Page semi-protected

COVID-19 pandemic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg
Map of confirmed cases per 100,000 population
as of 4 June 2020:
  >1000   300–1000   100–300   30–100
  10–30   0–10   None or no data
Total confirmed cases map
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map.svg
Map of total confirmed cases as of 4 June 2020:
  None or no data
Confirmed deaths per 100 000 population
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg
Map of confirmed deaths per capita as of 4 June 2020
  None or no data
Confirmed cases per capita interactive timeline
Cumulative per capita confirmed COVID-19 cases
Cumulative per capita confirmed COVID-19 cases
Timeline map of confirmed cases per capita
(drag circle to adjust; may not work on mobile)
See larger version
  None or no data
A nurse caring for a patient with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit
Meeting of the Italian government task force to face the coronavirus outbreak, 23 February 2020
Taiwanese 33rd Chemical Corps spraying disinfectant on a street in Taipei
Passengers at Linate Airport in Milan have their temperatures taken
Almost empty supermarket aisle in Melbourne, Australia
Top to bottom:
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2
SourceProbably bats, possibly via pangolins[2][3]
First outbreakChina[4]
Index caseWuhan, Hubei, China
30°37′11″N 114°15′28″E / 30.61972°N 114.25778°E / 30.61972; 114.25778
DateDecember 1, 2019 (2019-12-01)[4] – present
(6 months and 3 days)
Confirmed cases6,513,301[5][b]
Active cases3,319,027[5]

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2).[1] The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.[4][6] The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January, and a pandemic on 11 March.[7][8] As of 4 June 2020, more than 6.51 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 386,000 deaths; more than 2.8 million people have recovered.[5]

The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact,[c] most often via small droplets produced by coughing,[d] sneezing, and talking.[9][10][12] The droplets usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than travelling through air over long distances.[9] Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face.[9][10] It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread is possible before symptoms appear, and from people who do not show symptoms.[9][10]

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell.[9][13][14] Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.[15] The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to fourteen days.[16][17] There is no known vaccine or specific antiviral treatment.[9] Primary treatment is symptomatic and supportive therapy.[18]

Recommended preventive measures include hand washing, covering one's mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, wearing a face mask in public settings, and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected.[9][19] Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of infected persons.

The pandemic has caused global social and economic disruption,[20] including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[21] It has led to the postponement or cancellation of sporting, religious, political, and cultural events,[22] widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying,[23][24][25] and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases.[26][27] Schools, universities, and colleges have been closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 177 countries, affecting approximately 98.6 percent of the world's student population.[28] Misinformation about the virus has been circulated through social media and the mass media.[29] There have been incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates.[30][31][32]

Video summary (script) on the coronavirus disease (4:12 min)


Location[e] Cases[b] Deaths[f] Recov.[g] Ref.
Worldwide 6,513,301 386,091 2,808,183 [5]
United States[h] 1,890,083 108,681 431,692 [40]
Brazil 587,017 32,602 253,570 [41][42]
Russia[i] 441,108 5,384 204,623 [43]
United Kingdom[j] 279,856 39,728 No data [45][46]
Spain[k] 240,326 27,128 150,376 [47]
Italy 233,836 33,601 160,938 [48][49]
India 216,919 6,075 104,107 [50]
Germany[l] 184,470 8,701 167,785 [52][51]
Peru 178,914 4,894 72,319 [53][54]
Turkey 166,422 4,609 130,852 [55]
Iran 164,270 8,071 127,485 [56]
France[m] 151,677 29,021 69,455 [57]
Chile[n] 113,628 1,275 No data [58]
Mexico 101,238 11,728 73,271 [59][60]
Canada 93,085 7,498 51,048 [61]
Saudi Arabia 91,182 579 68,159 [62]
Pakistan 85,264 1,770 30,128 [63]
China[o] 83,022 4,634 78,319 [64]
Qatar 60,259 43 36,036 [65]
Belgium[p] 58,767 9,548 16,048 [67]
Bangladesh 57,563 781 12,161 [68]
Netherlands[q] 46,942 5,990 No data [70]
Belarus 45,981 253 21,162 [71]
Ecuador 40,966 3,486 4,000 [72]
Sweden 41,883 4,562 4,971 [73][74]
South Africa 37,525 792 19,682 [75][76]
Singapore 36,405 24 23,582 [77][78]
United Arab Emirates 36,359 270 19,153 [79]
Colombia 33,354 1,045 12,288 [80]
Portugal 33,261 1,447 20,079 [81]
Switzerland 30,913 1,660 28,600 [82][83]
Kuwait 29,921 236 17,223 [84]
Indonesia 28,818 1,721 8,892 [85]
Egypt[r] 28,615 1,088 7,350 [86]
Ukraine[s] 25,411 747 11,042 [87]
Ireland 25,111 1,659 22,698 [88][89]
Poland 24,826 1,117 12,227 [73][90]
Philippines 20,382 984 4,248 [91][92]
Romania 19,669 1,288 13,800 [93]
Argentina[t] 19,255 583 5,883 [95]
Afghanistan 18,054 300 1,585 [96]
Dominican Republic 18,040 516 11,224 [97]
Israel[u] 17,429 291 14,993 [98]
Japan[v] 16,986 900 14,771 [99][100]
Austria 16,771 670 15,672 [101]
Panama 14,609 357 9,519 [102]
Oman 14,316 67 3,451 [103]
Bahrain 12,815 20 7,410 [104]
Kazakhstan 12,067 48 6,469 [105]
Denmark[w] 11,771 580 10,552 [106]
Bolivia 11,638 400 1,507 [107]
South Korea 11,629 273 10,499 [108]
Serbia[x] 11,523 245 6,852 [109]
Armenia 11,221 176 3,468 [110]
Nigeria 11,166 315 3,329 [111]
Algeria 9,733 673 6,218 [112][113]
Czech Republic 9,441 324 6,752 [114]
Moldova[y] 8,795 310 4,863 [115]
Ghana 8,548 38 3,132 [116]
Norway[z] 8,477 237 7,727 [119]
Malaysia 8,247 115 6,559 [120]
Iraq 8,168 256 4,095 [121]
Morocco[aa] 7,967 207 7,160 [123]
Australia[ab] 7,227 102 6,640 [124]
Finland[ac] 6,911 322 5,800 [125]
Cameroon 6,585 200 3,676 [127][128]
Azerbaijan[ad] 6,260 76 3,665 [129]
Guatemala 5,760 143 929 [130]
Honduras 5,690 234 617 [131]
Sudan 5,499 314 1,711 [132]
Tajikistan 4,191 48 2,347 [133]
Puerto Rico 4,024 140 850 [134][40]
Luxembourg 4,020 110 3,861 [135]
Djibouti 3,935 26 1,636 [136]
Guinea 3,933 23 2,332 [137]
Senegal 3,932 47 12,063 [138]
Hungary 3,954 539 2,205 [139]
Uzbekistan 3,874 16 3,014 [140]
DR Congo[ae] 3,643 77 495 [141]
Ivory Coast 3,110 35 1,530 [142]
Thailand 3,101 58 2,968 [143]
Greece 2,937 179 1,374 [144]
Gabon 2,902 20 801 [145]
El Salvador 2,781 51 1,208 [146]
Haiti 2,640 50 24 [147]
North Macedonia 2,611 147 1,621 [148]
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2,594 159 1,951 [149]
Bulgaria 2,585 147 1,322 [150]
Nepal 2,300 9 278 [151][152]
Croatia 2,246 103 2,095 [153]
Kenya 2,216 74 553 [154]
Somalia[af] 2,146 79 406 [155]
Cuba[ag] 2,107 83 1,830 [156]
Venezuela 1,952 20 334 [157]
Kyrgyzstan 1,899 20 1,292 [158]
Estonia 1,880 69 1,650 [159]
Maldives 1,850 7 644 [160]
Iceland 1,806 10 1,794 [161]
Sri Lanka 1,735 11 836 [162]
Lithuania 1,687 71 1,273 [163]
Ethiopia 1,636 18 250 [164]
Slovakia 1,526 28 1,376 [165]
Slovenia 1,477 109 1,358 [166][167]
Mali 1,386 79 788 [168]
Guinea-Bissau 1,339 8 53 [169]
South Sudan 1,317 14 6 [170][171]
Equatorial Guinea 1,306 12 200 [172]
Lebanon 1,256 27 724 [173]
Albania 1,197 33 898 [174]
Central African Republic 1,189 4 23 [175]
Costa Rica 1,157 10 685 [176]
New Zealand 1,154 22 1,131 [177]
Kosovo 1,142 30 871 [178]
Nicaragua 1,118 46 370 [73][179]
USS Theodore Roosevelt[ah] 1,102 1 53 [180]
Hong Kong 1,094 4 1,039 [181]
Zambia 1,089 7 912 [182]
Tunisia 1,087 49 965 [183]
Latvia 1,082 25 760 [73][184]
Charles de Gaulle[ai] 1,081 0 0 [185]
Paraguay 1,070 11 511 [189]
Niger 961 65 857 [190]
Cyprus[aj] 958 17 790 [191]
Sierra Leone 909 47 491 [192][193]
Madagascar 908 6 195 [194]
Burkina Faso 884 53 753 [195][196]
Andorra 851 51 735 [197]
Uruguay[ak] 828 23 698 [198]
Chad 820 66 590 [199]
Georgia[al] 800 13 640 [200]
Jordan 757 9 561 [201]
Mauritania 745 34 57 [202]
Diamond Princess[v] 712 14 653 [99][203]
San Marino 674 42 391 [204]
Malta 622 9 562 [205]
Donetsk PR[am] 611 23 154 [206]
Congo[an] 611 20 179 [207][208]
Jamaica 591 10 361 [209]
Tanzania 509 21 183 [210][211]
Uganda 507 0 82 [212][213]
São Tomé & Príncipe 484 12 68 [214]
Cape Verde 477 5 238 [215]
Palestine 457 3 372 [216]
Togo 452 13 236 [217]
Taiwan[ao] 443 7 428 [219]
Luhansk PR[am] 419 7 337 [220]
Yemen 419 95 17 [221]
Rwanda 397 2 271 [222][223]
Malawi 369 4 51 [224]
Somaliland[ap] 359 22 33 [225]
Isle of Man[aq] 336 24 311 [226]
Mauritius 335 10 322 [227]
Vietnam 328 0 293 [228]
Montenegro 324 9 315 [229]
Liberia 316 28 169 [230]
Mozambique 316 2 109 [231]
Jersey 309 30 290 [232]
Eswatini 295 3 201 [233]
Guernsey 252 13 238 [234]
Benin 244 3 148 [235]
Myanmar 233 6 145 [236]
Zimbabwe 222 4 29 [237][238]
Libya 196 5 52 [239]
Faroe Islands 187 0 187 [240]
Mongolia 185 0 44 [241]
Guam[ah] 177 5 148 [40][242]
Gibraltar 173 0 153 [243]
Cayman Islands 156 1 78 [244]
Guyana 153 12 70 [245]
Costa Atlantica 148 0 0 [246]
Bermuda 141 9 112 [247]
Brunei 141 2 138 [248][249]
Comoros 132 2 27 [250]
Greg Mortimer[ak] 128 1 No data [251][252]
Cambodia 125 0 123 [253]
Syria[ar] 123 6 50 [254]
Trinidad & Tobago 117 8 108 [255]
Northern Cyprus[as] 108 4 104 [256]
Bahamas 102 11 48 [257]
Aruba 101 3 98 [258]
Monaco 99 4 90 [259]
Barbados 92 7 76 [260]
Angola 86 4 18 [261]
Liechtenstein 82 1 55 [262][263]
Sint Maarten 77 15 60 [264]
Suriname 74 1 9 [265]
U.S. Virgin Islands 70 6 62 [266]
Burundi 63 1 33 [267]
French Polynesia 60 0 60 [268]
Artsakh[at] 57 0 26 [269]
Bhutan 47 0 9 [270]
Macau 45 0 45 [271]
South Ossetia[au] 45 0 31 [269]
Botswana 40 1 23 [272][273]
Eritrea 39 0 39 [274]
Abkhazia[av] 28 1 27 [269]
Antigua & Barbuda 26 3 19 [275][276]
Saint Vincent[aw] 26 0 14 [277][278]
The Gambia 26 1 21 [279]
Namibia 25 0 16 [280]
East Timor 24 0 24 [281]
Grenada 23 0 18 [282][283]
Northern Mariana Islands 23 2 16 [284]
Curaçao 21 1 15 [285]
New Caledonia 20 0 18 [286]
Laos 19 0 16 [287]
Belize 18 2 16 [288]
Fiji 18 0 15 [289]
Saint Lucia 18 0 18 [290][291]
Dominica 18 0 16 [292]
Saint Kitts & Nevis 15 0 15 [293]
Falkland Islands 13 0 13 [294]
Greenland 13 0 11 [295]
MS Zaandam[ax] 13 4 No data [298][299]
Coral Princess[ay] 12 2 No data [301]
Turks & Caicos Islands 12 1 10 [302]
Vatican City 12 0 2 [303]
Montserrat 11 1 10 [304]
Seychelles 11 0 11 [305]
British Virgin Islands 8 1 7 [306]
HNLMS Dolfijn[az] 8 0 No data [307]
Papua New Guinea 8 0 8 [310]
Lesotho 4 0 2 [311]
Anguilla 3 0 3 [312]
Saba 3 0 3 [313]
Bonaire 2 0 2 [314]
Sint Eustatius 2 0 2 [315]
Saint Pierre & Miquelon 1 0 1 [316]
As of 4 June 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
For notes, see the Notes section.


