CFD-ACE+

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CFD-ACE+ is a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver developed by ESI Group. It solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, chemical species and other scalar transport equations using the finite volume method. These equations enable coupled simulations of fluid, thermal, chemical, biological, electrical and mechanical phenomena.[1]

CFD-ACE+ solver allows for coupled heat and mass transport along with complex multi-step gas-phase and surface reactions which makes it especially useful for designing and optimizing semiconductor equipment and processes such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD).[2] Researchers at the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers used CFD-ACE+ to simulate the rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) process. They predicted the deposition rate along the substrate diameter for silicon deposition from silane. They also used CFD-ACE+ to model transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film deposition with ultrasonic spray chemical vapor deposition (CVD).[3] The University of Louisville and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used CFD-ACE+ to develop the yttria-stabilized zirconia CVD process for application of thermal barrier coatings for fossil energy systems.[4]

CFD-ACE+ was used by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay to model the interplay of multiphysics phenomena involved in microfluidic devices such as fluid flow, structure, surface and interfaces etc. Numerical simulation of electroosmotic effect on pressure-driven flows in the serpentine channel of a micro fuel cell with variable zeta potential on the side walls was investigated and reported.[5] Based on their extensive study of CFD software tools for microfluidic applications, researchers at IMTEK, University of Freiburg concluded that generally CFD-ACE+ can be recommended for simulation of free surface flows involving capillary forces.[6]

CFD-ACE+ has also been used to design and optimize the various fuel cell components and stacks. Researchers at Ballard Power Systems used the PEMFC module in CFD-ACE+ to improve the design of its latest fuel-cell.[7]

Amongst other energy applications, CFD-ACE+ was employed by ABB researchers to simulate the three-dimensional geometry of a high-current constricted vacuum arc drive by a strong magnetic field. Flow velocities were up to several thousand meters per second so the time step of the simulation was in the range of tens of nanoseconds. A movement of the arc over almost one full circle was simulated.[8]

Researchers at the University of Akron used CFD-ACE+ to simulation flow patterns and pressure profiles inside a rectangular pocket of a hydrostatic journal bearing. The numerical results made it possible to determine the three-dimensional flow field and pressure profile throughout the pocket, clearance and adjoining lands. The inertia effects and pressure drops across the pocket were incorporated in the numerical model.[9] Stanford University researchers used CFD-ACE+ to investigate the suppression of wake instabilities of a pair of circular cylinders in a freestream flow at a Reynolds number of 150. The simulation showed that when the cylinders are counter-rotated, unsteady vortex wakes can be eliminated.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kuldeep Prasad, Kevin Li, Elizabeth F. Moore, Rodney A. Bryant, Aaron Johnson, James R. Whetstone, “Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Dispersion: Comparison of FDS Predictions with Gas Velocity Measurements in the Exhaust Duct of a Stationary Source,” National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 1159, April 2013.
  2. ^ A. Bouteville, “Numerical Simulation Applied to Chemical Vapour Deposition Process: Rapid Thermal CVD and Spray CVD,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 7, No. 2, April 2005, p. 599 – 606.
  3. ^ A. Bouteville, “Numerical Simulation Applied to Chemical Vapour Deposition Process: Rapid Thermal CVD and Spray CVD,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 7, No. 2, April 2005, p. 599-606.
  4. ^ Thomas L. Starr, Weijie Xu, “Modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposited Zirconia for Thermal Barrier and Environmental Barrier Coatings,” US Department of Energy, 16th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials, April 22-24, 2002.
  5. ^ Auro Ashish Saha, Sushanta K. Mitra, “Modeling and Simulation of Microscale Flows,” "Modelling and Simulation", book edited by Giuseppe Petrone and Giuliano Cammarata, ISBN 978-3-902613-25-7, Published: June 1, 2008.
  6. ^ Thomas Glatzel., Christian Litterst, Claudio Cupelli, Timo Lindemann, Christian Moosmann, Remigius Niekrawietz, , Wolfgang Streule, Roland Zengerle, Peter Koltay, “Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software tools for microfluidic applications – A case study,” Computers & Fluids, Volume 37 (2008) ,Pages 218–235
  7. ^ Sanjiv Kumar, Sekhar Radhakrishnan, “Flow simulation improves robustness of fuel-cell design,” Automotive Engineering International, October 2007.
  8. ^ Kai Hencken, Dmitry Shmelev, Oliver Fritz, “Modeling and Simulation of High-Current Constricted Vacuum Arcs Driven by a Strong Magnetic Field in 3D,” ISPC-20 Proceeding, International Plasma Chemical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  9. ^ F. E. Horvat, M. J. Braun, “Comparative Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Flow and Pressure Fields Inside Deep and Shallow Pockets for a Hydrostatic Bearing,” Tribology Transactions, Volume 54, Issue 4, 2011.
  10. ^ Andre S. Chan, Antony Jameson, “Suppression of the unsteady vortex wakes of a circular cylinder pair by a doublet-like counter-rotation,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 22–39, 10 May 2010.