CJK Unified Ideographs

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CJKV character in traditional and simplified Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Japanese forms

The Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) scripts share a common background, collectively known as CJK characters. In the process called Han unification, the common (shared) characters were identified and named CJK Unified Ideographs. As of Unicode 15.0, Unicode defines a total of 97,058 CJK Unified Ideographs.[1]

The term ideographs is a misnomer, as the Chinese script is not ideographic but rather logographic.

Historically, Vietnam used Chinese characters too, so sometimes the abbreviation CJKV is used. Vietnamese use was replaced by the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet in the 1920s.

Sources[edit]

The Ideographic Research Group (IRG) is responsible for developing extensions to the encoded repertoires of CJK unified ideographs. IRG processes proposals for new CJK unified ideographs submitted by its member bodies, and after undergoing several rounds of expert review, IRG submits a consolidated set of characters to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 Working Group 2 (WG2) and the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) for consideration for inclusion in the ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode standards. The following IRG member bodies have been involved in the standardization of CJK unified ideographs:

The ideographs submitted by the UTC and the United Kingdom are not specific to any particular region, but are characters which have been suggested for encoding by individual experts. The ideographs submitted by SAT are required for the SAT Daizōkyō text database.

The table below gives the numbers of encoded CJK unified ideographs for each IRG source for Unicode 15.0.[2] The total number of characters (223,653) far exceeds the number of encoded CJK unified ideographs (97,058) as many characters have more than one source.

CJK unified ideographs by source
Country or region Character count
 China 65,941
 Hong Kong 17,654
 Macau 344
 Taiwan (TCA) 58,597
 Japan 16,148
 South Korea 20,739
 North Korea 23,975
 Vietnam 13,278
 United Kingdom 2,503
SAT 3,455
UTC 1,019
Total 223,653

UTC sources
[edit]

The majority of characters submitted by the UTC to the IRG are derived from Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) documents.[3] Other sources include:

CJK Unified Ideographs blocks[edit]

CJK Unified Ideographs[edit]

The basic block named CJK Unified Ideographs (4E00–9FFF) contains 20,992 basic Chinese characters in the range U+4E00 through U+9FFF. The block not only includes characters used in the Chinese writing system but also kanji used in the Japanese writing system and hanja, whose use is diminishing in Korea. Many characters in this block are used in all three writing systems, while others are in only one or two of the three. Chữ Hán are also used in Vietnam's chữ Nôm (now obsolete). The first 20,902 characters in the block are arranged according to the Kangxi Dictionary ordering of radicals. In this system the characters written with the fewest strokes are listed first. The remaining characters were added later, and so are not in radical order.

The block is the result of Han unification,[4] which was somewhat controversial within East Asia.[5] Since Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters were coded in the same location, the appearance of a selected glyph could depend on the particular font being used. However, the source separation rule states that characters encoded separately in an earlier character set would remain separate in the new Unicode encoding.[6]

Using variation selectors, it is possible to specify certain variant CJK ideograms within Unicode.[7] The Adobe-Japan1 character set, which has 14,684 ideographic variation sequences,[8] is an extreme example of the use of variation selectors.[9]

Charts[edit]

