CJK Unified Ideographs

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CJKV ideograph in traditional and simplified Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Japanese

The Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) scripts share a common background, collectively known as CJK characters. In the process called Han unification, the common (shared) characters were identified and named CJK Unified Ideographs. As of Unicode 13.0, Unicode defines a total of 92,856 CJK Unified Ideographs.[1]

The terms ideographs or ideograms may be misleading, since the Chinese script is not strictly a pictographic or ideographic system.

Historically, Vietnam used Chinese ideographs too, so sometimes the abbreviation "CJKV" is used. This system was replaced by the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet in the 1920s.

CJK Unified Ideographs blocks[edit]

CJK Unified Ideographs[edit]

The basic block named CJK Unified Ideographs (4E00–9FFF) contains 20,989 basic Chinese characters in the range U+4E00 through U+9FFC. The block not only includes characters used in the Chinese writing system but also kanji used in the Japanese writing system and hanja, whose use is diminishing in Korea. Many characters in this block are used in all three writing systems, while others are in only one or two of the three. Chinese characters are also used in Vietnam's Nôm script (now obsolete). The first 20,902 characters in the block are arranged according to the Kangxi Dictionary ordering of radicals. In this system the characters written with the fewest strokes are listed first. The remaining characters were added later, and so are not in radical order.

The block is the result of Han unification,[2] which was somewhat controversial in the Far East.[3] Since Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters were coded in the same location, the appearance of a selected glyph could depend on the particular font being used. However, the source separation rule states that characters encoded separately in an earlier character set would remain separate in the new Unicode encoding.[4]

Using variation selectors, it is possible to specify certain variant CJK ideograms within Unicode. The Adobe-Japan1 character set, which has 14,683 ideographic variation sequences,[5] is an extreme example of the use of variation selectors.[6]

Charts[edit]

4E00-62FF, 6300-77FF, 7800-8CFF, 8D00-9FFF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Most characters appear in multiple sources, making the sum of individual character counts (102,437) far more than the number of encoded characters (20,989).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China G0 GB 2312-80 6,763 20,839
G1 GB 12345-90 2,202
G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 4,834
G5 GB 7590-87 traditional form 2,841
G7 Modern Chinese general character chart (Simplified Chinese: 现代汉语通用字表) 42
G8 GB8565-88 199
GCE National Academy for Educational Research 4
GE GB16500-95 3,775
GFC Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary (现代汉语规范词典) 2
GGFZ General Chinese Standard Dictionary (通用规范汉字字典) 1
GH GB/T 15564-1995 59
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian 1
GHZR 汉语大字典(第二版) 1
GK GB 12052-89 89
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 13
GKX Kangxi Dictionary 3
GLK 龍龕手鑑 1
GT Standard Telegraph Codebook (revised), 1983 8
GZFY Dictionary of Chinese Dialects (汉语方言大辞典) 1
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 2,292 15,376
HB0 Computer Chinese Glyph and Character Code Mapping Table, Technical Report C-26
(電腦用中文字型與字碼對照表, 技術通報C-26)
9
HB1 Big-5, Level 1 5,401
HB2 Big-5, Level 2 7,650
HD Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2016 24
 Japan J0 JIS X 0208-1990 6,356 12,565
J1 JIS X 0212-1990 3,058
J13 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing J1 characters 1,037
J13A JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 character addendum from JIS X 0213:2000 level-3 replacing J1 character 2
J14 JIS X 0213:2004 level-4 characters replacing J1 characters 1,704
J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 95
J3A JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 addendum 7
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 301
JARIB ARIB STD-B24 3
JMJ Character Information Development and Maintenance Project for e-Government "MojiJoho-Kiban Project" (文字情報基盤整備事業) 2
 North Korea KP0 KPS 9566-97 4,652 15,011
KP1 KPS 10721-2000 10,359
 South Korea K0 KS C 5601-87 (now KS X 1001:2004) 4,620 15,434
K1 KS C 5657-91 (now KS X 1002:2004) 2,855
K2 PKS C 5700-1:1994 7,911
K3 PKS C 5700-2:1994 1
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 4
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 43
 Taiwan T1 CNS 11643-1992 plane 1 5,413 18,383
T2 CNS 11643-1992 plane 2 7,650
T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 4,144
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 894
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 64
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 31
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 16
TB CNS 11643-1992 plane 11 2
TC CNS 11643-1992 plane 12 2
TE CNS 11643-1992 plane 14 9
TF CNS 11643-1992 plane 15 158
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773-1993 593 4,762
V1 TCVN 6056:1995 3,310
V2 VHN 01-1998 763
V3 VHN 02-1998 91
V4 Dictionary on Nom (Từ điển chữ Nôm)
Dictionary on Nom of Tay ethnic (Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày)
Lookup Table for Nom in the South (Bảng tra chữ Nôm miền Nam)
1
VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 4
n/a UTC UTC sources 67 67

