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Protein CLINT1 PDB 1xgw.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases CLINT1, CLINT, ENTH, EPN4, EPNR, clathrin interactor 1
External IDs MGI: 2144243 HomoloGene: 133740 GeneCards: CLINT1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CLINT1 201769 at fs.png

PBB GE CLINT1 201768 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 157.79 – 157.86 Mb Chr 11: 45.85 – 45.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Clathrin interactor 1 (CLINT1), also known as EPSIN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLINT1 gene.[3][4][5]


The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. This enables a turnover of neuroreceptors or other proteins to be maintained and thus the numbers of receptors can be fine tuned.[4]

Clinical significance[edit]

The CLINT1 gene has been shown to be involved in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia in four studies [6][7][8][9][10] It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles[11][12] and this may be one reason why antipsychotic drugs are effective in treating delusions, auditory hallucinations and many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia.


CLINT1 has been shown to interact with GGA2.[4][5]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: CLINT1 clathrin interactor 1". 
  4. ^ a b c Wasiak S, Legendre-Guillemin V, Puertollano R, Blondeau F, Girard M, de Heuvel E, Boismenu D, Bell AW, Bonifacino JS, McPherson PS (September 2002). "Enthoprotin: a novel clathrin-associated protein identified through subcellular proteomics". J. Cell Biol. 158 (5): 855–62. doi:10.1083/jcb.200205078. PMC 2173151Freely accessible. PMID 12213833. 
  5. ^ a b Kalthoff C, Groos S, Kohl R, Mahrhold S, Ungewickell EJ (November 2002). "Clint: a novel clathrin-binding ENTH-domain protein at the Golgi". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (11): 4060–73. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-03-0171. PMC 133614Freely accessible. PMID 12429846. 
  6. ^ Pimm J, McQuillin A, Thirumalai S, Lawrence J, Quested D, Bass N, Lamb G, Moorey H, Datta SR, Kalsi G, Badacsonyi A, Kelly K, Morgan J, Punukollu B, Curtis D, Gurling H (May 2005). "The Epsin 4 gene on chromosome 5q, which encodes the clathrin-associated protein enthoprotin, is involved in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76 (5): 902–7. doi:10.1086/430095. PMC 1199380Freely accessible. PMID 15793701. 
  7. ^ Gurling H, Pimm J, McQuillin A (January 2007). "Replication of genetic association studies between markers at the Epsin 4 gene locus and schizophrenia in two Han Chinese samples". Schizophr. Res. 89 (1-3): 357–9. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.024. PMID 17070672. 
  8. ^ Tang RQ, Zhao XZ, Shi YY, Tang W, Gu NF, Feng GY, Xing YL, Zhu SM, Sang H, Liang PJ, He L (April 2006). "Family-based association study of Epsin 4 and Schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry. 11 (4): 395–9. doi:10.1038/ PMID 16402136. 
  9. ^ Liou YJ, Lai IC, Wang YC, Bai YM, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen TT, Chen JY (June 2006). "Genetic analysis of the human ENTH (Epsin 4) gene and schizophrenia". Schizophr. Res. 84 (2-3): 236–43. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.02.021. PMID 16616458. 
  10. ^ Escamilla M, Lee BD, Ontiveros A, Raventos H, Nicolini H, Mendoza R, Jerez A, Munoz R, Medina R, Figueroa A, Walss-Bass C, Armas R, Contreras S, Ramirez ME, Dassori A (December 2008). "The epsin 4 gene is associated with psychotic disorders in families of Latin American origin". Schizophr. Res. 106 (2-3): 253–7. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.09.005. PMID 18929466. 
  11. ^ Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other hydrophobic amines". FEBS Lett. 281 (1-2): 188–90. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80390-O. PMID 1901801. 
  12. ^ Claing A, Perry SJ, Achiriloaie M, Walker JK, Albanesi JP, Lefkowitz RJ, Premont RT (February 2000). "Multiple endocytic pathways of G protein-coupled receptors delineated by GIT1 sensitivity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (3): 1119–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.3.1119. PMC 15541Freely accessible. PMID 10655494. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]