COST Hata model

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The COST Hata model is a radio propagation model that extends the urban Hata model (which in turn is based on the Okumura model) to cover a more elaborated range of frequencies. It is the most often cited of the COST 231 models (EU funded research project ca. April 1986 – April 1996),[1] also called the Hata Model PCS Extension.[2]

COST (COopération européenne dans le domaine de la recherche Scientifique et Technique) is a European Union Forum for cooperative scientific research which has developed this model accordingly to various experiments and researches.

Applicable to / under conditions[edit]

This model is applicable to urban areas. To further evaluate Path Loss in Suburban or Rural Quasi-open/Open Areas, this path loss has to be substituted into Urban to Rural/Urban to Suburban Conversions. (Ray GAO, 09 Sep 2007)


Mathematical formulation[edit]

The COST Hata model is formulated as,

For suburban or rural environments:

And for large cities:


L = Median path loss. Unit: decibel (dB)

f = Frequency of Transmission. Unit: megahertz (MHz)

hB = Base station antenna effective height. Unit: meter (m)

d = Link distance. Unit: Kilometer (km)

hR = Mobile station antenna effective height. Unit: meter (m)

a(hR) = Mobile station antenna height correction factor as described in the Hata model for urban areas.

Points to note[edit]

The European Co-operative for Scientific and Technical research (EUROCOST) formed the COST-231 working committee to develop an extended version of the Hata model. COST-231 proposed the following formula to extend Hata's model to 2 GHz. The proposed model for path loss is

L50(urban) = 46.3 + 33.9 log fc – 13.82 log hte – a (hre) + (44.9 – 6.55 log hte) log d + Cm where a(hre) is the correction factor for effective mobile antenna height which is a function of the size of the coverage area.

          0 dB for medium-sized city and suburban areas

Cm =

          3 dB for metropolitan centers
       The COST-231 extension of the Hata model is restricted to the following

range of parameters:

   f : 1500–2000 MHz
   hte :30m to 200m
   hre :1m to 10m
   d :1km to 20 km


This model requires that the base station antenna is higher than all adjacent rooftops.


  1. ^ COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) website
  2. ^ Final report for COST Action 231, Chapter 4

See also[edit]