CIA activities in the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Central Intelligence Agency has been active in the Philippines almost since the agency's creation. The CIA was founded in 1947 and first played a major role in the Philippines three years later.[1] The presence of U.S. military bases in the Philippines made it highly accessible to the agency. During this time the CIA ran many covert operations in the country, and also employed it as a base to launch actions against other countries. The agency had supply, training, and logistical centers on multiple Philippine islands. After their successful counterinsurgency against the Hukbalahap, the CIA reused this model in both Vietnam and Latin America. The CIA deployed psychological warfare in the Philippines as well as force.[2]

The Philippines, formally titled the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelago state off the coast of southeast Asia. It is located due west of Vietnam, between the Philippine Sea and South China Sea. It is the main "US imperial power [base] in Southeast Asia," according to Roland G. Simbulan of the University of the Philippines.[3] There are credible allegations that the CIA has operated in support of the pro-American oligarchy in the Philippines, and uses its resources to advance the interests of American corporations such as Ford, Nike, and Coca-Cola. The Filipino counterpart to the CIA is the National Intelligence Coordinating Agency (NICA), with which it cooperates.

Hukbalahap (Huk) Rebellion[edit]

Since 1898, the Philippines was a colony of the U.S.[4] During World War II in 1942, the Japanese occupied the islands. The Hukbalahap (Huk) was formed in order to fend off the Japanese during their occupation. The Huk resistance created strongholds throughout Philippine villages using guerrilla warfare tactics. During this time, the movement was widespread and largely successful. After the Philippines were liberated from the Japanese, the United States of America began to influence and control the Philippine government once again. The US ordered the Philippine government to disarm and arrest the Huks, even as it permitted more right-wing militias to keep their weapons. These activities were overseen by the Counter-Intelligence Corps, a predecessor to the CIA.[5] It was presumed by the Americans that the Huks were supporting Communist ideology. With aid from the U.S., the Philippine military began to hunt down the Huks. The guerillas took refuge in the mountains and soon counter-attacked the Philippine government.

As the amount of free trade between the U.S. and the Philippines increased, land owners began to favor growing and sending cash crops to the USA such as tobacco and sugar cane over rice and cereals, which resulted in reduced food supply for the peasants. During this era, the farming industry in the Philippines underwent a major transformation. Traditional land owners hired tenants with legal contracts forming a rentier relationship as an effort to maximize their profits. The obligations of this newly formed relationship of landlord and tenants made it almost impossible for the peasants to survive.

Peasants decided to form their own social organizations as a way to voice concerns, demand change and protect their rights. After numerous protests and strikes, the status quo between the peasants and the land owners remained. As a result, the peasants decided to join forces with the Huks to combat the economic injustices. The union of the peasants and the Huks intensified the "Huk-resistance" against the government of the Philippines. The Huks developed major influence in local politics with an image of "taking from the rich and helping the poor".[6] Huks were hunted continuously by the Philippine and U.S. governments. There is dispute as to how ingrained Marxist-Leninst ideology was within the organization, but they appeared to have some connections with subgroups of the Communist Party.[7] The massacre of Huk squadron 77, which occurred in February 1945, consisted of 109 Huks who were shot and buried in a mass grave by Filipinos and U.S. soldiers.[8]

On August 24, 1948, the CIA received a message from Filipino Secretary of Defense Ruperto Kangleon. This message detailed a peace offering from the Huks to the Filipino government. Their demands were that the Americans be driven out, all base agreements be cancelled, and that trade parity be cancelled. Kangleon saw these demands as detrimental to Filipino interests. Kangleon also informed the CIA that he had come into possession of recordings of high ranking Huks meeting with leading Communists. These recordings implicated President Elpidio Quirino's brother as being a Communist, causing upheaval for the government. Kangleon also claimed that the Huks were preparing to overthrow the Filipino government in the advent of war between the Soviet Union and the United States.[9]