On 31 December 2019, health authorities in China reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in Wuhan, Hubei,[317][318] and an investigation was launched in early January 2020.[319] On 30 January, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)—7,818 cases confirmed globally, affecting 19 countries in five WHO regions.[320][321]

Several of the early cases had visited Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market[322] and so the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin.[323] The virus that caused the outbreak is known as SARS‑CoV‑2, a newly discovered virus closely related to bat coronaviruses,[324] pangolin coronaviruses,[325][326] and SARS-CoV.[327] The scientific consensus is that COVID-19 has a natural origin.[328][329] The probable bat-to-human infection may have been among people processing bat carcasses and guano in the production of traditional Chinese medicines.[330]

The earliest known person with symptoms was later discovered to have fallen ill on 1 December 2019, and that person did not have visible connections with the later wet market cluster.[331][332] Of the early cluster of cases reported that month, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market.[333][334][335] On 13 March 2020, an unverified report from the South China Morning Post suggested a case traced back to 17 November 2019 (a 55-year-old from Hubei) may have been the first person infected.[336][337]

The WHO recognized the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[338] Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan reported surging cases. The total numbers outside China quickly passed China's.[339]


Epidemic curve of COVID-19 by date of report

Cases refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19, and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols.[340] As of 24 May, countries that publicised their testing data have typically performed many tests equal to 2.6 percent of their population, while no country has tested samples equal to more than 17.3 percent of its population.[341] Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.[342][343] An analysis of the early phase of the outbreak up to 23 January estimated 86 percent of COVID-19 infections had not been detected, and that these undocumented infections were the source for 79 percent of documented cases.[344] Several other studies, using a variety of methods, have estimated that numbers of infections in many countries are likely to be considerably greater than the reported cases.[345][346]

On 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that 15 percent of people tested in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, tested positive for antibodies.[347] Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, has also found rates of positive antibody tests that may indicate more infections than reported.[348][349] However, such antibody surveys can be unreliable due to a selection bias in who volunteers to take the tests, and due to false positives. Some results (such as the Gangelt study) have received substantial press coverage without first passing through peer review.[350]

Analysis by age in China indicates that a relatively low proportion of cases occur in individuals under 20.[351] It is not clear whether this is because young people are less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop serious symptoms and seek medical attention and be tested.[352] A retrospective cohort study in China found that children were as likely to be infected as adults.[353] Countries that test more, relative to the number of deaths, have a younger age distribution of cases, relative to the wider population.[354]

Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5,[355] but a subsequent analysis has concluded that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9).[356] R0 can vary across populations and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account effects such as social distancing and herd immunity. As of mid-May 2020, the effective R is close to or below 1.0 in many countries, meaning the spread of the disease in these areas is stable or decreasing.[357]


Deceased in a 16 m (53 ft) "mobile morgue" outside a hospital in Hackensack, New Jersey

Most people who contract COVID-19 recover. For those who do not, the time between the onset of symptoms and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.[362] As of 4 June 2020, approximately 386,000[5] deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. In China, as of 5 February, about 80 percent of deaths were recorded in those aged over 60, and 75 percent had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.[363]

The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020.[364] The first death outside of China occurred on 1 February in the Philippines,[365] and the first death outside Asia was in France on 14 February.[366]

Official deaths from COVID-19 generally refer to people who died after testing positive according to protocols. This may ignore deaths of people who die without testing, e.g. at home or in nursing homes.[367] Conversely, deaths of people who had underlying conditions may lead to overcounting.[368] Comparison of statistics for deaths for all causes versus the seasonal average indicates excess mortality in many countries.[369][370] In the worst affected areas, mortality has been several times higher than average. In New York City, deaths have been four times higher than average, in Paris twice as high, and in many European countries, deaths have been on average 20 to 30 percent higher than normal.[369] This excess mortality may include deaths due to strained healthcare systems and bans on elective surgery.[371]

Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality.[372] These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, effectiveness and rapidity of government response,[373][374][375] time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health.[376] Some countries (like Belgium) include deaths from suspected cases of COVID-19, regardless of whether the person was tested, resulting in higher numbers compared to countries that include only test-confirmed cases.[377]

The death-to-case ratio reflects the number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 divided by the number of diagnosed cases within a given time interval. Based on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global death-to-case ratio is 5.9 percent (386,091 deaths for 6,513,301 cases) as of 4 June 2020.[5] The number varies by region.[378]

Other measures include the case fatality rate (CFR), which reflects the percentage of diagnosed people who die from a disease, and the infection fatality rate (IFR), which reflects the percentage of infected (diagnosed and undiagnosed) who die from a disease. These statistics are not timebound and follow a specific population from infection through case resolution. Our World in Data states that as of 25 March 2020 the IFR cannot be accurately calculated as neither the total number of cases nor the total deaths, is known.[379] In February the Institute for Disease Modeling estimated the IFR as 0.94% (95% confidence interval 0.37–2.9), based on data from China.[380][381] The University of Oxford's Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) estimated a global CFR of 0.8 to 9.6 percent (last revised 30 April) and IFR of 0.10 percent to 0.41 percent (last revised 2 May), acknowledging that this will vary between populations due to differences in demographics.[382] The CDC estimates for planning purposes that the fatality rate among those who are symptomatic is 0.4% (0.2% to 1%) and that 35% of infected individuals are asymptomatic, for an overall infection fatality rate of 0.26% (as of 20 May).[383][384]


The WHO said on 11 March 2020 the pandemic could be controlled.[8] The peak and ultimate duration of the outbreak are uncertain and may differ by location. Maciej Boni of Penn State University said, "Left unchecked, infectious outbreaks typically plateau and then start to decline when the disease runs out of available hosts. But it's almost impossible to make any sensible projection right now about when that will be."[387] The Imperial College study led by Neil Ferguson stated that physical distancing and other measures will be required "until a vaccine becomes available (potentially 18 months or more)".[388] William Schaffner of Vanderbilt University said because the coronavirus is "so readily transmissible", it "might turn into a seasonal disease, making a comeback every year". The virulence of the comeback would depend on herd immunity and the extent of mutation.[389]

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of COVID-19[390]

The usual incubation period (the time between infection and symptom onset) ranges from one to 14 days, and is most commonly five days.[9][391] Some infected people have no symptoms, known as asymptomatic or presymptomatic carriers; transmission from such a carrier is considered possible.[392] As at 6 April, estimates of the asymptomatic ratio range widely from 5% to 80%.[393]

Symptoms of COVID-19 can be relatively non-specific; the two most common symptoms are fever (88 percent) and dry cough (68 percent). Less common symptoms include fatigue, respiratory sputum production (phlegm), loss of the sense of smell, loss of taste, shortness of breath, muscle and joint pain, sore throat, headache, chills, vomiting, coughing out blood, diarrhea, and rash.[394][395][396]

Among those who develop symptoms, approximately one in five may become more seriously ill and have difficulty breathing.[9] Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, sudden confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present.[14] Further development of the disease can lead to complications including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, septic shock, and kidney failure.[395]



Cough/sneeze droplets visualised in dark background using Tyndall scattering
Respiratory droplets produced when a man sneezes, visualised using Tyndall scattering

COVID-19 spreads primarily when people are in close contact and one person inhales small droplets produced by an infected person (symptomatic or not) coughing, sneezing, talking, or singing.[12][397] The WHO recommends 1 metre (3 ft) of social distance;[9] the U.S. CDC recommends 2 metres (6 ft).[10] People can transmit the virus without showing symptoms, but it is unclear how often this happens.[9][10][12] One estimate of the number of those infected who are asymptomatic is 40%.[398]

People are most infectious when they show symptoms (even mild or non-specific symptoms), but may be infectious for up to two days before symptoms appear (pre-symptomatic transmission).[12] They remain infectious an estimated seven to twelve days in moderate cases and an average of two weeks in severe cases.[12]

