CD29

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Integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)
Protein ITGB1 PDB 1K11.png
Rendering based on PDB 1K11.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols ITGB1 ; CD29; FNRB; GPIIA; MDF2; MSK12; VLA-BETA; VLAB
External IDs OMIM135630 MGI96610 HomoloGene22999 ChEMBL: 1905 GeneCards: ITGB1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ITGB1 211945 s at.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3688 16412
Ensembl ENSG00000150093 ENSMUSG00000025809
UniProt P05556 P09055
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002211 NM_010578
RefSeq (protein) NP_002202 NP_034708
Location (UCSC) Chr 10:
32.9 – 33.01 Mb
Chr 8:
128.69 – 128.73 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Integrin beta-1 also known as CD29 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB1 gene.[1] CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create α3β1 complex that reacts to such molecules as netrin-1 and reelin. In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, the integrin beta-1D isoform is specifically expressed, and localizes to costameres, where it aids in the lateral force transmission from the Z-discs to the extracellular matrix. Abnormal levels of integrin beta-1D have been found in limb girdle muscular dystrophy and polyneuropathy.

Structure[edit]

Integrin beta-1 can exist as different isoforms via alternative splicing. Six alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene which encode five proteins with alternate C-termini.[2] Integrin receptors exist as heterodimers, and greater than 20 different integrin heterodimeric receptors have been described. All integrins, alpha and beta forms, have large extracellular and short intracellular domains.[3] The cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta-1 binds to the actin cytoskeleton.[4] Integrin beta-1 is the most abundant beta-integrin expressed and associates with at least 10 different integrin-alpha subunits.[3]

Function[edit]

Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells.[3] Integrins link the actin cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix and they transmit signals bidirectionally between the extracellular matrix and cytoplasmic domains.[5][6] Beta-integrins are primarily responsible for targeting integrin dimers to the appropriate subcellular locations, which in adhesive cells is mainly focal adhesions.[4][7] Integrin beta-1 mutants lose the ability to target to sites of focal adhesions.[8][9]

Three novel isoforms of integrin beta-1 have been identified, termed beta-1B, beta-1C and beta-1D. Integrin beta-1B is transcribed when the proximal 26 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain in exon 6 are retained and then succeeded by a 12 amino acid stretch from an adjacent intronic region.[10] The integrin beta-1B isoform appears to act as a dominant negative in that it inhibits cell adhesion.[11] A second integrin beta-1 isoform, termed beta-1C, was described to have an additional 48 amino acids appended to the 26 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain;[12] the function of this isoform was an inhibitory one on DNA synthesis in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.[13] The third isoform, termed beta-1D, is a striated muscle-specific isoform, which replaces the canonical beta-1A isoform in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This isoform is produced from splicing into a novel additional exon between exons 6 and 7. The cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta-1D replaces the distal 21 amino acids (present in integrin beta-1A) with an alternative stretch of 24 amino acids (13 unique).[14][15]

Integrin beta-1D appears to be developmentally regulated during myofibrilogenesis,[15] appearing immediately following the fusion of myoblasts in C2C12 cell with rising levels throughout myofibrillar differentiation.[16] Integrin beta-1D is specifically localized to costameres and intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and costameres, myotendinous junctions and neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle, and it appears to function in general like other integrins, as the clustering of beta-1D integrins on the surface of CHO cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK and induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.[16]

Clinical Significance[edit]

In patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2C, beta-1D integrin has been shown to be severely reduced in skeletal muscle biopsies, coordinate with a reduction in alpha 7B-integrin and filamin 2.[17]

In patients with sensitive-motor polyneuropathy, levels of integrin alpha-7B, integrin beta-1D and agrin were significantly reduced nearly to undetectable levels; and this corresponded with lower mRNA levels.[18]

Interactions[edit]

CD29 has been shown to interact with

References[edit]

