CFM International LEAP

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LEAP
CFM LEAP-X (cropped).jpg
Mockup of a LEAP-X, the early code name of the engine
Type Turbofan
National origin France/United States
Manufacturer CFM International
First run 4 September 2013 (LEAP-1A)[1]
13 June 2014 (LEAP-1B)[2]
9 October 2014 (LEAP-1C)[3]
Major applications Airbus A320neo family
Boeing 737 MAX
Comac C919
Number built 100+
Unit cost LEAP-1A: USD14.5 million[4]
LEAP-1B: USD14.5 million[5]
Developed from CFM International CFM56

The CFM International LEAP is a high-bypass turbofan engine. It is produced by CFM International, a 50-50 joint venture company between GE Aviation of the United States and Safran Aircraft Engines (formerly known as Snecma) of France. It is a modernized complement to the successful CFM56, intended to compete with the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G in the single-aisle jetliner market. CFM intends to replace the CFM56 with the LEAP.

Design[edit]

The LEAP's basic architecture includes a scaled-down version of Safran's low pressure turbine used on the GEnx engine. The fan has flexible blades manufactured by a resin transfer molding process, which are designed to untwist as the fan's rotational speed increases. While the LEAP is designed to operate at a higher pressure than the CFM56 (which is partly why it is more efficient), GE plans to set the operating pressure lower than the maximum in order to maximize the engine's service life and reliability.[6] Currently proposed for the LEAP is a greater use of composite materials, a blisk fan in the compressor, a second-generation Twin Annular Pre-mixing Swirler (TAPS II) combustor, and a bypass ratio around 10-11:1.

GE is using ceramic matrix composites (CMC) to build the turbine shrouds.[7] These technological advances are projected to produce 16% lower fuel consumption.[8][9] Reliability is also supported by use of an eductor-based oil cooling system similar to that of the GEnx, featuring coolers mounted on the inner lining of the fan duct. According to Aviation Week's article, "The eductor device produces a venturi effect, which ensures a positive pressure to keep oil in the lower internal sump."[6] The engine has some of the first FAA-approved 3D-printed components.[10]

Development[edit]

side view with cutaways

The LEAP ("Leading Edge Aviation Propulsion")[11] incorporates technologies that CFM developed as part of the LEAP56 technology acquisition program, which CFM launched in 2005.[12] The engine was officially launched as LEAP-X on 13 July 2008.[8] It is intended to be a successor to the CFM56-5B and CFM56-7B.

In 2009, COMAC choose the LEAP engine for the C919.[13] The aircraft was due to begin testing in 2016.[14] In total, 28 test engines will be used by CFM to achieve engine certification, and 32 others will be used by Airbus, Boeing and COMAC for aircraft certification and test programs.[1][15] The first engine entering the test program successfully reached and sustained 33,000 lbf (150 kN) of thrust, required to satisfy the highest rating for the Airbus A321neo. The same engine ultimately reached 35,000 lbf (160 kN) of thrust in test runs.[16]

General Electric carried out the first test flight, of a LEAP-1C, in Victorville, California, with the engine mounted on the company's Boeing 747 flying testbed, on October 6, 2014. The -1C version features a thrust reverser equipped with a one piece O-ring replacing a 2 piece door. The thrust reverser is deployed by the O-ring sliding aft, reducing the drag that was induced by the older design and improving efficiency.[17] In April 2015, it was reported that the LEAP-1B was suffering up to a 5% shortfall on its promised reduction in fuel consumption.[18] It obtained its 180-minute ETOPS approval from the U.S. Federal Aviation Authority and the European Aviation Safety Agency on June 19, 2017.[19]

Orders[edit]

On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced that it planned to purchase 100 Boeing 737 aircraft featuring the LEAP-1B engine.[20] The project was approved by Boeing on August 30, 2011 as the Boeing 737 MAX.[21][22] Southwest Airlines is the launch customer of the 737 MAX with a firm order of 150 aircraft.[23]

CFM International offers its support for the engine, and signed a 15-year Rate per Flight Hour agreement with Loong Air for 20 LEAP-1A at U.S $333 million, or $3039 per engine per day, in contrast with U.S. $138 million for 17 CFM International CFM56 over 12 years or $1852 per engine per day.[24] As a number of A320neo engine for ANA group of Japan was also ordered in 2014, there is a possibility to select the LEAP engine.[25]

In 2016 CFM booked 1,801 orders, LEAP backlog is at more than 12,200 for more than $170 billion U.S. at list price.[26] In early 2018, the backlog was at 14,500, with a 59% share of the A320neo market for decided customers as it has an 18 percentage point advantage in utilization rate over the GTF.[27]