4E00-62FF, 6300-77FF, 7800-8CFF, 8D00-9FFF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Most characters appear in multiple sources, so the sum of individual character counts (102,794) is far greater than the number of encoded characters (20,992).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China G0 GB 2312-80 6,763 20,933
G1 GB 12345-90 2,202
G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 4,834
G5 GB 7590-87 traditional form 2,841
G7 Modern Chinese general character chart (Simplified Chinese: 现代汉语通用字表) 42
G8 GB 8565-88 199
GCE National Academy for Educational Research 4
GDM Place name characters from the Public Order Administration, Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China 2
GE GB16500-95 3,772
GFC Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary (现代汉语规范词典第二版) 2
GGFZ Tongyong Guifan Hanzi Zidian (通用规范汉字字典) 1
GH GB/T 15564-1995 59
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian (漢語大字典) 1
GHZR Hanyu Da Zidian 2nd ed. (汉语大字典, 第二版) 1
GK GB 12052-89 89
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 16
GKX Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典) 3
GLK Longkan Shoujian (龍龕手鑑) 1
GT Standard Telegraph Codebook (revised), 1983 8
GU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 92
GZFY Hanyu Fangyan Dacidian (汉语方言大词典) 1
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 2,292 15,376
HB0 Computer Chinese Glyph and Character Code Mapping Table, Technical Report C-26
(電腦用中文字型與字碼對照表, 技術通報C-26)
9
HB1 Big-5, Level 1 5,401
HB2 Big-5, Level 2 7,650
HD Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2016 24
 Japan J0 JIS X 0208-1990 6,356 12,565
J1 JIS X 0212-1990 3,058
J13 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing J1 characters 1,037
J13A JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 character addendum from JIS X 0213:2000 level-3 replacing J1 character 2
J14 JIS X 0213:2004 level-4 characters replacing J1 characters 1,704
J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 95
J3A JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 addendum 7
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 301
JARIB ARIB STD-B24 3
JMJ Character Information Development and Maintenance Project for e-Government "MojiJoho-Kiban Project" (文字情報基盤整備事業) 2
 South Korea K0 KS C 5601-87 (now KS X 1001:2004) 4,620 15,442
K1 KS C 5657-91 (now KS X 1002:2001) 2,855
K2 PKS C 5700-1:1994 7,911
K3 PKS C 5700-2:1994 1
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 4
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 49
KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 1
KU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 1
 North Korea KP0 KPS 9566-97 4,652 15,011
KP1 KPS 10721-2000 10,359
 Macau MA HKSCS-2008 29 200
MB1 Big Five 10
MB2 Big Five 7
MC MCSCS Reference 3
MD MCSCS horizontal extensions 127
MDH MCSCS horizontal extensions 24
 Taiwan T1 CNS 11643-1992 plane 1 5,413 18,383
T2 CNS 11643-1992 plane 2 7,650
T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 4,144
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 894
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 64
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 31
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 16
TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 2
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 2
TE CNS 11643-2007 plane 14 9
TF CNS 11643-2007 plane 15 158
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 599 4,806
V1 TCVN 6056:1995 3,306
V2 VHN 01-1998 759
V3 VHN 02-1998 91
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 19
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 32
n/a UTC UTC sources 78 78

In Unicode 4.1, 14 HKSCS-2004 characters and 8 GB 18030 characters were assigned to between U+9FA6 and U+9FBB code points. Since then, other additions were added to this block for various reasons, all summarized in the version history section below.

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A (3400–4DBF) contains 6,592 additional characters in the range U+3400 through U+4DBF.

Charts[edit]

3400-4DBF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Most characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (18,832) is far greater than the number of encoded characters (6,592).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 2,391 6,197
G5 GB 7590-87 traditional form 1,226
G7 Modern Chinese general character chart 120
GGFZ Tongyong Guifan Hanzi Zidian (通用规范汉字字典) 2
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian (漢語大字典) 340
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 3
GKX Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典) 1,889
GS Singapore Chinese characters 226
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 572 572
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 2 738
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 78
JA Japanese IT Vendors Contemporary Ideographs, 1993 574
JA3 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing JA characters 17
JA4 JIS X 0213:2004 level-4 characters replacing JA characters 67
 South Korea K3 PKS C 5700-2:1994 1,833 1,866
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 2
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 28
KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 3
 North Korea KP0 KPS 9566-97 1 3,189
KP1 KPS 10721-2000 3,188
 Macau MA HKSCS-2008 4 12
MD MCSCS horizontal extensions 8
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 2,179 5,916
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 2,919
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 399
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 200
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 133
TE CNS 11643-2007 plane 14 1
TF CNS 11643-2007 plane 15 85
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 3 3
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 140 319
V2 VHN 01-1998 149
V3 VHN 02-1998 19
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 5
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 6
n/a UTC UTC sources 20 20

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B (20000–2A6DF) contains 42,720 characters in the range U+20000 through U+2A6DF. These include most of the characters used in the Kangxi Dictionary that are not in the basic CJK Unified Ideographs block, as well as many Hán-Nôm characters that were formerly used to write Vietnamese.

Charts[edit]