When the contaminated droplets fall to floors or surfaces they can, though less commonly, remain infectious if people touch contaminated surfaces and then their eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands.[9] On surfaces the amount of active virus decreases over time until it can no longer cause infection,[12] and surfaces are thought not to be the main way the virus spreads.[10] It is unknown what amount of virus on surfaces is required to cause infection via this method, but it can be detected for up to four hours on copper, up to one day on cardboard, and up to three days on plastic (polypropylene) and stainless steel (AISI 304).[12][399][400] Surfaces are easily decontaminated with household disinfectants which kill the virus outside the human body or on the hands.[9] Disinfectants or bleach are not a treatment for COVID‑19, and cause health problems when not used properly, such as when used inside the human body.[401]

Sputum and saliva carry large amounts of virus.[9][10][12][402] Although COVID‑19 is not a sexually transmitted infection, kissing, intimate contact, and faecal-oral routes are suspected to transmit the virus.[403][404] Some medical procedures are aerosol-generating[405] and result in the virus being transmitted more easily than normal.[9][12]

COVID‑19 is a new disease, and many of the details of its spread are still under investigation.[9][10][12] It spreads easily between people—easier than influenza but not as easily as measles.[10] Estimates of the number of people infected by one person with COVID-19 (the R0) have varied widely. The WHO's initial estimates of the R0 were 1.4-2.5 (average 1.95), however a more recent review found the basic R0 (without control measures) to be higher at 3.28 and the median R0 to be 2.79.[406]

The virus may occur in breastmilk.[407]


Illustration of SARSr‑CoV virion

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is a novel virus, first isolated from three people with pneumonia connected to the cluster of acute respiratory illness cases in Wuhan.[327] All features of the novel SARS‑CoV‑2 virus occur in related coronaviruses in nature.[408]

SARS‑CoV‑2 is closely related to SARS‑CoV, and is thought to have a zoonotic origin.[324] SARS‑CoV‑2 genetically clusters with the genus Betacoronavirus, and is 96 percent identical at the whole genome level to other bat coronavirus samples[409] and 92 percent identical to pangolin coronavirus.[410]


Demonstration of a swab for COVID-19 testing

COVID-19 can be provisionally diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of infected secretions or CT imaging of the chest.[411][412]

Viral testing

The standard test for current infection with SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA testing of respiratory secretions collected using a nasopharyngeal swab, though it is possible to test other samples. This test uses real-time rRT-PCR which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments.[413]

A number of laboratories and companies have developed serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response to infection.[414] Several have been evaluated by Public Health England and approved for use in the UK.[415]


A CT scan of a person with COVID‑19 shows lesions (bright regions) in the lungs.

Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions.[416] The Italian Radiological Society is compiling an international online database of imaging findings for confirmed cases.[417] Due to overlap with other infections such as adenovirus, imaging without confirmation by rRT-PCR is of limited specificity in identifying COVID-19.[416] A large study in China compared chest CT results to PCR and demonstrated that though imaging is less specific for the infection, it is faster and more sensitive.[412]


Infographic by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), describing how to stop the spread of germs

Strategies for preventing transmission of the disease include maintaining overall good personal hygiene, washing hands, avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands, and coughing or sneezing into a tissue, and putting the tissue directly into a waste container. Those who may already have the infection have been advised to wear a surgical mask in public.[418][419] Physical distancing measures are also recommended to prevent transmission.[420][421] Health care providers taking care of someone who may be infected are recommended to use standard precautions, contact precautions, and eye protection.[422]

Many governments have restricted or advised against all non-essential travel to and from countries and areas affected by the outbreak.[423] The virus has already spread within communities in large parts of the world, with many not knowing where or how they were infected.[424]

Misconceptions are circulating about how to prevent infection; for example, rinsing the nose and gargling with mouthwash are not effective.[425] There is no COVID-19 vaccine, though many organisations are working to develop one.[426]

Hand washing

Hand washing is recommended to prevent the spread of the disease. The CDC recommends that people wash hands often with soap and water for at least twenty seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty; before eating; and after blowing one's nose, coughing, or sneezing. This is because outside the human body, the virus is killed by household soap, which bursts its protective bubble.[19] CDC further recommended using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser with at least 60 percent alcohol by volume when soap and water are not readily available.[418] The WHO advises people to avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.[419][427] It is not clear if washing hands with ash, if soap is not available, is effective at reducing the spread of viral infections.[428]

Surface cleaning

Surfaces may be decontaminated with a number of solutions (within one minute of exposure to the disinfectant for a stainless steel surface), including 62–71 percent ethanol, 50–100 percent isopropanol, 0.1 percent sodium hypochlorite, 0.5 percent hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2–7.5 percent povidone-iodine. Other solutions, such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate, are less effective.[429] The CDC recommends that if a COVID-19 case is suspected or confirmed at a facility such as an office or day care, all areas such as offices, bathrooms, common areas, shared electronic equipment like tablets, touch screens, keyboards, remote controls, and ATM machines used by the ill persons should be disinfected.[430]

Face masks and respiratory hygiene

Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen wearing a surgical mask

Recommendations for wearing masks have been a subject of debate.[431] The WHO has recommended healthy people wear masks only if they are at high risk, such as those who are caring for a person with COVID-19.[432] China and the United States, among other countries, have encouraged the use of face masks or cloth face coverings more generally by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus by asymptomatic individuals as a precautionary principle.[433][434] Several national and local governments have made wearing masks mandatory.[435]

Surgical masks are recommended for those who may be infected, as wearing this type of mask can limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, sneezing, and coughing.[432]

Social distancing

Physical distancing in Toronto, with a limited number of customers allowed inside a store

Social distancing (also known as physical distancing) includes infection control actions intended to slow the spread of disease by minimising close contact between individuals. Methods include quarantines; travel restrictions; and the closing of schools, workplaces, stadiums, theatres, or shopping centres. Individuals may apply social distancing methods by staying at home, limiting travel, avoiding crowded areas, using no-contact greetings, and physically distancing themselves from others.[419][436][437] Many governments are now mandating or recommending social distancing in regions affected by the outbreak.[438][439] Non-cooperation with distancing measures in some areas has contributed to the further spread of the pandemic.[440]

The maximum gathering size recommended by U.S. government bodies and health organisations was swiftly reduced from 250 people (if there were no known COVID-19 spread in a region) to 50 people, and later to 10.[441] On 22 March 2020, Germany banned public gatherings of more than two people.[442] A Cochrane review found that early quarantine with other public health measures are effective in limiting the pandemic, but the best manner of adopting and relaxing policies are uncertain, as local conditions vary.[437]

Older adults and those with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, respiratory disease, hypertension, and compromised immune systems face increased risk of serious illness and complications and have been advised by the CDC to stay home as much as possible in areas of community outbreak.[443][444]

In late March 2020, the WHO and other health bodies began to replace the use of the term "social distancing" with "physical distancing", to clarify that the aim is to reduce physical contact while maintaining social connections, either virtually or at a distance. The use of the term "social distancing" had led to implications that people should engage in complete social isolation, rather than encouraging them to stay in contact through alternative means.[445][446]

Some authorities have issued sexual health guidelines for use during the pandemic. These include recommendations to have sex only with someone you live with, and who does not have the virus or symptoms of the virus.[447][448]


Transmission of COVID-19 depends on physical proximity.

Self-isolation at home has been recommended for those diagnosed with COVID-19 and those who suspect they have been infected. Health agencies have issued detailed instructions for proper self-isolation.[449][450]

Many governments have mandated or recommended self-quarantine for entire populations living in affected areas.[451][452] The strongest self-quarantine instructions have been issued to those in high risk groups.[453] Those who may have been exposed to someone with COVID-19 and those who have recently travelled to a country or region with the widespread transmission have been advised to self-quarantine for 14 days from the time of last possible exposure.[9][16][454]


Containment and mitigation

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact.[455][456] Moreover, progressively greater increases in healthcare capacity (raising the line) such as by increasing bed count, personnel, and equipment, helps to meet increased demand.[457]
Mitigation attempts that are inadequate in strictness or duration—such as premature relaxation of distancing rules or stay-at-home orders—can allow a resurgence after the initial surge and mitigation.[455][458]

Strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment or suppression, and mitigation. Containment is undertaken in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures of infection control and vaccinations to stop the disease from spreading to the rest of the population. When it is no longer possible to contain the spread of the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and society. A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time.[459] Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1.[388]

Part of managing an infectious disease outbreak is trying to delay and decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve.[455] This decreases the risk of health services being overwhelmed and provides more time for vaccines and treatments to be developed.[455] Non-pharmaceutical interventions that may manage the outbreak include personal preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at physical distancing such as closing schools and cancelling mass gathering events; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such surface cleaning.[460]

More drastic actions aimed at containing the outbreak were taken in China once the severity of the outbreak became apparent, such as quarantining entire cities and imposing strict travel bans.[461] Other countries also adopted a variety of measures aimed at limiting the spread of the virus. South Korea introduced the mass screening and localised quarantines and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. Singapore provided financial support for those infected who quarantined themselves and imposed large fines for those who failed to do so. Taiwan increased face mask production and penalised hoarding of medical supplies.[462]

Simulations for Great Britain and the United States show that mitigation (slowing but not stopping epidemic spread) and suppression (reversing epidemic growth) have major challenges. Optimal mitigation policies might reduce peak healthcare demand by two-thirds and deaths by half, but still result in hundreds of thousands of deaths and overwhelmed health systems. Suppression can be preferred but needs to be maintained for as long as the virus is circulating in the human population (or until a vaccine becomes available), as transmission otherwise quickly rebounds when measures are relaxed. Long-term intervention to suppress the pandemic has considerable social and economic costs.[388]

Contact tracing

Contact tracing is an important method for health authorities to determine the source of infection and to prevent further transmission.[463] The use of location data from mobile phones by governments for this purpose has prompted privacy concerns, with Amnesty International and more than a hundred other organisations issuing a statement calling for limits on this kind of surveillance.[464]

Several mobile apps have been implemented or proposed for voluntary use, and as of 7 April 2020 more than a dozen expert groups were working on privacy-friendly solutions such as using Bluetooth to log a user's proximity to other cellphones.[464] Users could then receive a message if they've been in close contact with someone who has subsequently tested positive for COVID-19.[464]

On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple jointly announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing based on Bluetooth technology and cryptography.[465][466] The system is intended to allow governments to create official privacy-preserving coronavirus tracking apps, with the eventual goal of integration of this functionality directly into the iOS and Android mobile platforms.[467] In Europe and in the U.S., Palantir Technologies is also providing COVID-19 tracking services.[468]

Health care

An army-constructed field hospital outside Östra sjukhuset (Eastern hospital) in Gothenburg, Sweden, contains temporary intensive care units for COVID-19 patients.