On September 15, 1951, the CIA released an assessment on the strength of the Huk. Based on the assessment, the Huk had reached the peak of their strength in the mid 1950s. Factors that contributed to the increase of strength included a lack of funds in the public treasury, low export prices, exposed scandals involving high Filipino government officials and the public concern of local government payments being balanced. The outcome of these negative factors enabled the Hukbalahap to gain a large amount of support from the peseants.[10]


In the late 1947, the CIA released a country report on the Philippines. Among other things, the report looked at the economic aid that the United States gave the country. The report assessed the aid helped stabilize the country and "contributed to the increased popular support and legislative strength of the pro-American liberal administration." The report supported continuing aid and also considered other possibilities for more support.[11] The report suggests that financial assistance should be a last resort and if the appropriate measures are taken, the Philippines will not be able to obtain financial aid from the US. It also suggests that any support or assistance should be technical and administrative.[12]


In 1950, the CIA studied conditions that were causing unrest. They determined the ineptitude of then President Quirino would lead to political upheaval and that the Philippine police and military were incapable of maintaining law and order in the country or stopping Hukbalahap raids in Luzon.[13] Later that year, the Huks attempted a rebellion. After the rebellion attempt, the United States made it a priority to terminate the Huk resistance. In 1951, the Huks became weaker because of no armed support. The election of 1951 was an honest one and had a big effect on the population of the Philippines. The Huks tried to stop the voting with slogans like "Boycott the Election." Many of the Huks ranks were soon scattered and turned themselves in however. Groups of Huks began to come into army camps, voluntarily surrendering and commenting bitterly that they had been misled by their leaders.[14] In 1952, support for the Huks was close to non-existent. The Huks withdrew most forces from their old heartland in Northern Manila province. The main Huk forces retreated south into the jungles where they set up camps and new headquarters. The Huks believed they were safe from the Philippine forces and would have time to rebuild. The Philippine army and the U.S. Battalion Combat Team (BCT) hunted the Huks into the jungles, once again forcing the rebels to relocate.

Shortly after becoming Defense Minister in 1950, future Philippines president Ramon Magsaysay began a series of programs to undermine the popularity of the Huks nationally. The first program organized a Defense Corps, starting from 1950 and ending in 1955, to resettle Huks and their families.[15] In 1954, in order to win more favor from the general populace, Magsaysay created the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation agency, which redistributed land to the peasants of the Philippines, as well as encouraging migration to the more rural areas of the country.[15] By the time Magsaysay died in 1957, he had completely undermined the Huk movement, changing it from a strong movement with thousands of armed insurgents to a few hundred with little public support.[15]

As stated in a lecture at the University of the Philippines-Manila, Professor Roland G. Simbulan demonstrated that at this time the CIA was covertly sponsoring the Security Training Center on the outskirts of Manila as a, "countersubversion, counterguerilla and psychological warfare school." The CIA was worried that they and the Philippine government were losing control of the rural areas of the Philippines to the Huks and their perceived Communist ideology. Through this organization CIA funds were funneled into the National Movement for Free Elections' (NAMFREL) community centers, the Philippine Action in Development, and through the Asia Foundation. The US emphasized its colonial interests by backing American businesses and any American-funded organizations. The American government did this by funneling grant money via USAID, NED, and Ford Foundation. The constant stream of financial backing rewarded the Filipino elite for promoting American interests. Community Planning Development Center requests for millions of dollars could generate possibilities for "projects such as feeder roads, pure water, irrigation, additional cooperatives, and warehousing facilities." By creating better standards of living for the poor, Magsaysay could combat communism by undercutting the need for it.[16] Therefore, Magsaysay focused on "rural rehabilitation" to help the lowest income bracket. However, this fostered an economic dependence on American funds—a double-edged sword for the Philippines.[17] All of these efforts were in order to influence the rural Filipino people to support the American-backed government. Thus the Philippines were one of the first locations in which the CIA attempted psychological operations alongside force to influence it's desired outcomes.[18][19]