20000-215FF, 21600-230FF, 23100-245FF, 24600-260FF, 26100-275FF, 27600-290FF, 29100-2A6DF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Many characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (74,204) is far greater than the number of encoded characters (42,720).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 1 30,550
G4K Siku Quanshu (四庫全書) 477
GBK Encyclopedia of China (中國大百科全書) 86
GCH Cihai (辞海) 247
GCY Ciyuan (辭源) 66
GFZ Founder Press System 65
GGFZ Tongyong Guifan Hanzi Zidian (通用规范汉字字典) 5
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典) 553
GHF Hanwen fodian yinan suzi huishi yu yanjiu (漢文佛典疑難俗字彙釋與研究) 1
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian (漢語大字典) 10,508
GHZR Hanyu Da Zidian 2nd ed. (汉语大字典, 第二版) 1
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 17
GKX Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典) 18,471
GU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 52
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 1,703 1,703
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 25 303
J3A JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 addendum 1
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 277
 South Korea K1 KS C 5657-91 (now KS X 1002:2001) 1 261
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 166
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 80
KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 14
 North Korea KP1 KPS 10721-2000 5,766 5,766
 Macau MA HKSCS-2008 9 38
MC MCSCS Reference 2
MD MCSCS horizontal extensions 27
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 25 30,192
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 3,408
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 8,111
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 5,934
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 6,299
TA CNS 11643-2007 plane 10 7
TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 6
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 1
TF CNS 11643-2007 plane 15 6,401
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 12 12
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 1,570 5,296
V2 VHN 01-1998 2,287
V3 VHN 02-1998 422
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 33
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 984
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 1 83
UTC UTC sources 82

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C (2A700–2B73F) contains 4,154 characters in the range U+2A700 through U+2B739. It was initially added in Unicode 5.2 (2009).

Charts[edit]

2A700-2B73F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (4,570) is greater than the number of encoded characters (4,154).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GBK Encyclopedia of China (中國大百科全書) 74 1,130
GCH Cihai (辞海) 264
GCY Ciyuan (辭源) 1
GCYY Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping ideographs 55
GDM Place name characters from the Public Order Administration, Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China 1
GFZ Founder Press System 1
GGFZ Tongyong Guifan Hanzi Zidian (通用规范汉字字典) 2
GGH Gudai Hanyu Cidian (古代汉语词典) 51
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典) 14
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian (漢語大字典) 1
GHZR Hanyu Da Zidian 2nd ed. (汉语大字典, 第二版) 1
GJZ Commercial Press ideographs 61
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 6
GKX Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典) 6
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (现代汉语词典) 25
GZFY Hanyu Fangyan Dacidian (汉语方言大词典) 202
GZJW Yin Zhou Jinwen Jicheng Yinde (殷周金文集成引得) 365
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 1 1
 Japan JK Japanese Kokuji Collection 367 367
 South Korea K5 Korean IRG Hanja Character Set 404 406
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 1
KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 1
 North Korea KP1 KPS 10721-2000 8 8
 Macau MC MCSCS Reference 17 21
MD MCSCS horizontal extensions 4
 Taiwan T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 1 1,752
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 634
TD CNS 11643-2007 plane 13 766
TE CNS 11643-2007 plane 14 350
TU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 1 1
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 4 795
V1 TCVN 6056:1995 2
V2 VHN 01-1998 1
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 782
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 6
n/a UTC UTC sources 89 89

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D (2B740–2B81F) contains 222 characters in the range U+2B740 through U+2B81D that were added in Unicode 6.0 (2010).

Charts[edit]

2B740–2B81F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (229) is greater than the number of encoded characters (222).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GCH Cihai (辞海) 1 78
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 32
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 2
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (现代汉语词典) 4
GZH Zhonghua Zihai (中华字海) 39
 Japan JH Hanyo-Denshi Program (汎用電子情報交換環境整備プログラム) 107 107
 Taiwan TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 24 24
n/a UTC UTC sources 20 20

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E (2B820–2CEAF) contains 5,762 characters in the range U+2B820 through U+2CEA1 that were added in Unicode 8.0 (2015).

Charts[edit]

2B820–2CEAF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (5,828) is greater than the number of encoded characters (5,762).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GBK Encyclopedia of China (中國大百科全書) 15 2,821
GCH Cihai (辞海) 112
GCY Ciyuan (辭源) 3
GCYY Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping ideographs 98
GDZ Geology Press ideographs 1
GGFZ Tongyong Guifan Hanzi Zidian (通用规范汉字字典) 4
GGH Gudai Hanyu Cidian (古代汉语词典) 175
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典) 7
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 36
GJZ Commercial Press ideographs 147
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 2
GKX Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典) 22
GRM People's Daily ideographs 3
GU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 1
GWZ Hanyu Da Cidian Press ideographs 12
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (现代汉语词典) 57
GXH Xinhua Zidian (新华字典) 4
GZFY Hanyu Fangyan Dacidian (汉语方言大词典) 712
GZJW Yin Zhou Jinwen Jicheng Yinde (殷周金文集成引得) 1,410
 Hong Kong HD Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2016 1 1
 Japan JK Japanese Kokuji Collection 415 415
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 7 7
 Macau MC MCSCS Reference 48 51
MD MCSCS horizontal extensions 3
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 2 1,260
TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 1
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 323
TD CNS 11643-2007 plane 13 595
TE CNS 11643-2007 plane 14 339
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 2 2
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 6 1,035
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 1,023
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 6
n/a UTC UTC sources 236 236

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F (2CEB0–2EBEF) contains 7,473 characters in the range U+2CEB0 through 2EBE0 that were added in Unicode 10.0 (2017). It includes more than 1,000 Sawndip characters for Zhuang.

