CJK Unified Ideographs (Unicode block)

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CJK Unified Ideographs
Range U+4E00..U+9FFF
(20,992 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Han
Assigned 20,976 code points
Unused 16 reserved code points
Unicode version history
1.0.1 20,902 (+20,902)
4.1 20,924 (+22)
5.1 20,932 (+8)
5.2 20,940 (+8)
6.1 20,941 (+1)
8.0 20,950 (+9)
10.0 20,971 (+21)
11.0 20,976 (+5)
Note: [1][2]

CJK Unified Ideographs is a Unicode block containing the most common CJK ideographs used in modern Chinese and Japanese.

The block has hundreds of variation sequences defined for standardized variants.[3]

It also has tens of thousands of ideographic variation sequences registered in the Unicode Ideographic Variation Database (IVD).[4][5] These sequences specify the desired glyph variant for a given Unicode character.

This block is otherwise known as URO, abbreviation of Unified Repertoire and Ordering.[6]


The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the CJK Unified Ideographs block:

Version Final code points[a] Count UTC ID L2 ID WG2 ID IRG ID Document
1.0.1 U+4E00..9FA5 20,902 X3L2/89-153 N480 Proposal for Creating Unified CJK Han Char Collection, 1989-07-01 
X3L2/89-162 N492 Memo on Unified Han Character Collection, 1989-08-01 
X3L2/89-163 N493 Are Japanese Ideographs Different from Chinese & Korean?, 1989-08-01 
X3L2/90-19I N507 Coding of ideographic characters in ISO 10646, 1989-09-11 
X3L2/90-19C Further Explanations on HCC (as previously described in 2 N 2046), 1989-11-13 
X3L2/90-19D Chinese National Position on HCC, 1989-11-13 
X3L2/90-19F N508 Proposed Rules for Handling the Differences of Similar Hanza/Hanja/Kanji, 1989-11-13 
X3L2/90-56A Wada, Eiiti (1990-01-30), Letter from Prof. Wada re Han Character Collection 
X3L2/90-19F.1 N508R Proposed Rules for Handling the Differences of Hanza/Hanja/Kanji Similar in Shape 
X3L2/90-23 Hastings, Tom (1990-02-08), Naming Ideographic Characters in ISO DP 10646 
X3L2/90-61D N612 Hasegawa, Masami (1990-03-01), Possible solutions to the CJK ideographic character problem 
X3L2/90-60A N600 Detail Report of the ad hoc (Seoul) meeting of WG2, 1990-03-02 
X3L2/90-132 N647 Arrangement of Characters from China in DIS 10646, 1990-09-07 
X3L2/91-1 Smith-Yoshimura, Karen (1991-01-02), RLG Position Paper on Han Unification 
X3L2/91-16 Comments on ISO-IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N669, 1991-01-16 
X3L2/91-17 Outline Position Han Unification (Draft), 1991-01-16 
X3L2/91-45 Collins, Lee (1991-03-12), Unified Han Character Set in ISO/IEC DIS 10646 
X3L2/93-014 Explanatory notes for the Unified Ideographic CJK Characters Repertoire and Ordering V.1.0, 1991-11-29 
X3L2/92-173 N814 Unified CJK Ideographic Character Repertoire & Order V2.0, 1992-04-25 
X3L2/93-053 N823 Zhoucai, Zhang (1992-06-27), A minor change with one Kanji glyph in Unified CJK Ideographs 
X3L2/93-052 N822 Additional Unified Ideographic CJK Characters (HCS-B), 1992-06-29 
X3L2/93-012 Jenkins, John (1992-09-12), Proposed revision to the unification rules 
X3L2/93-013 Jenkins, John (1992-10-08), A preliminary examination of a possible composition mechanism for CJK characters 
UTC/1993-019 Jenkins, John (1993-09-09), Report from EASC to UTC 
X3L2/94-084 N1006 Defect report of J-Column in the CJK Unified Ideographs, 1994-04-05 
X3L2/94-109 Proposal for ISO/IEC JET1/SC2 Defect Correction Procedures, 1994-06-01 