  1. ^ Goodfellow PJ, Nevanlinna HA, Gorman P, Sheer D, Lam G, Goodfellow PN (Jan 1989). "Assignment of the gene encoding the beta-subunit of the human fibronectin receptor (beta-FNR) to chromosome 10p11.2". Annals of Human Genetics 53 (Pt 1): 15–22. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1989.tb01118.x. PMID 2524991. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)". 
  3. ^ a b c Hynes RO (Apr 1992). "Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion". Cell 69 (1): 11–25. PMID 1555235. 
  4. ^ a b Sastry SK, Horwitz AF (Oct 1993). "Integrin cytoplasmic domains: mediators of cytoskeletal linkages and extra- and intracellular initiated transmembrane signaling". Current Opinion in Cell Biology 5 (5): 819–31. PMID 8240826. 
  5. ^ Burridge K, Chrzanowska-Wodnicka M (1996). "Focal adhesions, contractility, and signaling". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 12: 463–518. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.12.1.463. PMID 8970735. 
  6. ^ Schwartz MA, Schaller MD, Ginsberg MH (1995). "Integrins: emerging paradigms of signal transduction". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 11: 549–99. doi:10.1146/annurev.cb.11.110195.003001. PMID 8689569. 
  7. ^ LaFlamme SE, Akiyama SK, Yamada KM (Apr 1992). "Regulation of fibronectin receptor distribution". The Journal of Cell Biology 117 (2): 437–47. PMID 1373145. 
  8. ^ Akiyama SK, Yamada SS, Yamada KM, LaFlamme SE (Jun 1994). "Transmembrane signal transduction by integrin cytoplasmic domains expressed in single-subunit chimeras". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269 (23): 15961–4. PMID 7515874. 
  9. ^ Reszka AA, Hayashi Y, Horwitz AF (Jun 1992). "Identification of amino acid sequences in the integrin beta 1 cytoplasmic domain implicated in cytoskeletal association". The Journal of Cell Biology 117 (6): 1321–30. PMID 1376731. 
  10. ^ Altruda F, Cervella P, Tarone G, Botta C, Balzac F, Stefanuto G et al. (Nov 1990). "A human integrin beta 1 subunit with a unique cytoplasmic domain generated by alternative mRNA processing". Gene 95 (2): 261–6. PMID 2249781. 
  11. ^ Balzac F, Retta SF, Albini A, Melchiorri A, Koteliansky VE, Geuna M et al. (Oct 1994). "Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility". The Journal of Cell Biology 127 (2): 557–65. PMID 7523423. 
  12. ^ Languino LR, Ruoslahti E (Apr 1992). "An alternative form of the integrin beta 1 subunit with a variant cytoplasmic domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 267 (10): 7116–20. PMID 1551917. 
  13. ^ Meredith J, Takada Y, Fornaro M, Languino LR, Schwartz MA (Sep 1995). "Inhibition of cell cycle progression by the alternatively spliced integrin beta 1C". Science 269 (5230): 1570–2. PMID 7545312. 
  14. ^ Zhidkova NI, Belkin AM, Mayne R (Sep 1995). "Novel isoform of beta 1 integrin expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 214 (1): 279–85. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.2285. PMID 7545396. 
  15. ^ a b van der Flier A, Kuikman I, Baudoin C, van der Neut R, Sonnenberg A (Aug 1995). "A novel beta 1 integrin isoform produced by alternative splicing: unique expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle". FEBS Letters 369 (2-3): 340–4. PMID 7544298. 
  16. ^ a b Belkin AM, Zhidkova NI, Balzac F, Altruda F, Tomatis D, Maier A et al. (Jan 1996). "Beta 1D integrin displaces the beta 1A isoform in striated muscles: localization at junctional structures and signaling potential in nonmuscle cells". The Journal of Cell Biology 132 (1-2): 211–26. PMID 8567725. 
  17. ^ Anastasi G, Cutroneo G, Trimarchi F, Santoro G, Bruschetta D, Bramanti P et al. (Dec 2004). "Evaluation of sarcoglycans, vinculin-talin-integrin system and filamin2 in alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycanopathy: an immunohistochemical study". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 14 (6): 989–99. PMID 15547664. 
  18. ^ Anastasi G, Cutroneo G, Santoro G, Arco A, Rizzo G, Bramanti P et al. (Sep 2008). "Costameric proteins in human skeletal muscle during muscular inactivity". Journal of Anatomy 213 (3): 284–95. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00921.x. PMID 18537849. 
  19. ^ Otey CA, Pavalko FM, Burridge K (Aug 1990). "An interaction between alpha-actinin and the beta 1 integrin subunit in vitro". The Journal of Cell Biology 111 (2): 721–9. PMID 2116421. 
  20. ^ Otey CA, Vasquez GB, Burridge K, Erickson BW (Oct 1993). "Mapping of the alpha-actinin binding site within the beta 1 integrin cytoplasmic domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 268 (28): 21193–7. PMID 7691808. 
  21. ^ Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C et al. (Mar 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) associates with multiple beta1 integrins and tetraspans". European Journal of Immunology 30 (3): 900–7. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200003)30:3<900::AID-IMMU900>3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10741407. 
  22. ^ Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta 1 integrins in human melanoma". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 222 (1): 13–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0690. PMID 8630057. 
  23. ^ a b Mazzocca A, Carloni V, Sciammetta S, Cordella C, Pantaleo P, Caldini A et al. (Sep 2002). "Expression of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and their role in hepatic stellate cell motility and wound healing migration". Journal of Hepatology 37 (3): 322–30. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00175-7. PMID 12175627. 
