alpha-Chloroacetophenone, 2-Chloroacetophenone, Chloromethyl phenyl ketone, Phenyl chloromethyl ketone
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|Molar mass||154.59 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||white to gray crystalline solid|
|Odor||pungent and irritating|
|Melting point||54 to 56 °C (129 to 133 °F; 327 to 329 K)|
|Boiling point||244.5 °C (472.1 °F; 517.6 K)|
|Vapor pressure||0.005 mmHg (20 °C)|
EU classification (DSD)
|Flash point||88 °C (190 °F; 361 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LCLo (Lowest published)
|417 mg/m3 (rat, 15 min)
600 mg/m3 (mouse, 15 min)
465 mg/m3 (rabbit, 20 min)
490 mg/m3 (guinea pig, 30 min)
159 mg/m3 (human, 20 min)
850 mg/m3 (human, 10 min)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm)|
|TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm)|
IDLH (Immediate danger
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Phenacyl chloride is a substituted acetophenone. It is a useful building block in organic chemistry. Apart from that, it has been historically used as a riot control agent, where it is designated CN.
Riot control agent
Because of its significantly greater toxicity, it has largely been supplanted by CS gas. Even though CN is still supplied to paramilitary and police forces in a small pressurized aerosol known as “Mace” or tear gas, its use is falling as pepper spray both works and disperses more quickly than CN.
The term "Mace" came into being because it was the brand-name invented by one of the first American manufacturers of CN aerosol sprays. Subsequently, In the United States, Mace became synonymous with tear-gas sprays in the same way that Kleenex has become strongly associated with tissue papers (a phenomenon known as a genericized trademark).
Like CS gas, this compound irritates the mucous membranes (oral, nasal, conjunctival and tracheobronchial). Sometimes it can give rise to more generalized reactions such as syncope, temporary loss of balance and orientation. More rarely, cutaneous irritating outbreaks have been observed and allergic contact permanent dermatitis.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0119". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "alpha-Chloroacetophenone". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Treudler, R.; Tebbe, B.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Krasagakis, K.; Orfanos, C. E. (1999). "Occupational contact dermatitis due to 2-chloracetophenone tear gas". British Journal of Dermatology 140 (3): 531–534. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02724.x. PMID 10233281.
- Levin, N.; Hartung, W. H. (1955). "ω-Chloroisonitrosoacetophenone". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 3, p. 191
- Ballantyne, B.; Swanston, D. W. (1978). "The comparative acute mammalian toxicity of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) and 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS)". Archives of Toxicology 40 (2): 75–95. doi:10.1007/BF01891962. PMID 350195.
- Blain, P. G. (2003). "Tear Gases and Irritant Incapacitants: 1-Chloroacetophenone, 2-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile and Dibenz[b,f]-1,4-Oxazepine". Toxicological Reviews 22 (2): 103–110. doi:10.2165/00139709-200322020-00005. PMID 15071820.
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