X3L2/94-111 N1043 N100 Koike, T. (1994-07-07), Draft text of ANNEX: Rules of CJK Unified Ideographs 
X3L2/94-108 Adams, Glenn (1994-09-06), IRG #3 Conclusions 
UTC/1991-055 Collins, Lee, Disposition of CJK Issues 
X3L2/95-105 N1257 pDAM No. 8 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: New Informative Annex on CJK Ideographs, 1995-09-08 
X3L2/95-130 N1318 Hart, Edwin; Edberg, Peter; Jenkins, John (1995-12-13), US comments on PDAM-8, Informative Annex on CJK Ideographs 
X3L2/96-066 Kobayashi, Tatsuo (1996-01-26), Proposal for source identifier for CJK ideographs 
L2/98-297 Matsuoka, Eiji (1996-04-19), ISO 10646-1.2 (Unicode) and Kanji database 
UTC/1996-023 Hart, Edwin, Source Code Separation Rule 
X3L2/96-082 N1399 ISO/IEC 10646-1 - Amendment #8, 1996-08-15 
L2/97-024 N1491 IRG proposal: Ideographic variant character, 1997-01-19 
L2/97-285 N1649 Paterson, Bruce (1997-09-11), Final text AMD #8 for 10646-1 - procedure for the unification and arrangement of CJK Ideographs 
L2/98-138 N1769 Paterson, Bruce (1998-04-06), Revised Text of ISO 10646-1/FPDAM 13: Amendment 13 - CJK unified ideographs with supplementary sources (page 1, 2, 3 and 438 only) 
L2/98-278 Kobayashi, Tatsuo (1998-07-30), Sample pages from "Basic Unified Character Set" (BUCS) 
L2/99-335 N2109 N674 Zhoucai, Zhang (1999-09-03), SuperCJK, version 9.0 with Kangxi and HYD data 
L2/99-385 N2144 N713R Jenkins, John (1999-12-08), Clarification of the Non-Cognate Rule 
L2/99-386 N2145 N715 Change in name of HKSAR Hanza source, 1999-12-09 
L2/00-289 N2247 Proposal to Add the Hanja Column of D. R. R. of Korea in ISO/IEC 10646-1 [sic], 2000-08-10 
L2/00-291 Everson, Michael (2000-08-30), Comments to Korean proposals (L2/00-284 - 289) 
L2/00-299 N2259 Sato, T. K. (2000-09-04), Addition of New Source information on CJK ideographs 
L2/01-027 N2299 N759 Zhoucai, Zhang (2000-11-21), SuperCJK 11.1, A Super Set of Unified CJK Ideographs and Its Extension A & B 
L2/01-309 Jenkins, John (2001-08-08), Variation selectors and Han 
L2/01-351 N2376 Proposal to add the Hanja code tables of D P R of Korea into ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000 (18194 ideographs to CJK Unified Ideographs and its Extension A), 2001-09-03 
L2/02-054 Whistler, Ken (2002-02-04), Error in Canonical Mapping for U+F951 
L2/02-121 N2426 Ksar, Mike (2002-03-18), Proposal to add 1 Hanja code of D P R of Korea into 10646-1:2000 
L2/02-155 N2426 Proposal to add 1 Hanja code of D P R of Korea into ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000 [duplicate of L2/02-121], 2002-03-18 
L2/02-070 Moore, Lisa (2002-04-16), Minutes for UTC #90 
L2/02-217 N2468R Concerns on the VARIATION SELECTORS in ISO/IEC 10646-2, PDAM-1, 2002-05-15 
L2/02-415 N2517 Proposal to add 3 hanja codes of D P R of Korea into 10646-1:2000, 2002-11-01 
L2/02-437 N2535 N956 Ideograph Unification, 2002-11-21 
L2/02-463 N2564 Kyongsok, Kim (2002-11-30), 3-way cross-reference tables - KS X 1001, KPS 9566, and UCS 
L2/03-016 Late DPRK Comments on SC 2 N 3624, 10646-1/FPDAM 2, 2002-12-09 
L2/03-197 Jenkins, John (2003-06-10), Draft Document to Submit to WG2 on Simplified Chinese 
L2/03-285 Cook, Richard (2003-08-24), Submission of kHYPLCDPF data for inclusion in Unihan.txt 
L2/03-286 Cook, Richard (2003-08-24), Han variant issues 
L2/03-287 Cook, Richard (2003-08-24), 16 UniHan.txt errors 
L2/03-288 Cook, Richard (2003-08-24), Submission of kGSR data for inclusion in UniHan.txt 