Charts[edit]

2CEB0–2EBEF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (7,774) is greater than the number of encoded characters (7,473).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GCY Ciyuan (辭源) 122 1,309
GFC Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary (现代汉语规范词典第二版) 27
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 1
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 5
GLGYJ Zhuang Liao Songs Research (壮族嘹歌研究) 1
GOCD Oxford English-Chinese Chinese-English Dictionary (牛津英汉汉英词典) 2
GPGLG Zhuang Folk Song Culture Series - Pingguo County Liao Songs (壮族民歌文化丛书•平果嘹歌) 70
GXHZ Xinhua Da Zidian (新华大字典) 51
GZ Ancient Zhuang Character Dictionary (古壮字字典) 995
GZJW Yin Zhou Jinwen Jicheng Yinde (殷周金文集成引得) 33
GZYS Chinese Ancient Ethnic Characters Research (中国民族古文字研究) 2
 Hong Kong HD Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2016 1 1
 Japan JMJ Character Information Development and Maintenance Project for e-Government "MojiJoho-Kiban Project" (文字情報基盤整備事業) 1,645 1,645
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 1,810 1,810
 Macau MC MCSCS Reference 22 22
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 1 3
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 1
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 2 2
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 1 17
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 8
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 8
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 2,884 2,965
UTC UTC sources 81

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G[edit]

A block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G was added as part of Unicode 13.0 to the Tertiary Ideographic Plane in the range U+30000 through U+3134F, containing 4,939 characters.[12]

Charts[edit]

30000–3134F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (5,081) is greater than the number of encoded characters (4,939).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GHZR Hanyu Da Zidian 2nd ed. (汉语大字典, 第二版) 878 2,082
GPGLG Zhuang Folk Song Culture Series - Pingguo County Liao Songs (壮族民歌文化丛书•平果嘹歌) 13
GZ Ancient Zhuang Character Dictionary (古壮字字典) 1,191
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 435 435
 Taiwan T13 CNS 11643 (pending new version) plane 19 347 353
TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 3
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 2
TD CNS 11643-2007 plane 13 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 1,566 1,566
 Vietnam V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 6 76
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 70
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 329 569
UTC UTC sources 240

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension H[edit]

A block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension H was added as part of Unicode 15.0 to the Tertiary Ideographic Plane in the range U+31350 through U+323AF, containing 4,192 characters.[13]

Charts[edit]

31350–323AF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (4,305) is greater than the number of encoded characters (4,192).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GDM Place name characters from the Public Order Administration, Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China 128 829
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典) 27
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 30
GLGYJ Zhuang Liao Songs Research (壮族嘹歌研究) 11
GPGLG Zhuang Folk Song Culture Series - Pingguo County Liao Songs (壮族民歌文化丛书•平果嘹歌) 14
GXM Characters for use in personal names in China from Public Order Administration, Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China 217
GZ Ancient Zhuang Character Dictionary (古壮字字典) 285
GZA-1 A Vibrant and Unbroken Transmission—Filial Piety and Zhuang Funeral Songs (生生不息的传承•孝与壮族行孝歌之研究) 6
GZA-2 Annotated Long Zhuang Morality Songs (壮族伦理道德长诗传扬歌译注) 38
GZA-3 Compendium of Old Zhuang Folksong Texts—Wooing Songs vol. 1—Liao Songs (壮族民歌古籍集成•情歌(一)嘹歌) 2
GZA-4 Compendium of Old Zhuang Folksong Texts—Wooing Songs vol. 1—Fwen Nganx (壮族民歌古籍集成•情歌(二)欢𭪤) 11
GZA-6 Zhuang Proverbs from China (中国壮族谚语) 59
GZA-7 Ancient Remembrance—Zhuang Creation Myth Songs (远古的追忆•壮族创世神话古歌研究) 1
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 512 512
 North Korea KP1 KPS 10721-2000 1 1
 Taiwan T12 CNS 11643 (pending new version) plane 18 7 713
T13 CNS 11643 (pending new version) plane 19 696
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 1
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 1
TB CNS 11643-2007 plane 11 4
TC CNS 11643-2007 plane 12 3
TE CNS 11643-2007 plane 14 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2232R 917 917
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 6 931
V4 Kho Chữ Hán Nôm Mã Hoá (Hán Nôm Coded Character Repertoire) 74
VN Vietnamese horizontal extensions 851
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 241 402
UTC UTC sources 161