Philippine president Ramon Magsaysay entrusted Colonel Edward Lansdale as his military adviser. Secretly Lansdale was working for the CIA, and funneled $1 million of agency money to Magsaysay, along with additional funds from the Coca Cola Company.[20] Through Lansdale's influence on Magsaysay, the U.S. was able to spread American policy into Southeast Asia. Many programs were launched by the United States such as: Freedom Company of the Philippines, Eastern Construction Company, and "Operation Brotherhood" which allowed Filipino personnel to deploy in other Asian countries for covert Filipino operations. Actively using the Philippines territories, the CIA was able to established supply as well as training and logistic bases on several Philippines islands. This included the Tawi-Tawi Island of Sanga-Sanga, which was a base for an airstrip. These were employed for the mission to overthrow the Indonesian President Sukarno and destroy the Indonesian left. The CIA specifically supported Indonesian colonels who disapproved of Sukarno, and trained them and other subversives at the above-mentioned bases. In this way, the CIA provided aid, advice, and instructions directly to military rebel groups.[21]

In the summer of 1952, Philippine president Ramon Magsaysay offered the Huks a choice of either all-out friendship or all-out force. Magsaysay’s presidential term was set to end in December 1957, however, before he could leave office, he died in a plane crash in March 1957. According to a Memo intended for the Director of Central Intelligence, the death of Magsaysay caused the political polarization of the Philippines to intensify.[22] The CIA believed that Magsaysay’s death would initiate an upheaval, causing different political groups to compete for power. They also believed that US-Philippine relations would decline because there was no acceptable replacement that would have the same connections to the US.[22] It also addressed the possibility that along with the death of Magsaysay, pro-American sentiment may decrease. More specifically, it warned against the possible rise of nationalism and communism as forces that could begin to influence policy in the Philippines, namely policies that were not in the best interest of the United States.[22] This would begin to shape future US policy with the Philippines, as the fear of communism began to rise. However, there was hopes of the Liberal Party taking over the political spectrum with their possible candidate Jose Yulo. Yulo is held in high regard to his integrity and ability to lead and he also is pro-American. Carlos Garcia, being the incumbent, had a great advantage, but was facing a strong opposition with the little time he had to exploit his position.[22]


Being regarded as "strong hold of US imperial power in Asia," the Philippines capital Manila has been the main station or regional headquarters for the U.S. CIA. for a long time. Not only was it easy to recruit people to engage in treason without realizing it, but the CIA officials in Manila were able to provide critical intelligence to the agency. Intelligence collection in Manila is also a part of a covert and offensive operation where people, ideas, or places that deemed to be threats to the U.S. were attacked and neutralized.[3] In the early 1950s, the CIA established the Trans-Asiatic Airlines Inc. as a front to recruit veteran Filipino war pilots and military intelligence who were active in their service still.[4]

Through Manila, the CIA and the Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG) engineered the bloody suppression of the nationalist Hukbong Mapagpalayang Bayans (HMB). Success from this CIA suppression was made into a model for future counterinsurgency operations in Vietnam and Latin America. CIA agents Lansdale and Valeriano used their counterguerrilla experiences in the Philippines to train covert operatives for Vietnam and guerrilla assassins for Latin America. The Philippines became the CIA's prototype in successful covert operations and psychological warfare.[23]

In a lecture given at the University of the Philippines Manila on August 18, 2000, Roland B. Simbulan, Coordinator of the Manila Studies Program, said about the CIA in the Philippines, "The CIA in the Philippines has engaged in countless covert operations for intervention and dirty tricks particularly in Philippine domestic policies.[24] On top of all this is the U.S. diplomatic mission, especially the political section that is a favorite cover for CIA operatives. CIA front companies also provide an additional but convenient layer for operatives assigned overseas. "In general, wherever you find U.S. big business also find a very active CIA."[23] These business interests include big corporations such as Nike, United Fruits, Coca~Cola, Ford, and Citicorp. On the other hand, CIA operative David Sternberg fronted as a foreign correspondent for an American newspaper based in Boston, the Christian Science Monitor, when he assisted Gabriel Kaplan in managing the presidential campaign of Ramon Magsaysay."[23]