L2/03-301 Cook, Richard (2003-08-27), 24 more UniHan.txt errors 
L2/03-311 West, Andrew (2003-09-17), Unicode 4.0.1 Beta Review, comments from Andrew C. West 
L2/03-399 Fok, Anthony (2003-10-13), Unihan reported errors / changes re kHKSCS entries 
L2/03-356R2 Moore, Lisa (2003-10-22), "Han Ideographs - Unihan updates", UTC #97 Minutes 
L2/03-367 N2667 Suignard, Michel; Muller, Eric; Jenkins, John (2003-10-22), CJK Ideograph source references corrections 
L2/03-398 Nguyen, D. (2003-10-29), Unihan reported errors / changes re kCowles 
L2/03-413 Hiura, Hideki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kida, Yasuo; Muller, Eric; Lunde, Ken; Jenkins, John (2003-10-31), Ideograph Variation Selector and Variation Collection Identifier 
L2/03-453 Minutes of the Editorial Group Ad Hoc Discussion, 2003-12-17 
L2/04-038 Jenkins, John (2004-01-28), Status of the Unihan database 
L2/04-082 Jenkins, John (2004-02-03), A user's guide to the Unihan database 
L2/04-138 Cook, Richard (2004-04-22), Proposal to add "kHDZRadBreak" to Unihan.txt 
L2/04-208 N2774R N1064 Proposal to add 6 KP source references to existing CJK Unified Ideographs, 2004-05-25 
L2/04-186 Jenkins, John (2004-06-04), Status of the Unihan database 
L2/04-219 Muller, Eric (2004-06-06), Registry for Ideographic Variation Sequences 
L2/04-336 Muller, Eric (2004-08-06), About the registry of Ideographic Variation Sequences 
L2/04-373 Cook, Richard (2004-11-06), Unencoded CJK Ideographs: Proposal to add kXHC data to Unihan.txt 
L2/04-420 Muller, Eric (2004-11-18), Report of the Ideographic Variation Sequences ad-hoc 
L2/05-227 Muller, Eric (2005-08-20), Draft Letter to ISO regarding Ideographic Variation Sequences 
L2/06-208 Jenkins, John (2006-05-16), Additional Fields for the Unihan 5.0 database 
L2/06-108 Moore, Lisa (2006-05-25), "Properties - Unihan", UTC #107 Minutes 
L2/07-123 N3256 Upcoming version of the Ideographic Variation Database, 2007-04-24 
L2/07-159 Jenkins, John (2007-05-10), U-source Database as Versioned Document 
L2/07-161 Jenkins, John (2007-05-10), UTC Proposed-Ideograph Database 
L2/07-172 Constable, Peter (2007-05-12), Constraint on Ideographic Variation Selector Sequences 
L2/07-327 N3359 Changing K5 source reference format from K5-dddd to K5-hhhh, 2007-09-24 
L2/08-051 Jenkins, John (2008-01-28), Splitting Up Unihan.txt 
L2/08-052 Jenkins, John (2008-01-28), Unihan Frequency Data Derived From Wikimedia 
L2/08-109 Muller, Eric (2008-02-07), IVD Update and incorporation in Unicode and in ISO/IEC 10646 
L2/08-143 N3408 Suignard, Michel (2008-04-09), Representation of CJK Unified Ideographs in multi-column 
L2/08-234 N1406 Cook, Richard; Bishop, Thomas; Lunde, Ken (2008-06-06), Han Unification Issues 
L2/08-281 Smith, Joshua J. (2008-08-04), Errors/Inconsistencies in Unihan Database 
L2/08-161R2 Moore, Lisa (2008-11-05), "CJK - CJK Unified Ideographs in Multi-column Format", UTC #115 Minutes 
L2/08-415 Davis, Mark (2008-11-05), Simplified and Traditional Mappings in Unihan 
L2/08-425 Cook, Richard; Lunde, Ken (2008-11-18), IRG Use of IVD Collections 
L2/08-430 Cook, Richard (2008-12-16), Proposal to correct Unihan property categories 
L2/09-030 Cook, Richard (2009-01-26), Proposal to publish kHanyuPinyin data in Unihan 
L2/09-118 Suzuki, Toshiya (2009-04-10), Comparison of UTC and DYC glyph 
L2/09-119 Suzuki, Toshiya (2009-04-10), Investigation of DYC-source glyphs in UTR #45 