CJK Compatibility Ideographs[edit]

The block named CJK Compatibility Ideographs (F900–FAFF) was created to retain round-trip compatibility with other standards. Only twelve of its characters have the "Unified Ideograph" property: U+FA0E, FA0F, FA11, FA13, FA14, FA1F, FA21, FA23, FA24, FA27, FA28 and FA29.[1] None of the other characters in this and other "Compatibility" blocks relate to CJK Unification.

Charts[edit]

F900–FAFF.

Sources[edit]

Note: All characters appear in more than one source, so the sum of individual character counts (36) is greater than the number of encoded characters (12).[10]

Country or region Code Source[11] Character count Total
 China GU No source (the original source reference may have been moved) 12 12
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 3 8
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 3
JA Japanese IT Vendors Contemporary Ideographs, 1993 1
JA3 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing JA characters 1
 Taiwan TF CNS 11643-2007 plane 15 1 1
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773:1993 3 3
n/a UTC UTC sources 12 12

Known issues[edit]

Disunification[edit]

U+4039[edit]

The character U+4039 (䀹) was a unification of two different characters (one with jiā 夾 phonetic and one with shǎn 㚒 phonetic) until Unicode 5.0. However, they were lexically different characters that should not have been unified; they have different pronunciations and different meanings.

The proposal of disunification of U+4039[14] was accepted and the new character is encoded at U+9FC3 (鿃) in Unicode 5.1.[clarification needed]

Other 3 glyphs in Extension B[edit]

In CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B, some characters are incorrectly unified with others. These characters include U+2017B (𠅻), U+204AF (𠒯) and U+24CB2 (𤲲). The first two characters contained a wrong unification of Chinese Mainland and Vietnamese source of their glyph, while the last one unifies the Chinese Mainland and Taiwanese ones.[15]

Unifiable variants and exact duplicates in Extension B[edit]

Also in CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B, hundreds of glyph variants were encoded.[16] In addition to the deliberate encoding of close glyph variants, six exact duplicates (where the same character has inadvertently been encoded twice) and two semi-duplicates (where the CJK-B character represents a de facto disunification of two glyph forms unified in the corresponding BMP character) were encoded by mistake:[17]

  • U+34A8 㒨 = U+20457 𠑗 : U+20457 is the same as the China-source glyph for U+34A8, but it is significantly different from the Taiwan-source glyph for U+34A8
  • U+3DB7 㶷 = U+2420E 𤈎 : same glyph shapes
  • U+8641 虁 = U+27144 𧅄 : U+27144 is the same as the Korean-source glyph for U+8641, but it is significantly different from the Chinese Mainland-, Taiwan- and Japan-source glyphs for U+8641
  • U+204F2 𠓲 = U+23515 𣔕 : same glyph shapes, but ordered under different radicals
  • U+249BC 𤦼 = U+249E9 𤧩 : same glyph shapes
  • U+24BD2 𤯒 = U+2A415 𪐕 : same glyph shapes, but ordered under different radicals
  • U+26842 𦡂 = U+26866 𦡦 : same glyph shapes
  • U+FA23 﨣 = U+27EAF 𧺯 : same glyph shapes (U+FA23 﨣 is a unified CJK ideograph, despite its name "CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA23.")

Other CJK ideographs in Unicode, not Unified[edit]

Apart from the nine blocks of "Unified Ideographs," Unicode has about a dozen more blocks with not-unified CJK-characters. These are mainly CJK radicals, strokes, punctuation, marks, symbols and compatibility characters. Although some characters have their (decomposable) counterparts in other blocks, the usages can be different. An example of a not-unified CJK-character is U+3007 IDEOGRAPHIC NUMBER ZERO in the CJK Symbols and Punctuation block. Although it is not covered under "CJK Unified Ideographs", it is treated as a CJK-character for all other intents and purposes.[18][19]

Four blocks of compatibility characters are included for compatibility with legacy text handling systems and older character sets:

They include forms of characters for vertical text layout and rich text characters that Unicode recommends handling through other means. Therefore, their use is discouraged.