In Unicode 4.1, 14 HKSCS-2004 characters and 8 GB 18030 characters were assigned to between U+9FA6 and U+9FBB code points. Since then, other additions were added to this block for various reasons, all summarized in the version history section below.

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A (3400–4DBF) contains 6,592 additional characters in the range U+3400 through U+4DBF.

Charts[edit]

3400-4DBF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Most characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (18,804) far more than the number of encoded characters (6,592).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 2,391 6,196
G5 GB 7590-87 traditional form 1,226
G7 Modern Chinese general character chart 120
GGFZ General Chinese Standard Dictionary (通用规范汉字字典) 2
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian 340
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 2
GKX Kangxi Dictionary 1,889
GS Singapore Chinese characters 226
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 572 572
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 2 738
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 78
JA Japanese IT Vendors Contemporary Ideographs, 1993 574
JA3 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing JA characters 17
JA4 JIS X 0213:2004 level-4 characters replacing JA characters 67
 North Korea KP0 KPS 9566-97 1 3,189
KP1 KPS 10721-2000 3,188
 South Korea K3 PKS C 5700-2:1994 1,833 1,863
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 2
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 28
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 2,179 5,916
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 2,919
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 399
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 200
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 133
TE CNS 11643-1992 plane 14 1
TF CNS 11643-1992 plane 15 85
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 2 2
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773-1993 138 309
V2 VHN 01-1998 151
V3 VHN 02-1998 19
VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 1
n/a UTC UTC sources 19 19

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B (20000–2A6DF) contains 42,718 characters in the range U+20000 through U+2A6DD. These include most of the characters used in the Kangxi Dictionary that are not in the basic CJK Unified Ideographs block, as well as many Nôm characters that were formerly used to write Vietnamese.

Charts[edit]

20000-215FF, 21600-230FF, 23100-245FF, 24600-260FF, 26100-275FF, 27600-290FF, 29100-2A6DF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Many characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (74,037) far more than the number of encoded characters (42,718).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China G3 GB 7589-87 traditional form 1 30,488
G4K Siku Quanshu 477
GBK Encyclopedia of China 86
GCH Cihai 247
GCY Ciyuan 66
GFZ Founder Press System 65
GGFZ General Chinese Standard Dictionary (通用规范汉字字典) 5
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian 553
GHF 漢文佛典疑難俗字彙釋與研究 1
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian 10,508
GHZR 汉语大字典(第二版) 1
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 7
GKX Kangxi Dictionary 18,471
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 1,703 1,703
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 25 303
J3A JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 addendum 1
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 277
 Macau MAC Macao Information System Character Set (澳門資訊系統字集) 1 1
 North Korea KP1 KPS 10721-2000 5,766 5,766
 South Korea K1 KS C 5657-91 (now KS X 1002:2004) 1 247
K4 PKS 5700-3:1998 166
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 80
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 25 30,190
T4 CNS 11643-1992 plane 4 3,408
T5 CNS 11643-1992 plane 5 8,111
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 5,934
T7 CNS 11643-1992 plane 7 6,299
TA 化學命名原則(第四版) (Chemical Nomenclature: 4th Edition) 6
TB CNS 11643-1992 plane 11 6
TF CNS 11643-1992 plane 15 6,401
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 12 12
 Vietnam V0 TCVN 5773-1993 1,515 5,260
V2 VHN 01-1998 2,290
V3 VHN 02-1998 425
V4 Dictionary on Nom (Từ điển chữ Nôm)
Dictionary on Nom of Tay ethnic (Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày)
Lookup Table for Nom in the South (Bảng tra chữ Nôm miền Nam)
1
VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 1,029
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 1 67
UTC UTC sources 66

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C (2A700–2B73F) contains 4,149 characters in the range U+2A700 through U+2B734 that were added in Unicode 5.2 (2009).