On April 18th 1973 Henry Kissinger had discussed getting State and AID to consider providing assistance in improving the Manila police administration. They would need help with equipment and also they wanted experts to be brought in. The discussion of merging the 17 separate departments into one was highlighted in this letter.[25]


In 1957, the CIA expressed concern over a potential political uprising in the region, and particularly of a communist Huk resurgence. According to an official CIA report from April 18, 1967 the group had gained considerable influence over the past 20 months. The report states, "The number of armed cadre has grown from an estimated 37 to 300-400, and the US embassy in Manila estimates that mass base support has increased by five to eight percent.".[26] The presidential elections that were occurring that year were sent into disarray after President Ramon Magsaysay died in an aircraft accident, leading to political disarray throughout the country and a slight decay of US-Philippines relations.[27] In 1960, the CIA recognized Philippine concern over a Huk resurgence in the region after killings on the island of Luzon, where Manila is located. The armed forces were called in fear of a communist uprising, but most of the fears went unwarranted at the time. While the Huk resurged in the 1960s, they were not able to cause an insurrection like that of their earlier attempt again.[28]

While they did not believe they posed too large of a threat, there was concern that "any failure by Marcos to reduce Huk influence could" cost him the election.[26] In 1966 the CIA was concerned if there were nuclear weapons stored in the Philippines. Robert McClintock reported that there were nuclear weapons stored in the Philippines for many years.[29] President Marcos did know of the Nuclear weapons.[29] It was crucial for the Philippine government to be unaware of this as it might threaten the US-Philippine relations and affect the elections.[29]

From 1965 to 1967 the Huk began to show an increase in presence again with new activity in the region and a growth in strength. There were 17 assassinations and killings in 1965 and the number jumped erratically to 71 in 1967. Although most of these assassinations and killings were of smaller figures, the greatest act of terror carried out in this period was the assassination of Mayor Anastasio Gallardo of Candaba who was the chairman of the anti-HUK mayors league. The assassination occurred while he was on his way to meet with President Marcos. This event froze the League of anti-HUK mayors out of fear the same would happen to them.[26]

In 1965, President Ferdinand E. Marcos took office commencing a 20-year presidency.[30]

In 1967, President Marcos began to make attempts to slow any growth of the Huks by promoting developmental efforts in the Central Luzon region. The CIA intelligence, however, reported that the programs were having minimal impact on the region or the Huks influence. The Huks at this time were still able to maintain some power through intimidating votes and by helping impoverished peasants. The Huks were now beginning to enter more into politics with a grand total of 23 elected officials in 1967. The amount of rebels still armed at the time appeared to be around 140 rebels, and the CIA estimated that the sympathizers were around 30,000. Their activity had also increased, the assassinations had increased to around 70 people, originally starting at around only 17.[26] At the same time, President Marcos was beginning to increase his efforts at fighting the remaining Huks, but with recent election success, the CIA deemed his efforts were inconsistent at times. Although early in the year, they suspected that the growth in Huk activity signified an increase of their power, the CIA also outlined in 1967 that the Huks had little communist influence left in their overall ideology and that they proved little to no threat to the government of the Philippines anymore.[26][31]

Later, in 1969, a memorandum concerning US commitments abroad went out between US officials. The memo indicated that there could be a disastrous fallout between the US and Philippines if it ever got out that the US had been storing nuclear weapons in the Philippines without the prior consent of the government.[32] A later dated memo disclosed that, although the Filipino public or government was not aware of the weapons being stored, Marcos had secretly known about them, but did not reveal their existence as it would not have been advantageous in the upcoming elections.[33]