Increasing capacity and adapting healthcare for the needs of COVID-19 patients is described by the WHO as a fundamental outbreak response measure.[469] The ECDC and the European regional office of the WHO have issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting of resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards COVID-19 testing, cancelling elective procedures whenever possible, separating and isolating COVID-19 positive patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing the number of available ventilators and beds.[469][470] In addition, in an attempt to maintain physical distancing, and to protect both patients and clinicians, in some areas non-emergency healthcare services are being provided virtually.[471][472][473]

Due to capacity limitations in the standard supply chains, some manufacturers are 3D printing healthcare material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts.[474][475] In one example, when an Italian hospital urgently required a ventilator valve, and the supplier was unable to deliver in the timescale required, a local startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing the required hundred valves overnight.[476][477][478] On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is currently undergoing further testing. NASA is seeking fast-track approval.[479][480]


Antiviral medications are under investigation for COVID-19, as well as medications targeting the immune response.[481] None has yet been shown to be clearly effective on mortality in published randomised controlled trials.[481] However, remdesivir may have an effect on the time it takes to recover from the virus.[482] Emergency use authorisation for remdesivir was granted in the U.S. on 1 May, for people hospitalised with severe COVID-19. The interim authorisation was granted considering the lack of other specific treatments, and that its potential benefits appear to outweigh the potential risks.[483] Taking over-the-counter cold medications,[484] drinking fluids, and resting may help alleviate symptoms.[418] Depending on the severity, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and breathing support may be required.[485] The use of steroids may worsen outcomes.[486] Several compounds which were previously approved for treatment of other viral diseases are being investigated for use in treating COVID-19.[487]


Cases by country, plotted on a logarithmic scale[488]

There are several theories about where the very first case (the so-called patient zero) originated.[489] According to an unpublicized report from the Chinese government, the first case can be traced back to 17 November 2019; the person was a 55-year old citizen in Hubei province.[490] There were four men and five women reported to be infected on November, but none of them were "patient zero".[490] Starting from December, the number of coronavirus cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December[491] and at least 266 by 31 December.[492] According to official Chinese sources, these were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals.[323] In May 2020, George Gao, the director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said animal samples collected from the seafood market had tested negative for the virus, indicating that the market was the site of an early superspreading event, but it was not the site of the initial outbreak.[493]

On 24 December, Wuhan Central Hospital sent a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) sample from an unresolved clinical case to sequencing company Vision Medicals. On 27 and 28 December, Vision Medicals informed the Wuhan Central Hospital and the Chinese CDC of the results of the test, showing a new coronavirus.[494] A pneumonia cluster of unknown cause was observed on 26 December and treated by the doctor Zhang Jixian in Hubei Provincial Hospital, who informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December.[495]On 30 December, a test report addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital, from company CapitalBio Medlab, stated an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing a group of doctors at Wuhan Central Hospital to alert their colleagues and relevant hospital authorities of the result. That evening, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued a notice to various medical institutions on "the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause".[496] Eight of these doctors, including Li Wenliang (punished on 3 January),[497] were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours, and another, Ai Fen, was reprimanded by her superiors for raising the alarm.[498]

The Wuhan Municipal Health Commission made the first public announcement of a pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause on 31 December, confirming 27 cases[317][499][500]—enough to trigger an investigation.[319]

During the early stages of the outbreak, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days.[501] In early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration and Wuhan being a transport hub and major rail interchange.[409] On 20 January, China reported nearly 140 new cases in one day, including two people in Beijing and one in Shenzhen.[502] Later official data shows 6,174 people had already developed symptoms by then,[503] and more may have been infected.[504] A report in The Lancet on 24 January indicated human transmission, strongly recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and said testing for the virus was essential due to its "pandemic potential".[333][505] On 30 January, the WHO declared the coronavirus a public health emergency of international concern.[504] By this time, the outbreak spread by a factor of 100 to 200 times[clarification needed].[506]

On 31 January 2020, Italy had its first confirmed cases, two tourists from China.[507] As of 13 March 2020, the WHO considered Europe the active centre of the pandemic.[508] On 19 March 2020, Italy overtook China as the country with the most deaths.[509] By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy with the highest number of confirmed cases in the world.[510] Research on coronavirus genomes indicates the majority of COVID-19 cases in New York came from European travellers, rather than directly from China or any other Asian country.[511] Retesting of prior samples found a person in France who had the virus on 27 December 2019[512][513] and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 February 2020.[514]

As of 4 June 2020, more than 6.51 million cases have been reported worldwide; more than 386,000 people have died and more than 2.8 million have recovered.[515][516]

National responses

Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 27 May 2020 (table; more details)[dubious ]
  National lockdown
  Subnational lockdown
  No lockdown

A total of 188[5] countries and territories have had at least one case of COVID-19 so far. Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls.[517] National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns).[518]

By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[519] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world's population.[520][521]

By late April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in nations of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom, while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[522] Nearly 300 million people, or about 90 percent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[523] around 100 million people in the Philippines,[522] about 59 million people in South Africa,[524] and 1.3 billion people have been under lockdown in India.[525][526] On 21 May 100,000 new infections occurred worldwide, the most since the start of the pandemic, while overall 5 million cases were surpassed.[527]


As of 19 May 2020, cases have been reported in all Asian countries except for Turkmenistan[528] and North Korea,[529] although these countries likely also have cases.[530] Despite being the first area of the world hit by the outbreak, the early wide-scale response of some Asian states, particularly South Korea,[531] Taiwan,[532] and Vietnam,[533] has allowed them to fare comparatively well.


Confirmed cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants by province, as of 13 April, showing Hubei with around 40 times more cases than any other province
  Hubei Province: 114.40 cases per 100,000
  1.5–2.5 cases per 100,000
  1–1.5 cases per 100,000
  0.5–1 cases per 100,000
  >0–0.5 cases per 100,000
Semi-log graph of new cases and deaths in China during the COVID-19 epidemic showing the lockdown and lifting

The first confirmed case of COVID-19 has been traced back to 1 December 2019 in Wuhan;[331] one unconfirmed report suggests the earliest case was on 17 November.[336] Doctor Zhang Jixian observed a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown cause on 26 December, upon which her hospital informed Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December.[534][535] Initial genetic testing of patient samples on 27 December 2019 indicated the presence of a SARS-like coronavirus.[534] A public notice was released by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission on 31 December, confirming 27 cases and suggesting wearing face masks.[500] The WHO was informed on the same day.[317] As these notifications occurred, doctors in Wuhan were warned by police for "spreading rumours" about the outbreak.[536] The Chinese National Health Commission initially said there was no "clear evidence" of human-to-human transmission.[537] In a 14 January conference call, Chinese officials said privately that human-to-human transmission was a possibility, and pandemic preparations were needed.[538] In a briefing posted during the night of 14–15 January, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission said the possibility of limited human-to-human transmission could not be ruled out.[539]

On 20 January, the Chinese National Health Commission confirmed human-to-human transmission of the virus.[540] That same day, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping and State Council premier Li Keqiang issued their first public comments about the virus, telling people in infected areas to practice social distancing and avoid travel.[541][542] During the Chinese New Year travel period, authorities instigated a City of Wuhan lockdown.[543] On 10 February the Chinese government launched a radical campaign described by paramount leader and Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi as a "people's war" to contain the viral spread.[544] In "the largest quarantine in human history",[545] a cordon sanitaire on 23 January stopped travel in and out of Wuhan,[546][547] then extended to fifteen Hubei cities affecting about 57 million people.[548] Private vehicle use was banned in the city.[549] Several Chinese New Year (25 January) celebrations were also cancelled.[550] Authorities announced the construction of a temporary hospital, Huoshenshan Hospital, completed in ten days.[551] Leishenshan Hospital, was later built to handle additional patients.[552] China also converted other facilities in Wuhan, such as convention centres and stadiums, into temporary hospitals.[553]

Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital, an emergency speciality field hospital built in response to the pandemic
A temporary hospital for treating mild cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, one of more than ten such hospitals in the city[554]

On 26 January, the government instituted further measures to contain the COVID-19 outbreak, including issuing health declarations for travellers and extending the Spring Festival holiday.[555] Universities and schools around the country were also closed.[556][557][558] The regions of Hong Kong and Macau instituted several measures, particularly in regard to schools and universities.[559] Remote working measures were instituted in several Chinese regions.[560] Travel restrictions were enacted in and outside of Hubei.[560][561] Public transport was modified,[562] and museums throughout China were temporarily closed.[560][563][564] Control of public movement was applied in many cities, and an estimated 760 million people (more than half the population) faced some form of outdoor restriction.[565] In January and February 2020, during the height of the epidemic in Wuhan, about 5 million people lost their jobs.[566] Many of China's nearly 300 million rural migrant workers have been stranded at home in inland provinces or trapped in Hubei province.[567][568]

After the outbreak entered its global phase in March, Chinese authorities took strict measures to prevent the virus re-entering China from other countries. For example, Beijing imposed a 14-day mandatory quarantine for all international travellers entering the city.[569] At the same time, a strong anti-foreigner sentiment quickly took hold,[570] and foreigners experienced harassment by the general public[571] and forced evictions from apartments and hotels.[32][572]

On 24 March, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang reported that the spread of domestically transmitted cases has been basically blocked and the outbreak has been controlled in China.[573] The same day travel restrictions were eased in Hubei, apart from Wuhan, two months after the lockdown was imposed.[574] The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced on 26 March that entry for visa or residence permit holders would be suspended from 28 March onwards, with no specific details on when this policy would end. Those wishing to enter China must to apply for visas in Chinese embassies or consulates.[575][576] The Chinese government encouraged businesses and factories to re-open on 30 March, and provided monetary stimulus packages for firms.[577]

The State Council declared a day of mourning to begin with a national three-minute moment of silence on 4 April, coinciding with Qingming Festival, although the central government asked families to pay their respects online in observance of physical distancing to avoid a renewed COVID-19 outbreak.[578] On 25 April the last patients were discharged in Wuhan.[579] On 13 May the city of Jilin was put on lockdown, sparking fear of a second wave of infection.[580]


Disinfection of Tehran Metro trains against coronavirus. Similar measures have also been taken in other countries.[581]

Iran reported its first confirmed cases of SARS‑CoV‑2 infections on 19 February in Qom, where, according to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, two people had died that day.[582][583] Early measures announced by the government included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events,[584] sporting events,[585] Friday prayers,[586] and closures of universities, higher education institutions, and schools.[587] Iran allocated 5 trillion rials (equivalent to US$120,000,000) to combat the virus.[588] President Hassan Rouhani said on 26 February there were no plans to quarantine areas affected by the outbreak, and only individuals would be quarantined.[589] Plans to limit travel between cities were announced in March,[590] although heavy traffic between cities ahead of the Persian New Year Nowruz continued.[591] Shia shrines in Qom remained open to pilgrims until 16 March.[592][593]