Charts[edit]

2A700-2B73F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (4,548) more than the number of encoded characters (4,149).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China GBK Encyclopedia of China 74 1,126
GCH Cihai 264
GCY Ciyuan 1
GCYY Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping ideographs 55
GFZ Founder Press System 1
GGFZ General Chinese Standard Dictionary (通用规范汉字字典) 2
GGH Old Chinese Dictionary (古代汉语词典) 51
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian 14
GHZ Hanyu Da Zidian 1
GJZ Commercial Press ideographs 61
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 4
GKX Kangxi Dictionary 6
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian 25
GZFY Dictionary of Chinese Dialects (汉语方言大辞典) 202
GZJW Collections of Bronze Inscriptions from Yin and Zhou Dynasties
(殷周金文集成引得)
365
 Hong Kong H Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set, 2008 1 1
 Japan JK Japanese Kokuji Collection 367 367
 Macau MAC Macao Information System Character Set (澳門資訊系統字集) 16 16
 North Korea KP1 KPS 10721-2000 8 8
 South Korea K5 Korean IRG Hanja Character Set 404 405
K6 KS X 1027-5:2014 1
 Taiwan TC CNS 11643-1992 plane 12 634 1,750
TD CNS 11643-1992 plane 13 766
TE CNS 11643-1992 plane 14 350
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 1 1
 Vietnam V1 TCVN 6056:1995 1 787
V4 Dictionary on Nom (Từ điển chữ Nôm)
Dictionary on Nom of Tay ethnic (Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày)
Lookup Table for Nom in the South (Bảng tra chữ Nôm miền Nam)
784
VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 2
n/a UTC UTC sources 87 87

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D (2B740–2B81F) contains 222 characters in the range U+2B740 through U+2B81D that were added in Unicode 6.0 (2010).

Charts[edit]

2B740–2B81F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (227) more than the number of encoded characters (222).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China GCH Cihai 1 76
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 32
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian 4
GZH Zhonghua Zihai 39
 Japan JH Hanyo-Denshi Program (汎用電子情報交換環境整備プログラム) 107 107
 Taiwan TB CNS 11643-1992 plane 11 24 24
n/a UTC UTC sources 20 20

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E (2B820–2CEAF) contains 5,762 characters in the range U+2B820 through U+2CEA1 that were added in Unicode 8.0 (2015).

Charts[edit]

2B820–2CEAF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (5,812) more than the number of encoded characters (5,762).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China GBK Encyclopedia of China 15 2,820
GCH Cihai 112
GCY Ciyuan 3
GCYY Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping ideographs 98
GDZ Geology Press ideographs 1
GGFZ General Chinese Standard Dictionary (通用规范汉字字典) 4
GGH Old Chinese Dictionary (古代汉语词典) 175
GHC Hanyu Da Cidian 7
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 36
GJZ Commercial Press ideographs 147
GKJ Terms in Sciences and Technologies (科技用字) approved by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies (CNCTST) 2
GKX Kangxi Dictionary 22
GRM People's Daily ideographs 3
GWZ Hanyu Da Cidian Press ideographs 12
GXC Xiandai Hanyu Cidian 57
GXH Xinhua Zidian 4
GZFY Hanyu Fangyan Dacidian (汉语方言大辞典, Dictionary of Chinese Dialects) 712
GZJW Collections of Bronze Inscriptions from Yin and Zhou Dynasties
(殷周金文集成引得)
1,410
 Japan JK Japanese Kokuji Collection 415 415
 Macau MAC Macao Information System Character Set (澳門資訊系統字集) 48 48
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 2 1,260
TB CNS 11643-1992 plane 11 1
TC CNS 11643-1992 plane 12 323
TD CNS 11643-1992 plane 13 595
TE CNS 11643-1992 plane 14 339
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 2 2
 Vietnam V4 Dictionary on Nom (Từ điển chữ Nôm)
Dictionary on Nom of Tay ethnic (Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày)
Lookup Table for Nom in the South (Bảng tra chữ Nôm miền Nam)
1,027 1,031
VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 4
n/a UCI UTC sources 236 236