L2/09-017 Cook, Richard; Davis, Mark; Jenkins, John (2009-05-18), Proposal to publish kRSURadBreak data in Unihan 
L2/09-223 Davis, Mark (2009-06-11), Unihan organization 
L2/09-237 Davis, Mark (2009-07-13), Unihan property names 
L2/09-225R Moore, Lisa (2009-08-17), "Properties — Unihan property names, Properties — Unihan organization", UTC #120 / L2 #217 Minutes 
L2/10-034 Member's submission #1 to IRG #34, 2010-01-27 
L2/10-035 Member's submission #2 to IRG #34, 2010-01-27 
L2/10-100 N3787 Request for disunifying U+2F89F from U+5FF9, 2010-04-07 
L2/10-195 Suignard, Michel (2010-05-10), CJK Charts 
L2/10-205 Suignard, Michel (2010-05-13), IRG Source format change 
L2/10-211 Lunde, Ken (2010-06-16), Adobe-Japan1 IVD Collection: Current Status and Future Directions 
L2/10-215 Lunde, Ken (2010-06-22), "Hanyo-Denshi" IVD Collection (PRI 167) to Adobe-Japan1-6 Mapping Table 
L2/10-218 N1666 Error report on U+225D6 AND U+2F89F, 2010-06-24 
L2/11-032 Davis, Mark; Edberg, Peter; Jenkins, John (2011-01-31), Additions to Unihan needed for CLDR 
L2/11-016 Moore, Lisa (2011-02-15), "Properties — Additions to Unihan needed for CLDR", UTC #126 / L2 #223 Minutes 
L2/11-111 Lunde, Ken (2011-04-07), Current Status of IVS Support in OSes & Applications 
L2/13-017 Suignard, Michel (2013-01-24), Unihan data file change 
L2/13-018 Add tone marks in Unihan kMandarin field for 114 Han characters, 2013-01-25 
L2/13-031 Jenkins, John (2013-01-28), Changes to kEACC field in Unihan database 
L2/13-041 Jenkins, John (2013-01-30), Unihan erratum - kMandarin value for U+6535 
L2/13-011 Moore, Lisa (2013-02-04), "Public Review Issue 243 — Unihan", UTC #134 Minutes 
L2/13-147 N4436 Suignard, Michel (2013-07-18), Proposal to change data format for CJK sources 
L2/14-058 N4436 Suignard, Michel (2014-02-03), Proposal to change data format for CJK sources 
L2/15-034 Persson, Åke (2015-02-01), Proposed changes in Unihan kMandarin field for 571 Han characters 
L2/15-035 Persson, Åke (2015-02-01), Proposed changes in Unihan_Readings.txt 
L2/15-065 Jenkins, John (2015-02-02), Proposal to Add IDS Links to Online Unihan Database 
L2/15-070 Davis, Mark (2015-02-03), IDS in Unihan 
L2/15-036R3 Edberg, Peter (2015-05-05), Unified input on proposed changes to Unihan readings 
L2/15-150 Persson, Åke (2015-05-05), Proposed changes in Unihan kMandarin field for 34 Han characters 
L2/15-167 Cook, Richard (2015-06-17), Unihan Property Status Report (Unicode 8.0) 
L2/15-250 Davis, Mark (2015-10-20), Relations between certain Han properties 
L2/15-313 Lunde, Ken (2015-11-03), Request for IDS Data 
L2/15-254 Moore, Lisa (2015-11-16), "B.14.5 Relations between certain Han properties", UTC #145 Minutes 
4.1 U+9FA6..9FBB 22 L2/03-411 Goldsmith, Deborah; Muller, Eric (2003-10-31), Unencoded chars in GB 18030 & HK-SCS 
L2/04-161R N2807 Suignard, Michel; Muller, Eric; Jenkins, John (2004-06-17), HKSCS and GB 18030 PUA characters, background document 
L2/04-263 N2808 Suignard, Michel (2004-06-17), HKSCS and GB 18030 PUA characters, request for additional characters and related information 
L2/16-237 Chung, Jaemin (2016-08-15), Forty-one kCangjie values to be added and one kCangjie value to be corrected 
5.1 U+9FBC..9FC2 7 L2/07-015 Moore, Lisa (2007-02-08), "C.20 Addition of seven CJK Unified Ideographs", UTC #110 Minutes 
L2/07-067R N3210 Lunde, Ken; Muller, Eric (2007-02-08), Addition of seven CJK Unified Ideographs 
U+9FC3 1 L2/07-020 Whistler, Ken (2007-01-15), Feedback Re Proposal to disunify U+4039, L2/07-010 