Iran became a centre of the spread of the virus after China during February.[594][595] More than ten countries had traced their cases back to Iran by 28 February, indicating the outbreak may have been more severe than the 388 cases reported by the Iranian government by that date.[595][596] The Iranian Parliament was shut down, with 23 of its 290 members reported to have had tested positive for the virus on 3 March.[597] On 15 March, the Iranian government reported a hundred deaths in a single day, the most recorded in the country since the outbreak began.[598] At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died from the disease by 17 March.[599] By 23 March, Iran was experiencing fifty new cases every hour and one new death every ten minutes due to coronavirus.[600] According to a WHO official, there may be five times more cases in Iran than what is being reported. It is also suggested that U.S. sanctions on Iran may be affecting the country's financial ability to respond to the viral outbreak.[601] The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has demanded economic sanctions to be eased for nations most affected by the pandemic, including Iran.[602] On 20 April it was reported that Iran had reopened shopping malls and other shopping areas across the country, though there is a fear of the second wave of infection due to this move.[603] In March, and again in April, there were reports that Iran was under-reporting COVID-19 cases and deaths.[604][605]

South Korea

A drive-through test centre at the Gyeongju Public Health Centre

COVID-19 was confirmed to have spread to South Korea on 20 January 2020 from China. The nation's health agency reported a significant increase in confirmed cases on 20 February,[606] largely attributed to a gathering in Daegu of the Shincheonji Church of Jesus.[606][607] Shincheonji devotees visiting Daegu from Wuhan were suspected to be the origin of the outbreak.[608][609] By 22 February, among 9,336 followers of the church, 1,261 or about 13 percent reported symptoms.[610]

South Korea declared the highest level of alert on 23 February 2020.[611] On 28 February, more than 2,000 confirmed cases were reported,[612] rising to 3,150 on 29 February.[613] All South Korean military bases were quarantined after tests showed three soldiers had the virus.[608] Airline schedules were also changed.[614][615]

A banner in Seoul displays coronavirus infection prevention tips.

South Korea introduced what was considered the largest and best-organised programme in the world to screen the population for the virus, isolate any infected people, and trace and quarantine those who contacted them.[531][616] Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting of symptoms by new international arrivals through mobile application,[617] drive-through testing for the virus with the results available the next day,[618] and increasing testing capability to allow up to 20,000 people to be tested every day.[619] South Korea's programme is considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities.[531][620][621]

South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon Jae-in's response to the crisis, many signing petitions either praising it or calling for impeachment.[622] On 23 March, it was reported that South Korea had the lowest one-day case total in four weeks.[619] On 29 March it was reported that beginning 1 April all new overseas arrivals will be quarantined for two weeks.[623] Per media reports on 1 April, South Korea has received requests for virus testing assistance from 121 different countries.[624] On 15 May it was reported that about two thousand businesses were told to close again when a cluster of a hundred infected individuals was discovered; contact tracing is being done on 11,000 people.[625]


Cases of COVID-19 per million residents in Europe. The numbers are not comparable, as the testing strategy differs among countries and time periods.

As of 13 March 2020, when the number of new cases became greater than those in China, the World Health Organization (WHO) began to consider Europe the active centre of the pandemic.[626][627] Cases by country across Europe had doubled over periods of typically 3 to 4 days, with some countries (mostly those at earlier stages of detection) showing doubling every 2 days.[628]

As of 17 March, all countries within Europe had a confirmed case of COVID-19, with Montenegro being the last European country to report at least one case.[629] At least one death has been reported in all European countries, apart from the Vatican City.

As of 18 March, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe.[630]

As of 24 May, 68 days since its first recorded case, Montenegro became the first COVID-19-free country in Europe.[631][632]


The outbreak was confirmed to have spread to Italy on 31 January, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS‑CoV‑2 in Rome.[507] Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the Italian government to suspend all flights to and from China and declare a state of emergency.[633] An unassociated cluster of COVID-19 cases was later detected, starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy on 21 February.[634]

Civil Protection volunteers conduct health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna on 5 February.

On 22 February, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people from eleven different municipalities in northern Italy.[635] Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said, "In the outbreak areas, entry and exit will not be provided. Suspension of work activities and sports events has already been ordered in those areas."[636][637]

On 4 March, the Italian government ordered the full closure of all schools and universities nationwide as Italy reached a hundred deaths. All major sporting events were to be held behind closed doors until April,[638] but on 9 March all sport was suspended completely for at least one month.[639] On 11 March, Prime Minister Conte ordered stoppage of nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmacies.[640][641]

On 6 March, the Italian College of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) published medical ethics recommendations regarding triage protocols.[642][643][644] On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most coronavirus-related deaths in the world after reporting 3,405 fatalities from the pandemic.[645][646] On 22 March, it was reported that Russia had sent nine military planes with medical equipment to Italy.[647] As of 9 May, there were 217,185 confirmed cases, 30,201 deaths, and 99,023 recoveries in Italy, with the majority of those cases occurring in the Lombardy region.[648] A CNN report indicated that the combination of Italy's large elderly population and inability to test all who have the virus to date may be contributing to the high fatality rate.[649] On 19 April, it was reported that the country had its lowest deaths at 433 in seven days and some businesses are asking for a loosening of restrictions after six weeks of lockdown.[650]


Residents of Valencia, Spain, maintaining social distancing while queueing

The COVID-19 pandemic in Spain is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands.[651] Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-February.[652] By 13 March, cases had been confirmed in all 50 provinces of the country.

The lockdown was imposed on 14 March 2020.[653] On 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days.[654] By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates.[655] On 25 March, the death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China, and only that of Italy was higher.[656] On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day.[657] As of 25 May 2020 the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government has been below 100 after on 17 May for the first time in two months it fell below that figure.[658]

As of 3 June 2020, there have been 240,326 confirmed cases and 27,128 deaths.[659] The actual number of cases was considered to be much higher, as many people with only mild or no symptoms were unlikely to have been tested.[660][661] On 13 May, the results of the first wave of a Spanish Government nation-wide seroprevalence study showed that the percentage of population which could have been infected during the pandemic would be around 5%, approximately 2 million people,[662] a figure ten times higher than the number of confirmed cases on that date. According to this study based on sample of more than 63,000 people, Madrid and Castilla–La Mancha would be the most affected regions with a percentage of infection greater than 10%.[663][664] The number of deaths is also believed to be an underestimate due to lack of testing and reporting, perhaps by as much as 12,000 according to the Spanish Ministy of Health monitoring system on daily excess mortality (Sistema de Monitorización de la Mortalidad Diaria - MoMo).[665]

United Kingdom

The "Wee Annie" statue in Gourock, Scotland, was given a face mask during the pandemic.

Prior to 18 March 2020, the British government did not impose any form of social distancing or mass quarantine measures on its citizens.[666][667] As a result, the government received criticism for the perceived lack of pace and intensity in its response to concerns faced by the public.[668][669]

On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson made an announcement advising against all non-essential travel and social contact, suggesting people work from home where possible and avoid venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres.[670][671] On 20 March, the government announced that all leisure establishments such as pubs and gyms were to close as soon as possible,[672] and promised to pay up to 80 percent of workers' wages to a limit of £2,500 per month to prevent unemployment during the crisis.[673]

On 23 March, the prime minister announced tougher social distancing measures, banning gatherings of more than two people and restricting travel and outdoor activity to that deemed strictly necessary. Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through the issuing of fines and the dispersal of gatherings. Most businesses were ordered to close, with exceptions for businesses deemed "essential", including supermarkets, pharmacies, banks, hardware shops, petrol stations, and garages.[674]

On 24 April it was reported that one of the more promising vaccine trials had begun in England; the government has pledged, in total, more than 50 million pounds towards research.[675]

VE Day celebrations took place under lockdown in the United Kingdom as in this socially-distanced street party in Wetherby, West Yorkshire.

To ensure the UK health services had sufficient capacity to treat people with COVID-19, a number of temporary critical care hospitals were built.[676] The first to be operational was the 4000-bed capacity NHS Nightingale Hospital London, constructed within the ExCeL convention centre over nine days.[677] On 4 May, it was announced that the Nightingale Hospital in London would be placed on standby and remaining patients transferred to other facilities.[678] This followed reports that NHS Nightingale in London "treated 51 patients" within the first three weeks of opening.[679] On 5 May, official figures revealed that Britain had the worst COVID-19 death toll in Europe, prompting calls for an inquiry into the handling of the pandemic. The death toll in the United Kingdom was nearly 29,427 for those tested positive for the virus. Later, it was calculated at 32,313, after taking the official death count for Scotland and Northern Ireland into account.[680] On 16 April it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses in the UK would be available.[681]


France has been transferring COVID-19 patients from overloaded hospitals to hospitals in other regions via military helicopters, as seen here at Strasbourg Airport.

Although it was originally thought the pandemic reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux, it was later discovered that a person near Paris had tested positive for the virus on 27 December 2019 after retesting old samples.[512][513] A key event in the spread of the disease in the country was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse, which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.[682][683]

On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of all non-essential public places,[684] and on 16 March, French President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement, a policy which was extended at least until 11 May.[685][686][687] As of 23 April, France has reported more than 120,804 confirmed cases, 21,856 deaths, and 42,088 recoveries,[688] ranking fourth in number of confirmed cases.[689] In April, there were riots in some Paris suburbs.[690] On 18 April it was reported that schools in France had to close again after reopening, due to COVID-19 case flare-ups.[691]


Sweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open.[692] Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy which prevents political interference and the agency's policy favored forgoing a lockdown in an attempt to reach herd immunity.[693] The New York Times said that, as of May 2020, the outbreak had been far deadlier there but the economic impact had been reduced as Swedes have continued to go to work, restaurants, and shopping.[692][694] On 19 May, it was reported that the country had in the week of 12–19 May the highest per capita deaths in Europe, 6.25 deaths per million per day.[695]

North America

The first cases in North America were reported in the United States in January 2020. Cases were reported in all North American countries after Saint Kitts and Nevis confirmed a case on 25 March, and in all North American territories after Bonaire confirmed a case on 16 April.[696]

On 26 March 2020, the U.S. became the country with the highest number of confirmed COVID-19 infections, with over 82,000 cases.[697] On 11 April 2020, the U.S. became the country with the highest official death toll for COVID-19, with over 20,000 deaths.[698] As of 15 May 2020 the total cases of COVID-19 were 1,571,908 with 95,764 total deaths.[699]

Canada reported 60,616 cases and 3,842 deaths on 4 May,[700] while Mexico reported 23,471 cases and 2,154 deaths.[701] The Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba are the only Caribbean countries reporting more than 1,000 cases (16,908, 2,507 and 2,092 respectively), while Panama and Honduras led Central America with 14,095 and 5,527 cases, respectively.[702]

United States

Cases of COVID-19 per 10,000 residents by county

On 20 January 2020, the first known case of COVID-19 was confirmed in the Pacific Northwest state of Washington in a man who had returned from Wuhan on 15 January.[703] On 31 January, the Trump administration declared a public health emergency,[704] and restricted entry for travellers from China who were not U.S. citizens.[705]

On 28 January, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced they had developed their own testing kit.[706] Despite this, the United States had a slow start in testing, which obscured the extent of the outbreak.[707][708] Testing was marred by defective test kits produced by the government in February, a lack of federal approval for non-government test kits, and restrictive criteria for people to qualify for a test.[707][708]

By 2 March there were 80 confirmed cases, with half of the cases in California. Florida and New York had declared their first two cases and the state of Washington reported many suspected cases and the first death. Vice President Pence maintained that the threat of the virus spreading throughout the U.S. was small.[709][710][711]

On 6 March, President Trump signed the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, which provided $8.3 billion in emergency funding for federal agencies to respond to the outbreak.[712][713] Corporations encouraged employees to work from home.[714] Sports events and seasons were cancelled.[22]

On 13 March, Trump declared a national emergency, which made federal funds available to respond to the crisis.[715] Beginning on 15 March, many businesses closed or reduced hours[716] and schools across the country were shutting down.[717][718] By 17 March, the epidemic had been confirmed in all fifty states and in the District of Columbia.[719] On 26 March, the United States had more confirmed cases than any other country.[510] U.S. federal health inspectors surveyed 323 hospitals in late March; reporting "severe shortages" of test supplies, "widespread shortages" of personal protective equipment (PPE), and other strained resources due to extended patient stays while awaiting test results.[720]

The hospital ship USNS Comfort arrives in Manhattan.