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F[edit]

The block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F (2CEB0–2EBEF) contains 7,473 characters in the range U+2CEB0 through 2EBE0 that were added in Unicode 10.0 (2017). It includes more than 1,000 Sawndip characters for Zhuang.

Charts[edit]

2CEB0–2EBEF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (7,733) more than the number of encoded characters (7,473).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China GCY Ciyuan 122 1,304
GFC Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary (现代汉语规范词典) 27
GIDC ID System of the Ministry of Public Security of China 1
GLGYJ Zhuang Liao Songs Research (壮族嘹歌研究) 1
GOCD Oxford English-Chinese Chinese-English Dictionary (牛津英汉汉英词典) 2
GPGLG Zhuang Folk Song Culture Series - Pingguo County Liao Songs (壮族民歌文化丛书・平果嘹歌) 70
GXHZ Xinhua Big Dictionary (新华大字典) 51
GZ Ancient Zhuang Character Dictionary (古壮字字典) 995
GZJW Collections of Bronze Inscriptions from Yin and Zhou Dynasties
(殷周金文集成引得)
33
GZYS Chinese Ancient Ethnic Characters Research (中国民族古文字研究) 2
 Japan JMJ Character Information Development and Maintenance Project for e-Government "MojiJoho-Kiban Project" (文字情報基盤整備事業) 1,645 1,645
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 1,793 1,793
 Macau MAC Macao Information System Character Set (澳門資訊系統字集) 22 22
 Taiwan T3 CNS 11643-1992 plane 3 1 3
T6 CNS 11643-1992 plane 6 1
TC CNS 11643-1992 plane 12 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 2 2
 Vietnam VU Vietnamese horizontal extensions 1 1
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 2,884 2,963
UTC UTC sources 79

CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G[edit]

A block named CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G was added as part of Unicode 13.0 to the Tertiary Ideographic Plane in the range U+30000 through U+3134F, containing 4,939 characters.[9]

Charts[edit]

30000–3134F.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (4,997) more than the number of encoded characters (4,939).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 China GHZR 汉语大字典(第二版) 878 2,082
GPGLG Zhuang Folk Song Culture Series - Pingguo County Liao Songs (壮族民歌文化丛书・平果嘹歌) 13
GZ Ancient Zhuang Character Dictionary (古壮字字典) 1,191
 South Korea KC Korean History On-Line (한국 역사 정보 통합 시스템) 428 428
 Taiwan T13 TCA-CNS 11643 19th plane (pending new version) 347 353
TB CNS 11643-1992 plane 11 3
TC CNS 11643-1992 plane 12 2
TD CNS 11643-1992 plane 13 1
 United Kingdom UK IRG N2107R2 1,566 1,566
n/a SAT SAT Daizōkyō Text Database 329 568
UTC UTC sources 239

CJK Compatibility Ideographs[edit]

The block named CJK Compatibility Ideographs (F900–FAFF) was created to retain round-trip compatibility with other standards. Only twelve of its characters have the "Unified Ideograph" property: U+FA0E, FA0F, FA11, FA13, FA14, FA1F, FA21, FA23, FA24, FA27, FA28 and FA29.[1] None of the other characters in this and other "Compatibility" blocks relate to CJK Unification.

Charts[edit]

F900–FAFF.