By July 2018, the Leap had an eight-year backlog with 16,300 sales while 35,000 CFM56s have been sold, but more Leaps are produced in five years than CFM56s in 25 years.[28] It is the second-most ordered jet engine behind the 44-year-old CFM56. Its A320neo selected engine market share was at 58.6% while one-third were yet selected, the CFM56 have a 60% share of the A320ceo market.[29]

Production[edit]

In 2016, the engine was introduced in August on the Airbus A320neo with Pegasus Airlines and CFM delivered 77 LEAP.[26] With the 737 MAX introduction, CFM delivered 257 Leaps in the first three quarters of 2017, including 110 in the third: 49 to Airbus and 61 to Boeing, and targets 450 in the year.[30] CFM was to produce 1,200 engines in 2018, 1,900 in 2019, and 2,100 in 2020.[31] This is compared to the 1,700 CFM56 produced in 2016.[32]

To cope with the demand, CFM is duplicating supply sources on 80% of parts and even subdivide assembly sites, already shared between GE and Safran. GE assembles its production in Lafayette, Indiana, in addition to its previous Durham, North Carolina, facility. As more than 75% of the engine comes from suppliers, critical parts suppliers pass “run-rate stress tests” lasting two to 12 weeks. Pratt & Whitney acknowledges a production ramp-up bottleneck on its rival PW1100G geared turbofan including a critical shortage of the unique aluminium-titanium fan blade, hitting the Airbus A320neo and the Bombardier CSeries deliveries.[33] Safran assembles its production in Villaroche, France, Safran and GE each assemble half of the annual volume.[34]. Mecachrome plan to produce 120,000-130,000 Leap turbine blades in 2018 up from 50,000 in 2017.[35]

In mid-June 2018, deliveries remained four to five weeks behind schedule down from six, and should catch up in the fourth quarter as the quality variation of castings and forgings improves. The production has no single manufacturing choke point by selecting multiple suppliers for every critical part. From 460 in 2017, 1,100 Leaps should be built in 2018, along 1,050 CFM56s as it encounter unexpected sales, to pass the record production of 1,900 engines in 2017. It will stay over 2,000 engines per year as 1,800 Leaps should be produced in 2019 while CFM56 production will drop, then 2,000 in 2020.[28]

Operations[edit]

The troubled introduction of the PW1100G is motivating customers to choose LEAP engines to power their A320neo aircraft; 39 PW1100G engines vs 396 CFM LEAP engines from January through early August 2017. As an example of PW1100G reliability issues, 9% of LEAP-powered A320neos were out of service for at least one week in July 2017, compared with 46% of those using the PW1100G. LEAP market share rose from 55% to 60% in 2016, but orders for 1,523 aircraft (29%) still haven't specified which engine will be chosen.[36]

Introduction is smooth with the Boeing 737 MAX Leap 1B starting revenue service in May 2017 with Malindo Air with 8 h daily utilization, while the A320neo Leap 1A surpassed 10 h per day by July; Safran discovered a production quality defect on Leap 1B low-pressure turbine disks during assembly for possibly 30 engines and CFM is working to minimize flight-test and customer-delivery disruptions.[37]

In early October 2017, an exhaust gas temperature shift was noticed during a flight and a CMC shroud coating in the HP turbine was seen flaking off in a borescope inspection, creating a leaking gap: eight in-service engines are seeing their coating replaced.[38] Safran provisioned €50 million ($58 million) to trouble-shoot in-service engines, including potentially Leap-1Bs.[30] Forty Leap-1A were replaced and the part should be replaced in over 500 in-service engines, while shipments are four weeks behind schedule.[39] Deliveries with the permanent CMC environmental-barrier coating fix began in June.[40]

Applications[edit]

Airbus A320neo prototype with LEAP-1A engines.
CFM international Leap Engine[41]
Model Application Thrust range Introduction
1A Airbus A320neo family 24,500–35,000 lbf (109–156 kN) 2 Aug 2016[42]
1B Boeing 737 MAX 23,000–28,000 lbf (100–120 kN) 22 May 2017[43]
1C COMAC C919 27,980–30,000 lbf (124.5–133.4 kN) 2021[44]

Specifications[edit]