On 22 April it was reported that two Californians had died from the virus (not, as previously thought, influenza) on 6 and 17 February, three weeks before the first official COVID-19 death in the U.S. had been acknowledged.[514] By 24 April, 889,309 cases had been confirmed and 50,256 people had died.[721] As of 17 May, according to a New York Times database, more than 1,474,600 people had been infected and at least 88,600 had died in the United States. The Times stated that, prior to 29 April, only deaths confirmed through testing were reported, but new criteria include probable cases and deaths. As of 17 May, the U.S., which accounts for about 4.25% of the world's population, had about 29% of the confirmed coronavirus deaths.[722]

The White House has been criticised for downplaying the threat and controlling the messaging by directing health officials and scientists to coordinate public statements and publications related to the virus with the office of Vice-President Mike Pence.[723] On 14 April, President Trump halted funding to the World Health Organization (WHO), saying they had mismanaged the pandemic. He also said the U.S. would not participate in a global effort with the WHO to develop a vaccine and drugs to combat the virus.[724] On 1 May the CDC presented a 17-page report titled "Guidance for Implementing the Opening Up America Again Framework" to the administration. It had been written to provide advice for faith leaders, places of business, and other public places, educators, and state and local officials as they began to reopen. The White House refused to use the report. Trump said he felt the guidelines were too restrictive, commenting "I see the new normal being what it was three months ago. I think we want to go back to where it was."[725][726]

By mid-May reports of new cases began to level off and most states began to open restaurants and other places of business, placing limits to the numbers of people allowed in the establishment at the same time. The head of the NIAID, Anthony Fauci, warned that if caution was not used the rate of infections could rebound and he was particularly concerned about opening the schools in the fall. President Trump expressed surprise and disapproval at Fauci's statements saying, "To me it's not an acceptable answer, especially when it comes to schools."[727] Starting in late May, large-scale protests against police brutality in at least 200 U.S. cities in response to the death of George Floyd raised concerns of a resurgence of the virus due to the close proximity of protesters.[728]

South America

Workers being trained to disinfect buses in Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil, 16 March 2020
The pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo.[729] By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one case.[730]

On April 17, the highest number of cases and deaths was registered in Brazil,[731] followed by Peru and Chile in the number of confirmed cases.[732]

On May 13, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of infection with 23,091 deaths. On May 22, citing especially the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the WHO declared that South America is presently the epicenter of the coronavirus pandemic.[733] As of 25 May, the area had more than 636,000 confirmed cases and more than 31,000 deaths. However, due to a dearth of testing and medical facilities it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers show.[734][735]


On 20 April it was reported that Brazil had a record 1,179 deaths in a single day, for a total of almost 18,000 fatalities. With a total number of almost 272,000 cases, Brazil became the country with the third-highest number of cases, following Russia and the United States.[736] On 25 May, Brazil exceeded the number of reported cases in Russia when they reported that 11,687 new cases had been confirmed over the previous 24 hours, bringing the total number to over 374,800, with more than 23,400 deaths. President Jair Bolsonaro has created a great deal of controversy referring to the virus as a "little flu" and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. His attitude towards the outbreak has so closely matched that of U.S. president Donald Trump he has been called the "Trump of the Tropics".[737]


U.S. Air Force airmen unload a C-17 aircraft carrying approximately 1,800 kg (4,000 lb) of medical supplies in Niamey, Niger 23 April 2020.

According to Michael Yao, WHO's head of emergency operations in Africa, early detection is vital because the continent's health systems "are already overwhelmed by many ongoing disease outbreaks".[738][739] Advisers say that a strategy based on testing could allow African countries to minimise lockdowns that inflict enormous hardship on those who depend on income earned day by day to be able to feed themselves and their families. Even in the best scenario, the United Nations says 74 million test kits and 30,000 ventilators will be needed by the continent's 1.3 billion people in 2020.[740] Most of the reported cases are from six countries: South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Morocco, Egypt and Algeria, but it is believed that there is widespread under-reporting in other African countries with poorer health care systems.[741] Cases have been confirmed in all African countries, with Lesotho the last country to report its first coronavirus case on 13 May 2020.[742] There have been no reported cases in the British Overseas Territories of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.[743]


The pandemic was confirmed to have reached Oceania on 25 January 2020 with the first confirmed case reported in Melbourne, Australia.[744] It has since spread elsewhere in the region,[745] although many small Pacific island nations have thus far avoided the outbreak by closing their international borders. As of 4 June 2020, ten Oceania sovereign states have yet to report a case.

On 19 May 2020, Australia filed a motion with the UN for an inquiry into the origins of the virus, and the response of the UN and governments. More than 100 countries supported this motion, and it was passed unanimously.[746][747]

International responses

Travel restrictions

As a result of the pandemic, many countries and regions imposed quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas,[748] or for all travellers.[749] Together with a decreased willingness to travel, this had a negative economic and social impact on the travel sector. Concerns have been raised over the effectiveness of travel restrictions to contain the spread of COVID-19.[750] A study in Science found that travel restrictions had only modest effects delaying the initial spread of COVID-19, unless combined with infection prevention and control measures to considerably reduce transmissions.[751] Researchers concluded that "travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic" and "restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too late".[752]

The European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone and introducing border controls with Italy,[753][754] a decision which has been criticised by some European politicians.[755][756]

Evacuation of foreign citizens

Ukraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan, China.

Owing to the effective quarantine of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, several countries evacuated their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation, with Chinese authorities providing clearance. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens.[757] Brazil and New Zealand also evacuated their own nationals and some other people.[758][759] On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative for the virus from Wuhan, while four who showed symptoms were left behind to mitigate risk.[760] Pakistan said it would not evacuate citizens from China.[761]

On 15 February, the U.S. announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship Diamond Princess,[762] and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadian passengers from the ship.[763] In early March, the Indian government began evacuating its citizens from Iran.[764][765] On 20 March, the United States began to partially withdraw its troops from Iraq due to the pandemic.[766]

International aid

Aid to China

Some Chinese students at American universities sent aid, including 50,000 N95 masks on 30 January.[767] The humanitarian aid organisation Direct Relief sent 200,000 face masks and other personal protective equipment to the Wuhan Union Hospital the same day.[768] On 5 February, the Chinese foreign ministry said 21 countries (including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran) had sent aid to China,[769] and Bill and Melinda Gates announced a $100 million donation to the WHO to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts and protect "at-risk populations in Africa and South Asia".[770] Interaksyon said the Chinese government had donated 200,000 masks to the Philippines on 6 February after Philippine senator Richard Gordon shipped 3.16 million masks to Wuhan.[771] On 19 February, the Singapore Red Cross announced it would send $2.26 million worth of aid to China.[772]

Several countries donated masks, medical equipment or money to China, including Japan,[773] Turkey, Russia,[774] Malaysia,[775] Germany,[776] and Canada.[777][778] The U.S. State Department said on 7 February it had facilitated the transportation of nearly 17.8 tons of medical supplies to China.[779] The same day, U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo announced a $100 million pledge to China and other countries to aid their fights against the virus,[780] though on 21 March China said it had not received epidemic funding from the U.S. government and reiterated that on 3 April.[citation needed] Several corporations have also donated money or medical equipment to China.[781]

Aid to the world

Medical supplies donated by China being received at Villamor Air Base in the Philippines

After cases in China stabilised, the country began sending aid to other nations.[782] In March, China, Cuba and Russia sent medical supplies and experts to help Italy deal with its coronavirus outbreak;[783][784] China sent three medical teams and donated more than forty tons of medical supplies to Italy.[785] Businessman Jack Ma sent 1.1 million testing kits, 6 million face masks, and 60,000 protective suits to Ethiopia for distribution by the African Union.[786][787] He later sent 5,000 testing kits, 100,000 face masks and 5 ventilators to Panama.[788]

The Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Georgia, and the Czech Republic expressed concerns over Chinese-made masks and test kits.[789] For instance, Spain withdrew 58,000 Chinese-made coronavirus testing kits with an accuracy rate of 30 percent, while the Netherlands recalled 600,000 Chinese face masks which were said to be defective,[790] but China said this was due to misuse.[791] Belgium recalled 100,000 unusable masks, which were thought to be from China but were in fact from Colombia.[792] The Philippines stopped using test kits donated by China due to their 40 percent accuracy.[793] The Chinese government said product instructions might not have been followed, and that some products were not purchased directly from certified companies.[794] Chinese aid was well-received in parts of Latin America and Africa.[795][796] On 2 April, the World Bank launched emergency support operations for developing countries.[797] According to a statement from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey provides the largest amount of humanitarian aid in the world while ranking third worldwide in supplying medical aid.[798][799]

WHO response measures

WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom

Taiwan notified the WHO of a new virus on 31 December 2019.[800] The WHO has commended the Chinese authorities for providing "regular updates", contrasting it to the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak when they were accused of secrecy.[801] The WHO stated on 5 January that cases of pneumonia of unknown cause had been reported,[802] and issued technical briefings on 10 and 11 January warning of risks of human-to-human transmission and urging precautions due to the similarity to earlier SARS and MERS outbreaks.[803] though in public announcements it said there was "no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission" as late as 14 January.[804] On 20 January, the WHO said it was "now very clear" human-to-human transmission of the coronavirus had occurred, given that healthcare workers had been infected.[805] On 27 January, the WHO assessed the risk of the outbreak to be "high at the global level".[806]