On March 15, 1973 a memorandum was written that discussed the department of defense and the state have provided assistance which included equipment. The number of active Muslim insurgents were said to be about 17,000 which are dispersed throughout different areas including Cotabato and Sulu. The rebels were said to be armed with machine guns and rockets. The Muslim threat was not considered immediate to U.S.[34] The U.S. was concerned if they provided assistance it would hurt their relations with Malaysia and Indonesia.[35] The US also knew though at the end of the day that the Philippines was very important in the Pacific militarily.[36] Despite these fears, Kissinger explained why the US should keep its position towards Marcos. In a memorandum dated March 16, 1973 Kissinger stated that there was no alternative to Marcos. Moreover, he stated that Marcos had shown he was willing to cooperate with the United States.[37] A NSSM was issued on March 21 for the Muslim uprising. This was decided by Kissinger and Holdridge.[38]

In 1977 released public warnings that President Marcos may dissolve the arrangement with U.S. military bases.[39] Marcos being influenced by his staff to protect their strategic interest and force the U.S. to agree to his terms.[39]

Martial Law in the Philippines[edit]

On September 22, 1972, President Marcos declared martial law in the country to "protect it from Communist threats". Marcos had been debating several options to stay in power, such as delaying the elections or running a surrogate candidate, but he found imposing martial law to be the easiest path. Marcos quickly jailed his political rivals and seized his goal of rewriting the constitution to remain in power for the foreseeable future.[40] Marcos justified his use of martial law in an attempt to “restructure” the Philippine society. He asserted that all his decrees were will within legal constraints.[41]

Marcos claimed that martial law was a necessary response to terrorism, particularly a series of deadly bombings which took place in 1971, including one that killed nine people at Plaza Miranda. The CIA was aware that Marcos was responsible for at least one of these attacks, and were almost certain that they were not perpetrated by Communists. The agency did not share this information with the opposition. The CIA did however bribe opposition politicians not to challenge the presence of US military bases or dominance of American corporations at the constitutional convention of 1971. President Nixon approved Marcos' martial law initiative because he accepted the Filipino leader's claim that the country was being terrorized by Communists.[42]

Marcos insisted he was going to eradicate corruption through the imposition of martial law.[43] Many people questioned the reason behind Marcos declaring martial law. In this decree, the entire country of the Philippines was considered a land reform area. Peasants were supposed to be given land as a part of this agreement but when the martial rule ended, less than four percent of peasants owned their land. Only the enemies of Marcos lost their land in the martial law.[44] These enemies of Marcos saw their land and businesses taken from them and given to friends and associates of Marcos. The Lopez Clan perhaps had it the worst out of all as he came after all of their profitable businesses. Matters had become so bad that the nephew of the former Vice President, Geny Lopez, was thrown in jail for being involved in a plot to assassinate the President. With hopes of securing the release of Geny, the Lopez family was forced to give up more of their businesses to Marcos. He inherited the electric company and TV network but did not keep his end of the deal and Geny remained in jail.[45] These events continued the trend of Marcos and those close to him receiving benefits that were taken from others. This became known as "crony capitalism." The idea of crony capitalism centered around the fact that all major corporations and business interests in the Philippines were controlled by the Marcos family or his close friends and allies.[46] In all, the Marcos family controlled eighteen companies, and the Marcos administration issued formal decrees specifically designed to hurt competition (thus helping themselves) and to "pamper" his cronies.[47]

U.S. – Philippine relations were strained due to the U.S. military bases agreements. In early June 1977, President Marcos had insisted that all U.S. bases become rentals. Secretary Kissinger and Foreign Secretary Romulo talked negotiation agreements but could not come to conclusions, and ended with multiple issues that still needed to be resolved. The US attempted to show that they were being flexible through useless concessions. They believed this would get the Filipinos to budge on things the US wanted in the agreement.[48] Marcos wanted to delicately address the negotiation issues due to the Philippines violations of human rights which weakened their image to the U.S.[49] President Marcos had been concerned with the importance of human rights to the U.S. government. This was a major reason for Marcos wanting the U.S. to pay rent for their military bases instead of U.S. military support. It gave an outlet for the Philippine government to avoid congressional questioning.[50]

