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The CFD-DEM model, or Computational Fluid Dynamics / Discrete Element Method model, is a process used to model or simulate systems combining fluids with solids or particles. In CFD-DEM, the motion of discrete solids or particles phase is obtained by the Discrete Element Method (DEM) which applies Newton's laws of motion to every particle, while the flow of continuum fluid is described by the local averaged Navier–Stokes equations that can be solved using the traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The interactions between the fluid phase and solids phase is modeled by use of Newton's third law.

The direct incorporation of CFD into DEM to study the gas fluidization process so far has been attempted by Tsuji et al.[1][2] and most recently by Hoomans et al.,[3] Deb et al.[4] and Peng et al.[5]


OpenMP has been shown to be more efficient in performing coupled CFD-DEM calculations in parallel framework as compared to MPI by Amritkar et al.[6]


  1. ^ Tsuji, Y., Kawaguchi, T. and Tanaka, T. (1993). Discrete particle simulation of two-dimensional fluidized bed. Powder Technol. 77, 79-87.,
  2. ^ Tsuji, Y., Tanaka, T. and Ishida, T. (1992). Lagrangian numerical simulation of plug flow of cohesionless particles in a horizontal pipe. Powder Technol. 71, 239-250.
  3. ^ Hoomans, B. P. B., Kuipers, J. A. M., Briels, W. J. and Van Swaaij, W. P. M. (1996). Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: a hard-sphere approach. Chem. Engng Sci. 51, 99-118.
  4. ^ Deb, S., & Tafti, D. (2014). Investigation of flat bottomed spouted bed with multiple jets using DEM–CFD framework. Powder Technology, 254, 387-402.
  5. ^ Peng, Z.; Doroodchi, E.; Luo, C.; Moghtaderi, B. (2014). "Influence of void fraction calculation on fidelity of CFD-DEM simulation of gas-solid bubbling fluidized beds". AIChE J. 60: 2000. doi:10.1002/aic.14421. 
  6. ^ Amritkar, Amit; Deb, Surya; Tafti, Danesh (2014). "Efficient parallel CFD-DEM simulations using OpenMP". Journal of Computational Physics. 256: 501. Bibcode:2014JCoPh.256..501A. doi:10.1016/