L2/07-015 Moore, Lisa (2007-02-08), "Scripts - CJK Character U+4039", UTC #110 Minutes 
L2/07-010 N3196R2 West, Andrew; Jenkins, John (2007-05-01), Proposal to Disunify U+4039 
L2/07-150 Whistler, Ken (2007-05-10), "E", WG2 Consent Docket 
5.2 U+9FC4..9FC6 3 L2/07-387 Proposal to encode six CJK Ideographs in UCS, 2007-10-17 
L2/08-184 N3318R Revised proposal to encode six CJK Ideographs in UCS, 2008-03-25 
U+9FC7..9FCB 5 L2/08-174 Six characters to be submitted for inclusion in the BMP, 2008-04-22 
L2/08-372 N3513 N1405R Revised proposal for Six urgently needed characters submitted for inclusion, 2008-06-09 
L2/08-361 Moore, Lisa (2008-12-02), "117-C20", UTC #117 Minutes 
6.1 U+9FCC 1 L2/07-333 Lunde, Ken (2007-10-02), Proposal to add twenty-one CJK Unified Ideographs to the UCS 
L2/10-212 Lunde, Ken (2010-06-16), Proposal to Add Two Ideographs to Extension E 
L2/10-228 N3885 Lunde, Ken (2010-08-24), Proposal to append one CJK Unified Ideograph to the URO 
8.0 U+9FCD..9FCF 3 N1967 Proposal on 3 China’s UNCs, 2013-11-04 
L2/14-082 N4508 Proposal on 3 China’s UNCs, 2014-03-12 
N1988 Additional Request for the 3 China’s UNCs, 2014-03-21 
L2/14-260 Suignard, Michel (2014-10-23), CJK chart and source references update 
L2/15-262 Disposition of Comments on ISO/IEC CD 10646 (Ed.5), 2015-10-26 
U+9FD0 1 L2/14-197 N4582 N2010 Qin, Lu (2014-05-23), Resolutions of IRG Meeting #42 
L2/14-260 Suignard, Michel (2014-10-23), CJK chart and source references update 
U+9FD1..9FD5 5 L2/12-333 West, Andrew (2012-10-19), Request to UTC to Propose 226 Characters for Inclusion in CJK Extension F 
N1888 UTC/US Character Submission for Extension F, 2012-11-08 
L2/13-032 Jenkins, John (2013-01-28), Proposed Urgently Needed Characters Submission from the UTC to the IRG 
N1936 UTC/US Urgently-needed Character Submission, 2013-05-20 
N1936A-R UTC/US Urgently-needed Character Submission, 2013-05-20 
N2005 UTC/US Urgently-needed Character Submission, 2014-05-15 
10.0 U+9FD6..9FE9 20 L2/13-009 Shardt, Yuri; Chin, Mitrophan; Andreev, Aleksandr (2013-01-22), Proposal to Encode Chinese Characters Used for Transliterating Slavonic 
L2/13-112 Anderson, Deborah; Jenkins, John (2013-05-05), Options for handling Proposal for Transliterating Slavonic (L2/13-009) 
L2/14-238R N4627 Anderson, Deborah (2014-10-17), Response to PDAM2 ballot comments from Great Britain on Chinese Characters needed for Slavonic 
L2/15-047 Anderson, Deborah (2015-02-01), CJK Slavonic transcription characters 
L2/15-017 Moore, Lisa (2015-02-12), UTC #142 Minutes 
L2/15-170 Andreev, Aleksandr; Chin, Mitrophan; Shardt, Yuri (2015-07-08), Proposal to Add the Palladius Transcription to the Unihan Database 
U+9FEA 1 N2048 Chung, Jaemin (2014-11-19), U+3E02 unification issue 
L2/16-203 Moore, Lisa (2016-08-18), "B.11.3.2", UTC #148 Minutes 
11.0 U+9FEB..9FED 3 L2/17-156R N4830 Proposal on 3 China's UNCs for Chemical Terminology to URO+, 2017-07-26 
L2/17-397 N4832 Proposal on 2 TCA's UNCs for Chemical Terminology to URO+, 2017-09-07 
U+9FEE..9FEF 2 L2/17-396 N4831 Proposal to add two Urgently Needed Characters, 2017-07-20 
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  3. ^ "Unicode Character Database: Standardized Variation Sequences". The Unicode Consortium. 
  4. ^ "Ideographic Variation Database". Unicode Consortium. 
  5. ^ "UTS #37, Unicode Ideographic Variation Database". Unicode Consortium. 
  6. ^ URO