On 30 January, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), warning that "all countries should be prepared for containment, including active surveillance, early detection, isolation and case management, contact tracing and prevention of onward spread" of the virus,[7][807] following an increase in cases outside China. This was the sixth-ever PHEIC since the measure was first invoked during the 2009 swine flu pandemic. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom said the PHEIC was due to "the risk of global spread, especially to low- and middle-income countries without robust health systems" but that the WHO did not "recommend limiting trade and movement".[7][808][809]

WHO representatives with Tehran city managers

On 11 February, the WHO established COVID-19 as the name of the disease, and UN Secretary-General António Guterres agreed to provide the "power of the entire UN system in the response". A UN Crisis Management Team was activated, allowing coordination of the entire United Nations, which the WHO stated will allow them to "focus on the health response while the other agencies can bring their expertise to bear on the wider social, economic and developmental implications of the outbreak".[810] On 25 February, the WHO declared "the world should do more to prepare for a possible coronavirus pandemic," stating that while it was too early to call it a pandemic, countries should be "in a phase of preparedness".[811] On 28 February, WHO officials said the coronavirus threat assessment at the global level would be raised from "high" to "very high", its highest level of alert and risk assessment.[812] On 11 March, the WHO declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic.[813] The Director-General said the WHO was "deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction".[8] Critics have said the WHO handled the pandemic inadequately and that the public health emergency declaration and pandemic classification came too late.[814]



"Those who can, put something in; those who can't, help yourself." Bologna, April 2020.
A highway sign on the Gardiner Expressway in Toronto discouraging non-essential travel

The outbreak is a major destabilising threat to the global economy. Agathe Demarais of the Economist Intelligence Unit has forecast that markets will remain volatile until a clearer image emerges on potential outcomes. One estimate from an expert at Washington University in St. Louis gave a $300+ billion impact on the world's supply chain that could last up to two years.[815] Global stock markets fell on 24 February due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside China.[816][817] On 27 February, due to mounting worries about the coronavirus outbreak, U.S. stock indexes posted their sharpest falls since 2008, with the Dow falling 1,191 points (the largest one-day drop since the financial crisis of 2007–08)[818] and all three major indexes ending the week down more than 10 percent.[819] On 28 February, Scope Ratings GmbH affirmed China's sovereign credit rating but maintained a Negative Outlook.[820] Stocks plunged again due to coronavirus fears, the largest fall being on 16 March.[821] Many consider an economic recession likely.[822][823]

Lloyd's of London has estimated that the global insurance industry will absorb losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season and 9/11, suggesting that the COVID-19 pandemic will likely go down in history as the costliest disaster ever in human history.[824]

Tourism is one of the worst affected sectors due to travel bans, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. Numerous airlines have cancelled flights due to lower demand, and British regional airline Flybe collapsed.[825] The cruise line industry was hard hit,[826] and several train stations and ferry ports have also been closed.[827] International mail between some countries stopped or was delayed due to reduced transportation between them or suspension of domestic service.[828]

The retail sector has been impacted globally, with reductions in store hours or temporary closures.[829] Visits to retailers in Europe and Latin America declined by 40 percent. North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 percent drop.[830] This also resulted in a 33–43 percent drop in foot traffic to shopping centres in March compared to February. Shopping mall operators around the world imposed additional measures, such as increased sanitation, installation of thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancellation of events.[831]

Hundreds of millions of jobs could be lost globally.[832][833] More than 40 million Americans lost their jobs and filed unemployment insurance claims.[834] According to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America than would have been in that situation without the pandemic.[835]

Supply shortages

Coronavirus fears have led to panic buying of essentials across the world, including toilet paper, dried and/or instant noodles, bread, rice, vegetables, disinfectant, and rubbing alcohol.

The outbreak has been blamed for several instances of supply shortages, stemming from globally increased usage of equipment to fight outbreaks, panic buying (which in several places led to shelves being cleared of grocery essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to factory and logistic operations.[836] The spread of panic buying has been found to stem from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust). [837] The technology industry, in particular, has warned of delays to shipments of electronic goods.[838] According to the WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment has risen a hundredfold, leading to prices up to twenty times the normal price and also delays in the supply of medical items of four to six months.[839][840] It has also caused a shortage of personal protective equipment worldwide, with the WHO warning that this will endanger health workers.[841]

The impact of the coronavirus outbreak was worldwide. The virus created a shortage of precursors used in the manufacturing of fentanyl and methamphetamine. The Yuancheng Group, located in Wuhan, China, is one of the leading suppliers of these chemical raw materials.[842] Price increases and shortages in these illegal drugs have been noticed on the street of the UK.[843] U.S. law enforcement also told the New York Post Mexican drug cartels were having difficulty in obtaining precursors.[844]

The pandemic has disrupted global food supplies and threatens to trigger a new food crisis.[845][846] David Beasley, head of the World Food Programme (WFP), said "we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few months."[847]

Senior officials at the United Nations estimated in April 2020 that an additional 130 million people could starve, for a total of 265 million by the end of 2020.[848][847][849]

Oil and other energy markets

In early February 2020, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) "scrambled" after a steep decline in oil prices due to lower demand from China.[850] On Monday, 20 April, the price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) went negative and fell to a record low (minus $37.63 a barrel) due to traders' offloading holdings so as not to take delivery and incur storage costs.[851] June prices were down but in the positive range, with a barrel of West Texas trading above $20.[851]


Closed entrance to the Shah Abdol-Azim Shrine in Ray, Iran

The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations' operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. Arts and culture sector organisations attempted to uphold their (often publicly funded) mission to provide access to cultural heritage to the community, maintain the safety of their employees and the public, and support artists where possible. By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed.[852] In response there were intensive efforts to provide alternative services through digital platforms.[853][854][855]

A man wearing purple vestments and standing at an altar uses a mobile phone camera to record himself. Empty pews are visible in the background.
An American Catholic military chaplain prepares for a live-streamed Mass in an empty chapel at Offutt Air Force Base in March 2020.

Holy Week observances in Rome, which occur during the last week of the Christian penitential season of Lent, were cancelled.[854] Many dioceses have recommended older Christians stay home rather than attend Mass on Sundays; services have been made available via radio, online live streaming and television, though some congregations have made provisions for drive-in worship.[856][857][854] With the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rome closing its churches and chapels and St. Peter's Square emptied of Christian pilgrims,[854] other religious bodies also cancelled in-person services and limited public gatherings in churches, mosques, synagogues, temples and gurdwaras.[854] Iran's Health Ministry announced the cancellation of Friday prayers in areas affected by the outbreak and shrines were later closed,[586][593] while Saudi Arabia banned the entry of foreign pilgrims as well as its residents to holy sites in Mecca and Medina.[858][859]

The pandemic has caused the most significant disruption to the worldwide sporting calendar since the Second World War. Most major sporting events have been cancelled or postponed, including the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League,[860] 2019–20 Premier League,[861] UEFA Euro 2020, 2019–20 NBA season,[862] and 2019–20 NHL season.[863] The outbreak disrupted plans for the 2020 Summer Olympics, which were originally scheduled to start at the end of July; the International Olympic Committee announced on 24 March that they will be "rescheduled to a date beyond 2020 but not later than summer 2021".[864][865]

The entertainment industry has also been affected, with many music groups suspending or cancelling concert tours.[866][867] The Eurovision Song Contest, which was due to be held in the Netherlands in May, was postponed until 2021.[868] Many large theatres such as those on Broadway also suspended all performances.[869] Some artists have explored ways to continue to produce and share work over the internet as an alternative to traditional live performance, such as live streaming concerts[870] or creating web-based "festivals" for artists to perform, distribute, and publicise their work.[871] Online, numerous COVID-19-themed Internet memes have spread as many turn to humour and distraction amid uncertainty.[872]


The pandemic has affected the political systems of multiple countries, causing suspensions of legislative activities,[873] isolations or deaths of multiple politicians,[874] and rescheduling of elections due to fears of spreading the virus.[875]


Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping (left) with State Council Premier Li Keqiang

The Chinese government has been criticised by the United States government,[876] UK Minister for the Cabinet Office Michael Gove,[877] and others[878] for its handling of the pandemic. A number of provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine efforts in central China, a sign of discontent with their response to the outbreak. Some commentators believed this move was intended to protect Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping from the controversy.[879] The U.S. intelligence community says China intentionally under-reported its number of coronavirus cases.[880]


In early March, the Italian government criticised the European Union's lack of solidarity with coronavirus-affected Italy[881][882]—Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said "only China responded bilaterally", not the EU.[883] On 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin had the Russian army send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy.[884] President of Lombardy Attilio Fontana and Italian Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio expressed their gratitude for the aid.[885] Russia also sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States.[886] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said "when offering assistance to U.S. colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when U.S. manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessary."[887]

United States

Several hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse 20 April.[888]

The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health.[889][890][891] Political analysts anticipated it may negatively affect Donald Trump's chances of re-election in the 2020 presidential election.[892][893] Beginning in mid-April 2020, there were protests in several U.S. states against government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association.[894]

Other countries

The planned NATO "Defender 2020" military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, will be held on a reduced scale.[895][896] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson criticised the exercise, saying "it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the U.S. and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating."[897]

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson (left, back row) tested positive for COVID-19 in March 2020. Russian President Vladimir Putin (right, back row) began working remotely from his office at Novo-Ogaryovo after meeting with an infected doctor.

The Iranian government has been heavily affected by the virus, with about two dozen parliament members and fifteen current or former political figures infected.[596][898] Iran's President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, saying they were struggling to fight the outbreak due to a lack of access to international markets from the United States sanctions against Iran.[899] Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefire.[900]

Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened due to the pandemic.[901] South Korea criticised Japan's "ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts" after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea would be placed in quarantine for two weeks at government-designated sites.[902] South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon Jae-in's response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions either calling for Moon's impeachment or praising his response.[622]

Some countries have passed emergency legislation in response to the pandemic. Some commentators have expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power.[903][904] In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers during the pandemic.[905] In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow the prime minister, Viktor Orbán, to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament as well as elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the virus and the government's handling of the crisis.[906] In some countries, including Egypt,[907] Turkey,[908] and Thailand,[905] opposition activists and government critics have been arrested for allegedly spreading fake news about the COVID-19 pandemic.[909]


Learners affected by school closures caused by COVID-19 as of 14 May 2020
  Country-wide school closures
  Localized school closures
  No school closures
  No data

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closures of schools, universities and colleges.

Most governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions in an attempt to contain the spread of COVID-19.[910] As of 24 May 2020, approximately 1.725 billion learners are currently affected due to school closures in response to the pandemic. According to UNICEF monitoring, 153 countries are currently implementing nationwide closures and 24 are implementing local closures, impacting about 98.6 percent of the world's student population. 10 countries' schools are currently open.[911]

On 23 March 2020, Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) released a statement announcing the cancellation of Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge O Level, Cambridge International AS & A Level, Cambridge AICE Diploma, and Cambridge Pre-U examinations for the May/June 2020 series across all countries.[912] International Baccalaureate exams have also been cancelled.[913] In addition, Advanced Placement Exams, SAT administrations, and ACT administrations have been moved online and cancelled.