In August 1977, Marcos relaxed his martial law decrees in an attempt to improve his human rights perception in the U.S. He believed that this new image would assist in the resumed negotiations with the U.S. on the military bases agreement. Marcos’ new stance granted amnesty to certain low-level detainees who agreed to act within the law “voluntarily”. Intelligence suggested that there were almost 4,000 detainees, including political detainees. However, amnesty would not be offered to these political prisoners who have been imprisoned since 1972, when martial law was established. Marcos also promised to rid the country of the nationwide curfew, with exception to areas the military declared critical.[41]

President Jimmy Carter began to prop up the opposition to Marcos in 1978, and during this time the highly popular Ninoy Aquino began to campaign from his prison cell, as he, like all Filipino political dissenters was incarcerated.[51] Pope John Paul II and President Reagan attempted to force Marcos to loosen his grip on the Filipino people, and martial law was lifted, however Marcos withheld almost all of the same powers he had under martial law.[52] By this point, fearing that he would be blamed if Ninoy died in the hospital, Marcos allowed Ninoy to be transported to the United States for open heart surgery, where he stayed for three years before returning to the Philippines.[53]


In 1979, the United States amended their Military Base Agreement (MBA) with the Philippines in order to quell any public concerns regarding sovereignty of US military bases in the Philippines. Additionally President Ferdinand Marcos wanted to determine how strong the relationship was between the two countries. The main goal was to reaffirm that the US was not looking to expand control or attain more rights in the Philippines, but that they were operating their facilities as normal, keeping the status quo. The amendment addressed flights and transit as it pertained to Middle East oil security, aid package negotiations, and Philippine authority over customs, immigration, and quarantines. Finalized in 1982, the amendment did not negatively effect the use of military bases in the Philippines.[54]

The CIA also considered becoming more involved in the region again in the 1980s, particularly in 1985 before President Ferdinand Marcos left the presidency. The United States needed the Philippines to be a stable democratic ally to prevent the spread of communism in Southeast Asia as well as to keep critical strategic military bases active.[55] An Airgram in 1983 to the State Department from the Manila embassy states that there is corruption and 'crony capitalism' under Marcos' presidency.[56] A document detailing correspondence between Carl W. Ford, Jr., the officer in charge of intelligence in East Asia, and the director of central intelligence, William J. Casey, indicates that the CIA considered attempting to influence the Philippine government: "at our last meeting you asked that I give more thought to the crucial issue of the Marcos Era drawing to a close, specifically, how the US might go about influencing Marcos to lay down the ground work for a smooth succession."[57] Even then, the document also expresses a fear by the CIA that there would be more communist activity in the region, and that combined with economic issues caused extreme concern. In the document, Ford Jr. outlined the CIA’s distrust of Marcos’ government, and the real possibility that his administration did not have a future. He insisted that Marcos’ days were limited, and asserted that whether Marcos was removed by “death, retirement, or forcible removal,” the CIA would need to be prepared to replace him.[58] He also described six “hypothetical” possibilities associated with the regime change.[58] Three of the options involved Marcos being involved in the transition, while the other three saw Marcos as a problematic figure who would not be part of the new government. In any case, Ford Jr. repeatedly stated his opinion that the US needed to choose, and influence, Marcos’ possible running mate and successor. The troubling nature of this document is revealed by the admittance that the six plans discussed “are not based on any preconceived notion or analysis of root causes of problems today confronting the Philippines.[58] After the assassination of Philippines senator Benigno Aquino Jr, the CIA began discretely manipulating Filipino leaders to promote US positive reformations, as well as offering $45 million a year for development assistance.[55]

