From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Aliases PROM1, AC133, CD133, CORD12, MCDR2, MSTP061, PROML1, RP41, STGD4, prominin 1
External IDs OMIM: 604365 MGI: 1100886 HomoloGene: 4390 GeneCards: PROM1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 4 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 4 (human)[1]
Chromosome 4 (human)
Genomic location for PROM1
Genomic location for PROM1
Band 4p15.32 Start 15,963,076 bp[1]
End 16,084,378 bp[1]
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC) Chr 4: 15.96 – 16.08 Mb Chr 4: 43.99 – 44.1 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

CD133 antigen also known as prominin-1 is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene.[5][6] It is a member of pentaspan transmembrane glycoproteins (5-transmembrane, 5-TM), which specifically localize to cellular protrusions. While the precise function of CD133 remains unknown, it has been proposed to act as an organizer of cell membrane topology.[7]

Tissue distribution[edit]

CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells,[8] endothelial progenitor cells,[9] glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells,[10] various pediatric brain tumors,[11] as well as adult kidney, mammary glands, trachea, salivary glands, placenta, digestive tract, testes, and some other cell types.[12][13]

Clinical significance[edit]

A CD133+ cell population in brain tumors is thought to be a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is rare, undergoes self-renewal and differentiation, and can propagate tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice.[14][11][15][16] However, subsequent studies have indicated the difficulty in isolating pure CSC populations.[17] CD133+ melanoma cells are considered a subpopulation of CSC a critical role in recurrence. Moreover, CD133+ melanoma cells are immunogenic and can be used as an antimelanoma vaccination. In mice the vaccination with CD133+ melanoma cells mediated strong anti-tumor activity that resulted in the eradication of parental melanoma cells.[18] In addition, it has also been shown that CD133+ melanoma cells preferentially express the RNA helicase DDX3X . As DDX3X also is an immunogenic protein, the same anti-melanoma vaccination strategy can be employed to give therapeutic antitumor immunity in mice.[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007062 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029086 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Yin AH, Miraglia S, Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Ogawa M, Leary AG, Olweus J, Kearney J, Buck DW (1997). "AC133, is a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells". Blood. 90 (12): 5002–5012. PMID 9389720. 
  6. ^ Corbeil D, Fargeas CA, Huttner WB (2001). "Rat prominin, like its mouse and human orthologues, is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 285 (4): 939–44. PMID 11467842. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5271. 
  7. ^ Irollo E, Pirozzi G (2013). "CD133: to be or not to be, is this the real question?". Am J Transl Res. 5 (6): 563–81. PMC 3786264Freely accessible. PMID 24093054. 
  8. ^ Horn PA, Tesch H, Staib P, Kube D, Diehl V, Voliotis D (1999). "Expression of AC133, a novel hematopoietic precursor antigen, on acute myeloid leukemia cells". Blood. 93 (4): 1435–37. PMID 10075457. 
  9. ^ Corbeil D, Röper K, Hellwig A, Tavian M, Miraglia S, Watt SM, Simmons PJ, Peault B, Buck DW, Huttner WB (2000). "The human AC133 hematopoietic stem cell antigen is also expressed in epithelial cells and targeted to plasma membrane protrusions". J Biol Chem. 275 (8): 5512–20. PMID 10681530. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.8.5512. 
  10. ^ Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (2005). "Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas". N Engl J Med. 353 (8): 811–822. PMID 16120861. doi:10.1056/NEJMra043666. 
  11. ^ a b Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB (2003). "Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors". Cancer Res. 63 (1): 5821–5828. PMID 14522905. 
  12. ^ Mizrak D, Brittan M, Alison M (2008). "CD133: Molecule of the moment". J Pathol. 214 (1): 3–9. PMID 18067118. doi:10.1002/path.2283. 
  13. ^ Shmelkov SV, St Clair R, Lyden D, Rafii S (2005). "AC133/CD133/Prominin-1". Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 37 (4): 715–9. PMID 15694831. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.08.010. 
  14. ^ Ming-Lai, Gi (2015). "Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like Cells and Potentiation of Temozolomide Sensitivity by Honokiol in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells". PLOS One. 10: e0114830. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114830. 
  15. ^ Hemmati HD, Nakano I, Lazareff JA, Masterman-Smith M, Geschwind DH, Bronner-Fraser M, Kornblum HI (2003). "Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100 (25): 15178–15183. PMC 299944Freely accessible. PMID 14645703. doi:10.1073/pnas.2036535100. 
  16. ^ Galli R, Binda E, Orfanelli U, Cipelletti B, Gritti A, De Vitis S, Fiocco R, Foroni C, Dimeco F, Vescovi A (2004). "Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma". Cancer Res. 64 (19): 7011–7021. PMID 15466194. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1364. 
  17. ^ Wang J, Sakariassen PØ, Tsinkalovsky O, Immervoll H, Bøe SO, Svendsen A, Prestegarden L, Røsland G, Thorsen F, Stuhr L, Molven A, Bjerkvig R, Enger PØ (2008). "CD133+ negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133+ positive cells". Int J Cancer. 122 (4): 761–768. PMID 17955491. doi:10.1002/ijc.23130. 
  18. ^ Miyabayashi T, Kagamu H, Koshio J, Ichikawa K, Baba J, Watanabe S, Tanaka H, Tanaka J, Yoshizawa H, Nakata K, Narita I (2011). "Vaccination with CD133+(+) melanoma induces specific Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated antitumor reactivity against parental tumor". Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 60 (11): 1597–608. PMID 21691723. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1063-x. 
  19. ^ Koshio J, Kagamu H, Nozaki K, Saida Y, Tanaka T, Shoji S, Igarashi N, Miura S, Okajima M, Watanabe S, Yoshizawa H, Narita I (2013). "DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells". Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 62 (10): 1619–28. PMID 23974721. doi:10.1007/s00262-013-1467-x. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]