activated human T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 143 (9): 2907–16. PMID2809212.
Post TW, Bozic CR, Rothenberg ME, Luster AD, Gerard N, Gerard C (December 1995). "Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors". Journal of Immunology. 155 (11): 5299–305. PMID7594543.
Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (July 1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (28): 16491–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.28.16491. PMID7622448.
Paolini JF, Willard D, Consler T, Luther M, Krangel MS (September 1994). "The chemokines IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and I-309 are monomers at physiologically relevant concentrations". Journal of Immunology. 153 (6): 2704–17. PMID8077676.