Font support[edit]

The blocks CJK Unified Ideographs and CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A, being parts of the Basic Multilingual Plane, are supported by the majority of the CJK fonts. However, Japanese and Korean fonts usually have fewer characters (about 13,000 and 8,000, respectively) than Chinese. Extensions B, C, D are supported by additional fonts MingLiU-ExtB, MingLiU_HKSCS-ExtB, PMingLiU-ExtB, SimSun-ExtB included in Microsoft Windows since Vista.[20]

Unicode version history[edit]

CJK unified ideographs additions per Unicode version
Unicode version Addition Plane Characters added Total characters
1.0 (1991) CJK Unified Ideographs Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) 20,902 20,914
CJK Compatibility Ideographs BMP 12
3.0 (1999) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A BMP 6,582 27,496
3.1 (2001) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B Supplementary Ideographic Plane (SIP) 42,711 70,207
4.1 (2005) CJK Unified Ideographs: Ideographs from HKSCS-2004 and GB 18030-2000 not in ISO 10646 BMP 22 70,229
5.1 (2008) CJK Unified Ideographs: Ideographs from Adobe Japan and disunification of U+4039 BMP 8 70,237
5.2 (2009) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C SIP 4,149 74,394
8 other characters from ARIB #47, #95, #93 and HKSCS BMP 8
6.0 (2010) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D SIP 222 74,616
6.1 (2012) 1 character corresponding to Adobe-Japan1-6 CID+20156 BMP 1 74,617
8.0 (2015) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E SIP 5,762 80,388
9 other characters BMP 9
10.0 (2017) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F SIP 7,473 87,882
21 other characters BMP 21
11.0 (2018) CJK Unified Ideographs BMP 5 87,887
13.0 (2020) CJK Unified Ideographs BMP 13 92,856
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A BMP 10
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B SIP 7
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G Tertiary Ideographic Plane (TIP) 4,939
14.0 (2021) CJK Unified Ideographs BMP 3 92,865
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B SIP 2
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C SIP 4
15.0 (2022) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C SIP 1 97,058
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension H TIP 4,192

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Unicode 15.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2022-09-13. Retrieved 2022-09-14.
  2. ^ "Unicode 15.0 UCD: Unihan: Unihan_IRGSources.txt". 2022-09-13. Retrieved 2022-09-22.
  3. ^ Jenkins, John H. (2021-08-26). "UAX #45: U-source Ideographs". Unicode Consortium.
  4. ^ The Unicode Standard 4.0, Appendix A - Han Unification History
  5. ^ Suzanne Topping, The secret life of Unicode at the Wayback Machine (archived 2007-11-14)
  6. ^ "Chapter 11 - East Asian scripts", The Unicode standard, 4.0.
  7. ^ "Ideographic Variation Database". 2022-09-13. Retrieved 2022-09-20.
  8. ^ "IVD Stats". 2022-09-13. Retrieved 2022-09-20.
  9. ^ PRI 108: Combined registration of the Adobe Japan1 collection and of sequences in that collection
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Unihan_IRGSources.txt (from Unihan.zip)". 2018-11-09. Retrieved 2021-08-06.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "UAX #38: Unicode Han Database (Unihan)". Unicode Consortium. 2021-08-26.
  12. ^ "Unicode 13.0.0". 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Unicode 15.0.0". 13 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  14. ^ Andrew West and John Jenkins, proposal of disunification of U+4039
  15. ^ Eiso Chan (陈永聪), Comments on four error glyphs on CJK Unified Ideographs Ext B & E.[1]
  16. ^ unifiable glyph variants
  17. ^ Cook, Richard (6 October 2003). "Defect Report on Duplicate Encoded CJK Forms" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
  18. ^ GB/T 15835-2011《出版物上数字用法》. China Guojia Biaozhun. https://journals.usst.edu.cn/uploadfile/file/GBT%2015835-2011%E3%80%8A%E5%87%BA%E7%89%88%E7%89%A9%E4%B8%8A%E6%95%B0%E5%AD%97%E7%94%A8%E6%B3%95%E3%80%8B.pdf
  19. ^ "「〇」算不算汉字? - 知乎". www.zhihu.com (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 2021-11-02. Retrieved 2021-11-02.
  20. ^ Lunde, Ken (2009). CJKV Information Processing. O'Reilly. pp. 633–634. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1.

External links[edit]