Sources[edit]

Note: Some characters appear in more than one source, making the sum of individual character counts (22) more than the number of encoded Unified characters (12).[7]

Country or region Code Standard[8] Character count Total
 Japan J3 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 3 3 8
J4 JIS X 0213:2004 Level 4 3
JA Japanese IT Vendors Contemporary Ideographs, 1993 1
JA3 JIS X 0213:2004 level-3 characters replacing JA characters 1
 Taiwan TF CNS 11643-1992 plane 15 1 1
 Vietnam V2 VHN 01-1998 1 1
n/a UTC UTC sources 12 12

UTC Sources
[edit]

The Ideographic Research Group (IRG) bears the formal responsibility of developing extensions to the encoded repertoires of unified CJK ideographs. The Unicode Consortium participates in this group as a liaison member of ISO. The characters submitted by the Unicode Technical Committee bear the prefix "UTC". All CJK Unified Ideographs in ISO/IEC10646 are required to have at least one source identifier. Changes to IRG source information, however, can leave a given ideograph without any such sources. In such cases, the ideograph is included in the U-source database to guarantee it has at least one source. Such ideographs are indicated by a source prefix of "UCI" instead of "UTC".[10]

The UTC sources consist of the following:

  • ABC Chinese-English Dictionary by John DeFrancis
  • The Adobe-CNS1 glyph collection
  • The Adobe-Japan1 glyph collection
  • A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of Chinese Birds (中国鸟类系统检索)
  • The Great Nom Dictionary (Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm)
  • Annotations to Shuowen Jiezi (annotated by Duan Yucai)
  • GB18030-2000
  • Required Character List Supplied by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Hong Kong)
  • New Commercial Dictionary (商务新词典), Hong Kong
  • Defect reports filed against the Unicode Standard or other direct communication with the Unicode editorial committee
  • Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) documents
  • Modern Chinese Dictionary (现代汉语词典), by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Linguistics Research Institute, Dictionary Editorial Office
  • Working Group (WG2) documents
  • Wenlin (文林) http://www.wenlin.com/

Known issues[edit]

Disunification[edit]

U+4039[edit]

The character U+4039 (䀹) was a unification of two different characters (one with jiā 夾 phonetic and one with shǎn 㚒 phonetic) until Unicode 5.0. However, they were lexically different characters that should not have been unified; they have different pronunciations and different meanings.

The proposal of disunification of U+4039[11] was accepted and the new character is encoded at U+9FC3 (鿃) in Unicode 5.1.[clarification needed]

Other 3 glyphs in Extension B[edit]

In CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B, some characters are incorrectly unified with others. These characters include U+2017B (𠅻), U+204AF (𠒯) and U+24CB2 (𤲲). The first two characters contained a wrong unification of Chinese Mainland and Vietnamese source of their glyph, while the last one unifies the Chinese Mainland and Taiwanese ones.[12]

Unifiable variants and exact duplicates in Extension B[edit]

Also in CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B, hundreds of glyph variants were encoded.[13] In addition to the deliberate encoding of close glyph variants, six exact duplicates (where the same character has inadvertently been encoded twice) and two semi-duplicates (where the CJK-B character represents a de facto disunification of two glyph forms unified in the corresponding BMP character) were encoded by mistake:[14]

  • U+34A8 㒨 = U+20457 𠑗 : U+20457 is the same as the China-source glyph for U+34A8, but it is significantly different from the Taiwan-source glyph for U+34A8
  • U+3DB7 㶷 = U+2420E 𤈎 : same glyph shapes
  • U+8641 虁 = U+27144 𧅄 : U+27144 is the same as the Korean-source glyph for U+8641, but it is significantly different from the Chinese Mainland-, Taiwan- and Japan-source glyphs for U+8641
  • U+204F2 𠓲 = U+23515 𣔕 : same glyph shapes, but ordered under different radicals
  • U+249BC 𤦼 = U+249E9 𤧩 : same glyph shapes
  • U+24BD2 𤯒 = U+2A415 𪐕 : same glyph shapes, but ordered under different radicals
  • U+26842 𦡂 = U+26866 𦡦 : same glyph shapes
  • U+FA23 﨣 = U+27EAF 𧺯 : same glyph shapes (U+FA23 﨣 is a unified CJK ideograph, despite its name "CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA23.")