18 blades fan
The LEAP Family
Model LEAP-1A[45] LEAP-1B[46] LEAP-1C[45]
Configuration Twin-spool, high bypass turbofan
Compressor 1 fan, 3-stage LP, 22:1 10-stage HP[47]
Combustor second generation Twin-Annular, Pre-Mixing Swirler Combustor (TAPS II)[41]
Turbine 2-stage HP, 7-stage (-1B: 5-stage) LP[48]
OPR 40:1[47] (50:1, Top-of-Climb)
TSFC ~ -15% (vs. current CFM56 engine)[41] (~0.42 lb/lbf/h (12 g/kN/s)[49])
Fan diameter[47] 78 in (198 cm) 69.4 in (176 cm) 77 in (196 cm)[50]
Bypass ratio[47] 11:1 9:1 11:1
Length 3.328 m (131.0 in) [a] 3.147 m (123.9 in) 4.505 m (177.4 in) [b]
Max. Width 2.533–2.543 m (99.7–100.1 in) 2.421 m (95.3 in) 2.659 m (104.7 in)
Max. Height 2.368–2.362 m (93.2–93.0 in) 2.256 m (88.8 in) 2.714 m (106.9 in)
Weight 2,990–3,153 kg (6,592–6,951 lb) (Wet) 2,780 kg (6,130 lb) (Dry) 3,929–3,935 kg (8,662–8,675 lb) (Wet)
Max. Take-Off 143.05 kN (32,160 lbf) 130.41 kN (29,320 lbf) 137.14 kN (30,830 lbf)
Max. Continuous 140.96 kN (31,690 lbf) 127.62 kN (28,690 lbf) 133.22 kN (29,950 lbf)
Max. rpm LP : 3894, HP : 19391 LP : 4586, HP : 20171 LP : 3894, HP : 19391
Thrust ratings[45][46]
Variant Take-Off Thrust Max. Continuous
-1A23 106.80 kN (24,010 lbf) 104.58 kN (23,510 lbf)
-1A24 106.80 kN (24,010 lbf) 106.76 kN (24,000 lbf)
-1B25 119.15 kN (26,790 lbf) 115.47 kN (25,960 lbf)
-1A26 120.64 kN (27,120 lbf) 118.68 kN (26,680 lbf)
-1B27 124.71 kN (28,040 lbf) 121.31 kN (27,270 lbf)
-1B28 130.41 kN (29,320 lbf) 127.62 kN (28,690 lbf)
-1C28 129.98 kN (29,220 lbf) 127.93 kN (28,760 lbf)
-1C30 137.14 kN (30,830 lbf) 133.22 kN (29,950 lbf)
-1A30, 32, 33, 35 143.05 kN (32,160 lbf) 140.96 kN (31,690 lbf)
  1. ^ fan case forward flange to turbine rear frame aft flange
  2. ^ fan cowl hinge beam front to centre vent tube end

See also[edit]