  24. ^ Wixler V, Geerts D, Laplantine E, Westhoff D, Smyth N, Aumailley M et al. (Oct 2000). "The LIM-only protein DRAL/FHL2 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of several alpha and beta integrin chains and is recruited to adhesion complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (43): 33669–78. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002519200. PMID 10906324. 
  25. ^ a b van der Flier A, Kuikman I, Kramer D, Geerts D, Kreft M, Takafuta T et al. (Jan 2002). "Different splice variants of filamin-B affect myogenesis, subcellular distribution, and determine binding to integrin [beta] subunits". The Journal of Cell Biology 156 (2): 361–76. doi:10.1083/jcb.200103037. PMC 2199218. PMID 11807098. 
  26. ^ Loo DT, Kanner SB, Aruffo A (Sep 1998). "Filamin binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the beta1-integrin. Identification of amino acids responsible for this interaction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 (36): 23304–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.36.23304. PMID 9722563. 
  27. ^ Serru V, Le Naour F, Billard M, Azorsa DO, Lanza F, Boucheix C et al. (May 1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical Journal. 340 ( Pt 1) (Pt 1): 103–11. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3400103. PMC 1220227. PMID 10229664. 
  28. ^ a b Lee HS, Millward-Sadler SJ, Wright MO, Nuki G, Al-Jamal R, Salter DM (Nov 2002). "Activation of Integrin-RACK1/PKCalpha signalling in human articular chondrocyte mechanotransduction". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 10 (11): 890–7. doi:10.1053/joca.2002.0842. PMID 12435334. 
  29. ^ Liliental J, Chang DD (Jan 1998). "Rack1, a receptor for activated protein kinase C, interacts with integrin beta subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 (4): 2379–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.4.2379. PMID 9442085. 
  30. ^ Chang DD, Wong C, Smith H, Liu J (Sep 1997). "ICAP-1, a novel beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein, binds to a conserved and functionally important NPXY sequence motif of beta1 integrin". The Journal of Cell Biology 138 (5): 1149–57. doi:10.1083/jcb.138.5.1149. PMC 2136751. PMID 9281591. 
  31. ^ Chang DD, Hoang BQ, Liu J, Springer TA (Mar 2002). "Molecular basis for interaction between Icap1 alpha PTB domain and beta 1 integrin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (10): 8140–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109031200. PMID 11741908. 
  32. ^ Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R et al. (Jul 2000). "Galectin-8 binding to integrins inhibits cell adhesion and induces apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 113 ( Pt 13): 2385–97. PMID 10852818. 
  33. ^ Poinat P, De Arcangelis A, Sookhareea S, Zhu X, Hedgecock EM, Labouesse M et al. (Apr 2002). "A conserved interaction between beta1 integrin/PAT-3 and Nck-interacting kinase/MIG-15 that mediates commissural axon navigation in C. elegans". Current Biology 12 (8): 622–31. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00764-9. PMID 11967148. 
  34. ^ Fournier HN, Dupé-Manet S, Bouvard D, Lacombe ML, Marie C, Block MR et al. (Jun 2002). "Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein 1alpha (ICAP-1alpha ) interacts directly with the metastasis suppressor nm23-H2, and both proteins are targeted to newly formed cell adhesion sites upon integrin engagement". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (23): 20895–902. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200200200. PMID 11919189. 
  35. ^ Parsons M, Keppler MD, Kline A, Messent A, Humphries MJ, Gilchrist R et al. (Aug 2002). "Site-directed perturbation of protein kinase C- integrin interaction blocks carcinoma cell chemotaxis". Molecular and Cellular Biology 22 (16): 5897–911. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.16.5897-5911.2002. PMC 133968. PMID 12138200. 
  36. ^ Tapley P, Horwitz A, Buck C, Duggan K, Rohrschneider L (Mar 1989). "Integrins isolated from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts". Oncogene 4 (3): 325–33. PMID 2468126. 
  37. ^ Horwitz A, Duggan K, Buck C, Beckerle MC, Burridge K (1986). "Interaction of plasma membrane fibronectin receptor with talin--a transmembrane linkage". Nature 320 (6062): 531–3. doi:10.1038/320531a0. PMID 2938015. 
  38. ^ Tachibana I, Bodorova J, Berditchevski F, Zutter MM, Hemler ME (Nov 1997). "NAG-2, a novel transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF) protein that complexes with integrins and other TM4SF proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 (46): 29181–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.46.29181. PMID 9360996. 
  39. ^ Han DC, Rodriguez LG, Guan JL (Jan 2001). "Identification of a novel interaction between integrin beta1 and 14-3-3beta". Oncogene 20 (3): 346–57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204068. PMID 11313964. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Evans JP (Jul 2001). "Fertilin beta and other ADAMs as integrin ligands: insights into cell adhesion and fertilization". BioEssays 23 (7): 628–39. doi:10.1002/bies.1088. PMID 11462216. 
  • Armulik A (Jan 2002). "Splice variants of human beta 1 integrins: origin, biosynthesis and functions". Frontiers in Bioscience 7: d219–27. doi:10.2741/armulik. PMID 11779688. 
  • Brakebusch C, Fässler R (Sep 2005). "beta 1 integrin function in vivo: adhesion, migration and more". Cancer Metastasis Reviews 24 (3): 403–11. doi:10.1007/s10555-005-5132-5. PMID 16258728. 

External links[edit]