Following the fall of the Marcos' government, the CIA began closely monitoring and assessing the health of the new government, which the CIA's World Factbook refers to as a "people power" movement,[59] under President Corazon Aquino. This was a pivotal period for the CIA in the Philippines. At this time, the CIA was struggling to gain control over the political landscape of the post-Marcos Philippines. The CIA felt threatened by the anti-imperialist groups that emerged in the Philippines after Marcos left power and began advocating for funding various Filipino organizations in attempts to combat these progressive forces.[18] Shortly thereafter, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began financially supporting the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) in order to develop an agricultural reform program that would complement other existing programs and mitigate campesino uprising. In addition, the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) gave about 9 million dollars in monetary donations to various Filipino organizations such as TUCP, the Women’s Movement for the Nurturing of Democracy (KABATID), Namfrel, and the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI) between the mid to late 1980s. The agenda behind all these donations was to popularize the idea of democracy in the region.[18] Towards the end of the 1980s the CIA unleased an increasingly large amount of covert operations against leftist organizations in the Philippines. 10 million dollars was given to the Armed Forced of the Philippines (AFP) for improved intelligence operations. The CIA increased the size of its personnel and sent more diplomats to the embassy in Manila.[18][60]

The various coup attempts to oust the new president had the CIA worried about the survival of democracy in the Philippines as well as the effect this would have on U.S. interests in the country. In 1986, the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence office produced a report--"The Philippines' Corazon Aquino: Problems and Perspectives of a New Leader"—which characterized her as "maturing", but inexperienced and "lack[ing] political color her perceptions of the problems facing her government and the best way to deal with them."[61] The document goes on to describe her leadership style as populist, because of her emphasis on dialogue with her constituents, and because of her encouraging citizens at every level to become involved in the political process. Instead of acknowledging her attempt to promote a form of democracy in the post-Marcos Philippines, however, the document characterizes her as being overly concerned with her image, relying on personal politics, and as insecure ("not comfortable with her considerable authority").[61] The document goes on to lament that Aquinos has not publicly stated "what world leaders she respects and would like to emulate", disregarding the leader she had mentioned ("the only prominent figure whom she has said she admires is Mother Theresa of Calcutta"), and then suggests that Ramon Magsaysay would be a good role model, based on the fact that he, too, has "pride in being Filipino."[61] Magsaysay was a former president of the Philippines, accused by his opponents as being an American puppet.[62] In a 1987 memorandum from Carl W. Ford, Jr. to the Senior Review Panel he writes, "Recent events in the Philippines--particularly the coup attempt of August 28, and its aftermath--have raised serious questions about the survival of the Aquino government and the prospects for democracy. Should the Aquino government fail, the consequences for the United States will be severe".[63] The document warns against alternative governments taking power because the CIA believed the Aquino government was, "...the best chance over the long term of establishing stability and democracy in the Philippines...". Ford feared that more turmoil in the country would provide a fertile ground for the Communist party to spread malcontent among the people and attempt to expand its influence. The CIA began to investigate the prospects for the short term survival of the Aquino government, its ability to create stability, and what the U.S. could do to shore up and support the new government.

The CIA's misgivings concerning the success of Aquino's presidency did not end with her lack of vocalized admiration for Magsaysay. One 66-page document given to the director of the CIA and prepared for the Philippine Task Force and the Office of East Asian Analysis in April 1986 highlights the CIA's worries over the economic state of the Philippines, citing the post-WWII population boom and Aquino's "massive foreign debt" as an indicator of future financial crisis.[64] The document goes on to predict that the impending financial crisis, compounded with a decrease in the standard of living over the previous five years, agricultural difficulties, and unequal distribution of wealth, will lead to political instability, possibly affecting the CIA's interests in the region. The report details the effects of the population boom and projected population growth, reporting high unemployment rates, inflation, and poverty-related crime rates in the previous ten years, as well as reiterates the amount of foreign debt owed by the country, warning that "how Aquino deals with the debt issue" will have a significant impact on the financial well-being of the country. Although the uncensored parts of this document do not recommend any CIA action pertaining to the financial state of the Philippines, it does reflect the degree to which the CIA kept watch on the economies of its allies.


