CCR2

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CCR2
Protein CCR2 PDB 1KAD.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesCCR2, CC-CKR-2, CCR-2, CCR2A, CCR2B, CD192, CKR2, CKR2A, CKR2B, CMKBR2, MCP-1-R, C-C motif chemokine receptor 2
External IDsOMIM: 601267 MGI: 106185 HomoloGene: 537 GeneCards: CCR2
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 3 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 3 (human)[1]
Chromosome 3 (human)
Genomic location for CCR2
Genomic location for CCR2
Band3p21.31Start46,353,734 bp[1]
End46,360,928 bp[1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001123041
NM_001123396

NM_009915

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001116513
NP_001116868
NP_001116868.1

NP_034045

Location (UCSC)Chr 3: 46.35 – 46.36 MbChr 9: 124.1 – 124.11 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene.[5] CCR2 is a chemokine receptor.

Gene[edit]

This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants are expressed by the gene.[5]

Function[edit]

This gene encodes two isoforms of a receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), a chemokine which specifically mediates monocyte chemotaxis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is involved in monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis as well as in the inflammatory response against tumors. The receptors encoded by this gene mediate agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.[5]

Animal studies[edit]

Alzheimer[edit]

CCR2 deficient mice have been shown to develop an accelerated Alzheimer's-like pathology in comparison to wild type mice.[6][7] This is not the first time that immune function and inflammation have been linked to age-related cognitive decline (i.e. dementia).[8]

Obesity[edit]

Within the fat (adipose) tissue of CCR2 deficient mice, there is an increased number of eosinophils, greater alternative macrophage activation, and a propensity towards type 2 cytokine expression. Furthermore, this effect was exaggerated when the mice became obese from a high fat diet.[9]

Myocardial Infarct[edit]

CCR2 surface expression on blood monocytes changes in a time-of-day–dependent manner (being higher at the beginning of the active phase) and affects monocytes recruitment in tissues including the heart. As a consequence when an acute ischemic event happens during the active phase, monocytes are more susceptible to invade the heart [10]. An excessive monocytes infiltration generates higher inflammation and increases the risk of heart failure.

Clinical significance[edit]

In an observational study of gene expression in blood leukocytes in humans, Harries et al. found evidence of a relationship between expression of CCR2 and cognitive function (assessed using the mini-mental state examination, MMSE).[11] Higher CCR2 expression was associated with worse performance on the MMSE assessment of cognitive function. The same study found that CCR2 expression was also associated with cognitive decline over 9-years in a sub-analysis on inflammatory related transcripts only. Harries et al. suggest that CCR2 signaling may have a direct role in human cognition, partly because expression of CCR2 was associated with the ApoE haplotype (previously associated with Alzheimer's disease), but also because CCL2 is expressed at high concentrations in macrophages found in atherosclerotic plaques and in brain microglia.[6] The difference in observations between mice (CCR2 depletion causes cognitive decline) and humans (higher CCR2 associated with lower cognitive function) could be due to increased demand for macrophage activation during cognitive decline, associated with increased β-amyloid deposition (a core feature of Alzheimer's disease progression).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000121807 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000049103 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2".
  6. ^ a b El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD (April 2007). "Ccr2 deficiency impairs microglial accumulation and accelerates progression of Alzheimer-like disease". Nature Medicine. 13 (4): 432–8. doi:10.1038/nm1555. PMID 17351623.
  7. ^ Philipson O, Lord A, Gumucio A, O'Callaghan P, Lannfelt L, Nilsson LN (March 2010). "Animal models of amyloid-beta-related pathologies in Alzheimer's disease". The FEBS Journal. 277 (6): 1389–409. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07564.x. PMID 20136653.
  8. ^ Gorelick PB (October 2010). "Role of inflammation in cognitive impairment: results of observational epidemiological studies and clinical trials". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1207: 155–62. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05726.x. PMID 20955439.
  9. ^ Bolus WR, Gutierrez DA, Kennedy AJ, Anderson-Baucum EK, Hasty AH (October 2015). "CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 98 (4): 467–77. doi:10.1189/jlb.3HI0115-018R. PMC 4763864. PMID 25934927. Archived from the original on 2017-05-09. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
  10. ^ Schloss MJ, Hilby M, Nitz K, Guillamat Prats R, Ferraro B, Leoni G, Soehnlein O, Kessler T, He W, Luckow B, Horckmans M, Weber C, Duchene J, Steffens S (June 2017). "Ly6C(high) Monocytes Oscillate in the Heart During Homeostasis and After Myocardial Infarction". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 37: 1640–1645. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.309259. PMID 28663258.
  11. ^ Harries LW, Bradley-Smith RM, Llewellyn DJ, Pilling LC, Fellows A, Henley W, Hernandez D, Guralnik JM, Bandinelli S, Singleton A, Ferrucci L, Melzer D (August 2012). "Leukocyte CCR2 expression is associated with mini-mental state examination score in older adults". Rejuvenation Research. 15 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1089/rej.2011.1302. PMC 3419848. PMID 22607625.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.