Other CJK ideographs in Unicode, not Unified[edit]

Apart from the eight blocks of "Unified Ideographs," Unicode has about a dozen more blocks with not-unified CJK-characters. These are mainly CJK radicals, strokes, punctuation, marks, symbols and compatibility characters. Although some characters have their (decomposable) counterparts in other blocks, the usages can be different.

Four blocks of compatibility characters are included for compatibility with legacy text handling systems and older character sets:

They include forms of characters for vertical text layout and rich text characters that Unicode recommends handling through other means. Therefore, their use is discouraged.

Usually, compatibility characters are those that would not have been encoded except for compatibility and round-trip convertibility with other standards. However, the amount of CJK ideographs within any non-Unicode standard is too big to fit into Unicode's CJK Compatibility Ideographs blocks. Instead, code points are assigned when the affected characters are approved by the Unicode Consortium, but have yet to assign any code points within the CJK Unified Ideographs blocks.

Font support[edit]

The blocks CJK Unified Ideographs and CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A, being parts of the Basic Multilingual Plane, are supported by the majority of the CJK fonts. However, Japanese and Korean fonts usually have fewer characters (about 13,000 and 8,000, respectively) than Chinese. Extensions B, C, D are supported by additional fonts MingLiU-ExtB, MingLiU_HKSCS-ExtB, PMingLiU-ExtB, SimSun-ExtB included in Microsoft Windows since Vista.[15]

Unicode version history[edit]

CJK unified ideographs additions per Unicode version
Unicode version Addition Plane Characters added Total characters
1.0 (1991) CJK Unified Ideographs Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) 20,902 20,914
CJK Compatibility Ideographs BMP 12
3.0 (1999) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A BMP 6,582 27,496
3.1 (2001) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B Supplementary Ideographic Plane (SIP) 42,711 70,207
4.1 (2005) CJK Unified Ideographs: Ideographs from HKSCS-2004 and GB 18030-2000 not in ISO 10646 BMP 22 70,229
5.1 (2008) CJK Unified Ideographs: Ideographs from Adobe Japan and disunification of U+4039 BMP 8 70,237
5.2 (2009) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C SIP 4,149 74,394
8 other characters from ARIB #47, #95, #93 and HKSCS BMP 8
6.0 (2010) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D SIP 222 74,616
6.1 (2012) 1 character corresponding to Adobe-Japan1-6 CID+20156 BMP 1 74,617
8.0 (2015) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E SIP 5,762 80,388
9 other characters BMP 9
10.0 (2017) CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F SIP 7,473 87,882
21 other characters BMP 21
11.0 (2018) CJK Unified Ideographs BMP 5 87,887
13.0 (2020) CJK Unified Ideographs BMP 13 92,856
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A BMP 10
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B BMP 7
CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G Tertiary Ideographic Plane (TIP) 4,939

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Unicode 13.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2019-11-27. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  2. ^ The Unicode Standard 4.0, Appendix A - Han Unification History
  3. ^ Suzanne Topping, "The secret life of Unicode"
  4. ^ "Chapter 11 - East Asian scripts", The Unicode standard, 4.0.
  5. ^ "Ideographic Variation Database". 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  6. ^ PRI 108: Combined registration of the Adobe Japan1 collection and of sequences in that collection
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Unihan_IRGSources.txt (from Unihan.zip)". 2018-11-09. Retrieved 2020-02-18.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "UAX #38: Unicode Han Database (Unihan)". Unicode Consortium. 2020-03-05.
  9. ^ "Unicode 13.0.0". 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  10. ^ Jenkins, John H. (2020-02-13). "UAX #45: U-source Ideographs". Unicode Consortium.
  11. ^ Andrew West and John Jenkins, proposal of disunification of U+4039
  12. ^ Eiso Chan (陈永聪), Comments on four error glyphs on CJK Unified Ideographs Ext B & E.[1]
  13. ^ unifiable glyph variants
  14. ^ Cook, Richard (6 October 2003). "Defect Report on Duplicate Encoded CJK Forms" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
  15. ^ Lunde, Ken (2009). CJKV Information Processing. O'Reilly. pp. 633–634. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1.

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