  1. ^ Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri (2014-07-01). The CIA and American Democracy. Yale University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 9780300208504. 
  2. ^ "Equipo Nizkor - Covert Operations and the CIA's Hidden History in the Philippines". Retrieved 2017-02-01. 
  3. ^ Simbulan, Ronald. "Covert Operations and the CIA's Hidden History in the Philippines". Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Kerkvliet, Benedict J. (1977). The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. University of California Press. pp. 110–121. ISBN 9780520031067. 
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Kerkvliet, Benedict J. (1977). The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. University of California Press. pp. 110–121. ISBN 9780520031067. 
  10. ^
  11. ^ ""Country Report on the Philippines"" (PDF). CIA. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Lansdale, Edward (1991). In The Midst Of Wars. Fordham University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0823213145. 
  15. ^ a b c CIA (December 20, 1965). "Reintegration of Insurgents into National Life" (PDF). CIA Reading Room. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  16. ^ Clarke, Gerard (2006-05-17). The Politics of NGOs in Southeast Asia: Participation and Protest in the Philippines. Routledge. ISBN 9781134695348. 
  17. ^ Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of the Historian. "FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1955–1957, SOUTHEAST ASIA, VOLUME XXII". Retrieved January 23, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Covert Operations and the CIA's Hidden History in the Philippines"
  20. ^ Blitz, Amy (2000). The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 94. ISBN 9780847699346. 
  21. ^ Judge, Edward H.; Langdon, John W. (2017-08-31). A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781538106525. 
  22. ^ a b c d
  23. ^ a b c "Equipo Nizkor - Covert Operations and the CIA's Hidden History in the Philippines". Retrieved 2016-07-08. 
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ Memorandum discussing assistance for Manila.
  26. ^ a b c d e "The Huk Resurgence in the Philippines" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. April 18, 1967. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  27. ^ "Probable Developments in the Philippine Political Situation and US-Philippine Relations over the next 9 months" (PDF). CIA. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  28. ^ ""Philippine Concern Over Possible Resurgence of Huk Activity"" (PDF). CIA. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  29. ^ a b c
  30. ^
  31. ^ ""Weekly Summary Special Report Philippine President Marcos' Problems at Midterm"" (PDF). CIA. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  32. ^ "NSA archive nd-17a" (PDF). 
  33. ^ "NSA Archive nd-17c" (PDF). 
  34. ^ Memorandum for DOD and State.
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ NSSM and SNIE discussion.
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^
  41. ^ a b "CG NIDC 77-198C" (PDF). National Intelligence Daily Cable. August 25, 1977. 
  42. ^ Blitz, Amy (2000). The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 106–112. ISBN 9780847699346. 
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^ "CG NIDC 77-187C" (PDF). National Intelligence Daily Cable. August 12, 1977. 
  50. ^ "Impact of the U.S. Stand on Human Rights" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Intelligence: Memorandum. May 11, 1977. 
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  55. ^ a b CIA (February 20, 1985). "United States Policy Towards the Philippines" (PDF). CIA Online Reading Room. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  56. ^
  57. ^ "US Influence and the Philippine Succession" (PDF). CIA. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  58. ^ a b c
  59. ^ "The World Factbook: Philippines". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  60. ^ Oltman J. and Bernstein, R. "Counter-insurgency in the Philippines," Covert Action Information Bulletin. No. 4, 1992, pp. 18-21
  61. ^ a b c Sanitized, Sanitized (August 20, 1986). "THE PHILIPPINES' CORAZON AQUINO: PROBLEM AND PERSPECTIVES OF A NEW LEADER" (PDF). The Central Intelligence Agency: General CIA Records. The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  62. ^ "NSC Briefing: BACKGROUND: ORIENTATION OF PHILIPPINE PRESIDENT MAGSAYSAY" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency: General CIA Records. Central Intelligence Agency. February 18, 1957. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  63. ^
  64. ^