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CFM launches a new era as first LEAP engine begins ground testing". CFM International. 2013-09-06. Retrieved 2013-09-07. 
  2. ^ "CFM International démarre le premier LEAP-1B du 737 MAX". Le journal de l'aviation. 2014-06-18. Retrieved 2015-03-05. 
  3. ^ "Leap 1C Engine Tests Continue as Comac's C919 Takes Shape". AIN-Online. 2014-11-10. Retrieved 2016-03-15. 
  4. ^ Alan Dron (Mar 30, 2018). "Lion Group completes $5.5 billion LEAP-1A purchase". Aviation Week Network. 
  5. ^ "ALC finalizes $348 million CFM LEAP-1B engine order" (Press release). CFM. Aug 8, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Guy Norris (Oct 28, 2013). "Smooth Start To Fast-Paced Leap-1A Test Program".  "Pressure testing"Paid subscription required. Aviation Week & Space Technology. p. 43. 
  7. ^ Guy Norris (Apr 13, 2015). "Pratt Targets Hot, Rotating Blade Use Of CMCs"Paid subscription required.  "Hot blades" (PDF). Aviation Week & Space Technology. April 27, 2015. p. 55. 
  8. ^ a b "CFM Unveils New LEAP-X Engine" (Press release). CFM International. 2008-07-13. 
  9. ^ "New engines: flurry of activity despite downturn". Flightglobal. 2009-10-06. 
  10. ^ Tomas Kellner (Apr 14, 2015). "The FAA Cleared the First 3D Printed Part to Fly in a Commercial Jet Engine from GE". GE. 
  11. ^ LEAP Turbofan Engine, History
  12. ^ CFM Laying the Technology Foundation for the Future. CFM International
  13. ^ "CFM International to provide engines for COMAC's C919". flightglobal. 21 Dec 2009. 
  14. ^ "CFM to finish Leap core testing by mid-May". flightglobal. 28 Apr 2010. 
  15. ^ david kaminski morrow (22 Apr 2015). "First Leap-powered A320neo moved to flight-test team". flightglobal. 
  16. ^ Norris, Guy, Pressure testing, Aviation Week and Space Technology, October 28, 2013, pp.42-43
  17. ^ Norris, Guy, Boom time, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 13, 2014, p.40
  18. ^ "Engine problems aren't Propulsion South Carolina's problem". 
  19. ^ "LEAP engines awarded 180-minute ETOPS certification" (Press release). CFM International. Jun 21, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Boeing and American Airlines Agree on Order for up to 300 Airplanes - Jul 20, 2011". Boeing.mediaroom.com. July 20, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  21. ^ Boeing Confirms Duopoly With Airbus Announcing Re-Engining Of 737. Forbes
  22. ^ Boeing rendering illustrates major changes to 737NE. flightglobal.com
  23. ^ "Southwest Airlines Will Become Launch Customer for the New Boeing 737 Max Aircraft - Southwest Airlines Newsroom". Swamedia.com. December 13, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Zhejiang Loong Air signs RPFH agreement for CFM56-5B engines". Aviation News Ltd. 15 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "Zhejiang Loong Air signs Service agreement for CFM LEAP-1A engines". Aviation News Ltd. 15 June 2015. 
  26. ^ a b "2016 CFM orders surpass 2,600 engines" (Press release). CFM International. 14 February 2017. 
  27. ^ "GE/CFM in "lockstep" with Boeing on NMA". Leeham News. March 22, 2018. 
  28. ^ a b Chris Kjelgaard (July 4, 2018). "CFM Confident Leap Production Can Catch Up Soon". AIN online. 
  29. ^ Stephen Trimble (15 July 2018). "CFM looks to another Leap forward at Farnborough". Flightglobal. 
  30. ^ a b Sean Broderick (Oct 31, 2017). "Safran Reveals Leap Turbine Shroud Coating Issue Issue". Aviation Week Network. 
  31. ^ Stephen Trimble (June 19, 2017). "GE ups production target to meet Boeing and Airbus demand". Flight Global. 
  32. ^ Max Kingsley-Jones (November 15, 2016). "CFM quietly confident on Leap production ramp-up". Flight Global. 
  33. ^ "New GE plant highlights CFM ramp-up strategy on Leap". Flight Global. 16 November 2016. 
  34. ^ "CFM confirms initial LEAP-1A and LEAP-1B assembly allocation". MRO Network. 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2017-12-24. 
  35. ^ Thierry Dubois (Mar 15, 2018). "Leap Engine Deliveries To Airbus Still Challenging". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  36. ^ Rick Clough (22 Aug 2017). "Pratt's $10 Billion Jet Engine Lags GE by 10-to-1 on New Orders". Bloomberg. 
  37. ^ Sean Broderick (Aug 31, 2017). "Issues With Newest Engines Provide Early MRO-Proving Opportunities". Aviation Week Network. 
  38. ^ Stephen Trimble (30 Oct 2017). "CFM reviews fleet after finding Leap-1A durability issue". Flightglobal. 
  39. ^ Rick Clough and Julie Johnsson (5 March 2018). "Fix for New Boeing, Airbus Planes". Bloomberg. 
  40. ^ Chris Kjelgaard (July 17, 2018). "CFM Fixes Leap Turbine Shroud Coatings". AIN online. 
  41. ^ a b c "The Leap Engine". CFM international. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  42. ^ "Pegasus starts flying Leap-1A-powered A320neo". Flight Global. August 2, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016. 
  43. ^ "Malindo operates world's first 737 Max flight". Flight Global. May 22, 2017. 
  44. ^ Brenda Goh (5 February 2018). "China's COMAC says first delivery of C919 jet planned for 2021". Reuters. 
  45. ^ a b c "Type Certificate data sheet for LEAP-1A & LEAP-1C Series Engines" (PDF). EASA. 2 November 2017. 
  46. ^ a b "Type Certificate data sheet for LEAP-1B Series Engines" (PDF). EASA. 16 June 2017. 
  47. ^ a b c d "LEAP overview" (PDF). CFM International. June 2017. 
  48. ^ "Comparing the new technology Narrow-body engines: GTF vs LEAP maintenance costs". Airinsight. November 9, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  49. ^ Joseph E. Fritz (December 6, 2012). "Global Commercial Aero Turbofan Engine Market, Supply Chain and Opportunities: 2012 - 2017" (PDF). Lucintel. p. 25. 
  50. ^ "LEAP-1C: integrated propulsion system for the Comac C919". Safran Aircraft Engines. 

External links[edit]