School closures impact not only students, teachers, and families.[914] but have far-reaching economic and societal consequences.[915][916] School closures in response to the pandemic have shed light on various social and economic issues, including student debt,[917] digital learning,[918][919] food insecurity,[920] and homelessness,[921][922] as well as access to childcare,[923] health care,[924] housing,[925] internet,[926] and disability services.[927] The impact was more severe for disadvantaged children and their families, causing interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems, and consequent economic cost to families who could not work.[28][928]

In response to school closures, UNESCO recommended the use of distance learning programmes and open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education.[929]

Other health issues

The pandemic has had many impacts on global health beyond those caused by the COVID-19 disease itself. It has led to a reduction in hospital visits for other reasons. There have been 38 per cent fewer hospital visits for heart attack symptoms in the United States and 40 per cent fewer in Spain.[930] The head of cardiology at the University of Arizona said, "My worry is some of these people are dying at home because they're too scared to go to the hospital."[931] There is also concern that people with strokes and appendicitis are not seeking timely treatment.[931] Shortages of medical supplies have impacted people with various conditions.[932]

In several countries there has been a marked reduction of spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, attributable to COVID-19 quarantines, social distancing measures, and recommendations to not engage in casual sex.[933][934] Similarly, in some places, rates of transmission of influenza and other respiratory viruses significantly decreased during the pandemic.[935][936][937] The pandemic has also negatively impacted mental health globally.[938]

Environment and climate

Images from the NASA Earth Observatory show a stark drop in pollution in Wuhan, China, when comparing NO2 levels in early 2019 (top) and early 2020 (bottom).[939]

The worldwide disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment and the climate. The considerable decline in planned travel[940] has caused many regions to experience a large drop in air pollution. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 25 per cent reduction in carbon emissions[941] and 50 per cent reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions,[942] which one Earth systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000 lives over two months.[943][944]

However, the outbreak has also provided cover for illegal activities such as deforestation of the Amazon rainforest[945][946] and poaching in Africa,[947][948] hindered environmental diplomacy efforts,[949] and created economic fallout that some predict will slow investment in green energy technologies.[950]pandemic

Xenophobia and racism

Since the start of the outbreak, heightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent,[951][952][953] Reports from February (when most cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed in groups worldwide about Chinese people deserving the virus.[954][955][956] Citizens in countries including Malaysia,[957] New Zealand,[958] Singapore,[959] Japan,[960] Vietnam,[961] and South Korea lobbied to ban Chinese people from entering their countries.[962] Chinese people and other Asians in the United Kingdom and United States have reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults.[31][963][964] U.S. president Donald Trump has been criticised for referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus", which critics say is racist and anti-Chinese.[965][966][967]

Houston's Chinatown experienced a reduction in business early during the outbreak when there were still only a few cases.[968]

Following the progression of the outbreak to new hotspot countries, people from Italy (the first country in Europe to experience a serious outbreak of COVID-19) were also subjected to suspicion and xenophobia,[969][970] as were people from hotspots in other countries. Discrimination against Muslims in India escalated after public health authorities identified an Islamic missionary group's gathering in New Delhi in early March 2020 as a source of spread.[971] Paris has seen riots break out over police treatment of ethnic minorities during the coronavirus lockdown.[972] Racism and xenophobia towards South Asians and Southeast Asians increased in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.[973][974][975] South Korea's LGBTQ community was blamed by some for the spread of COVID-19 in Seoul.[976][977]

In China, xenophobia and racism against non-Chinese residents has been inflamed by the pandemic, with foreigners described as "foreign garbage" and targeted for "disposal".[978] Some black people were evicted from their homes by police and told to leave China within 24 hours, due to disinformation that they and other foreigners were spreading the virus.[979] Chinese racism and xenophobia was criticised by foreign governments and diplomatic corps,[980] and China apologised for discriminatory practices such as restaurants excluding black customers,[981] although these and other accusations of harassment, discrimination and eviction of black people in China continued.[982]

Information dissemination

Many newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their coronavirus-related articles and posts,[983] while scientific publishers made scientific papers related to the outbreak available with open access.[984] Some scientists chose to share their results quickly on preprint servers such as bioRxiv.[985]


U.S. president Donald Trump suggested at a press briefing on 23 April that disinfectant injections or exposure to ultraviolet light might help treat COVID-19. There is no evidence that either could be a viable method.[986] (1:05 min)

The pandemic has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease.[987][988][989] False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media,[988][990] text messaging,[991] and mass media,[992] including the tabloid media,[993] conservative media,[994][995] and state media of countries such as China,[996][997] Russia,[998][999] Iran,[1,000] and Turkmenistan.[988][1,001] It has also been spread by state-backed covert operations to generate panic and sow distrust in other countries.[1,002][1,003][1,004] In some countries, such as India,[1,005] Bangladesh,[1,006] and Ethiopia,[1,007] journalists have been arrested for allegedly spreading fake news about the pandemic.[1,008]

Misinformation has been propagated by celebrities, politicians[1,009][1,010] (including heads of state in countries such as the United States,[1,011][1,012] Iran,[1,013] and Brazil[1,014]), and other prominent public figures.[1,015] Commercial scams have claimed to offer at-home tests, supposed preventives, and "miracle" cures.[1,016][1,017] Several religious groups have claimed their faith will protect them from the virus.[1,018][1,019][1,020] Some people have claimed the virus is a bio-weapon accidentally or purposefully leaked from a laboratory,[1,021][1,022] a population control scheme, the result of a spy operation,[989][990][1,023] or the side effect of 5G upgrades to cellular networks.[1,024]

The World Health Organization has declared an "infodemic" of incorrect information about the virus, which poses risks to global health.[988]

See also


  1. ^ In summary, this article is about the coronavirus pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS‑CoV‑2.[1]
  2. ^ a b Cases: This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported.[33] Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between countries.
    The total number of cases may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  3. ^ Close contact is defined as one metre (~3.3 feet) by the WHO[9] and ~1.8 metres (six feet) by the CDC.[10]
  4. ^ An uncovered cough can travel up to 8.2 metres (27 feet).[11]
  5. ^ Locations: Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
  6. ^ Deaths: Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of deaths may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  7. ^ Recoveries: May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of recoveries may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  8. ^ United States
    1. Figures include cases identified on the Grand Princess.
    2. Figures do not include the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands, all of which are listed separately.
    3. Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
    4. Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.[34]
    5. Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.[35][36][37]
    6. Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.[38]
    7. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
    8. There is also one case reported from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base not included in any other nation or territory's counts.[39] Since April 2020, the United States Department of Defense has directed all bases, including Guantanamo Bay, to not publicize case statistics.[38]
  9. ^ Russia
    1. Including cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol.
    2. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance".
  10. ^ United Kingdom
    1. Excluding all British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
    2. As of 23 March 2020, the UK government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 22 March reported 135 recovered patients.[44]
  11. ^ Spain
    1. Excludes serology–confirmed cases.
  12. ^ Germany
    1. Not all state authorities count recoveries.[51]
    2. Recoveries include estimations by the Robert Koch Institute.[51][52]
  13. ^ France
    1. Including overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, and collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
    2. Excluding collectivities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
    3. Recoveries only include hospitalized cases.[57]
    4. Figures for total confirmed cases and total deaths include data from both hospital and nursing home (ESMS: établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux).[57]
  14. ^ Chile
    1. Including the special territory of Easter Island.
    2. On 2 June 2020, the Chilean government decided to not publish the number of recovered patients.
  15. ^ China
    1. Excluding 357 asymptomatic cases under medical observation as of 2 June 2020.
    2. Asymptomatic cases were not reported before 31 March 2020.
    3. Excluding Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
    4. Does not include Taiwan.
  16. ^ Belgium
    1. The number of deaths also includes untested cases and cases in retirement homes that presumably died because of COVID-19, whilst most countries only include deaths of tested cases in hospitals.[66]
  17. ^ Netherlands
    1. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of a) the Netherlands* [the country as opposed to the kingdom; listed here], which in turn includes the Caribbean Netherlands, that are made up of the special municipalities Bonaire*, Saba* and Sint Eustatius*; b) Aruba*; c) Curaçao*; and d) Sint Maarten*. All regions marked with an asterisk are listed separately.
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[69]
  18. ^ Egypt
    1. Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  19. ^ Ukraine
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol. Cases in these territories are included in the Russian total.
    2. Excluding cases from the unrecognized Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
  20. ^ Argentina
    1. Excluding confirmed cases on the claimed territory of the Falkland Islands. Since 11 April, the Argentine Ministry of Health includes them in their official reports.[94]
  21. ^ Israel
    1. Including cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
    2. Excluding cases from the Palestinian National Authority.
  22. ^ a b Diamond Princess and Japan
    1. The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  23. ^ Denmark
    1. The autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are listed separately.
  24. ^ Serbia
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  25. ^ Moldova
    1. Including the disputed territory of Transnistria.
  26. ^ Norway
    1. Estimation of the number of infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[117]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[118]
  27. ^ Morocco
    1. Including cases in the disputed Western Sahara territory controlled by Morocco. There are no confirmed cases in the rest of Western Sahara.[122]
  28. ^ Australia
    1. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  29. ^ Finland
    1. Including the autonomous region of the Åland Islands.
    2. The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease.[125] The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized.[126]
  30. ^ Azerbaijan
    1. Excluding the self-declared state of Artsakh.
  31. ^ DR Congo
  32. ^ Somalia
    1. Excluding the de facto state of Somaliland.
  33. ^ Cuba
    1. Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
    2. Excluding cases from Guantanamo Bay, which is governed by the United States.
  34. ^ a b Guam and USS Theodore Roosevelt
    1. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separately.
  35. ^ Charles de Gaulle
    1. Including cases on the escort frigate Chevalier Paul.
    2. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, reported to the National Assembly's National Defense and Armed Forces Committee [fr] that 2010 sailors of the carrier battle group led by Charles de Gaulle had been tested, with 1081 tests returning positive so far.[185] Many of these cases were aboard Charles de Gaulle, some of the cases were reportedly aboard French frigate Chevalier Paul, and it is unclear if any other ships in the battle group had cases on board.[186][187][188]
  36. ^ Cyprus
  37. ^ a b Greg Mortimer and Uruguay
    1. Although currently anchored off the coast of Uruguay, cases for the Greg Mortimer are currently reported separately. Six have been transferred inland for hospitalization.
  38. ^ Georgia
    1. Excluding the de facto states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  39. ^ a b Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic
    1. Note that these territories are distinct from the Ukraine-administered regions of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
  40. ^ Congo
    1. Also known as the Republic of the Congo and not to be confused with the DR Congo.
  41. ^ Taiwan
    1. Including cases from the ROCS Pan Shi.[218]
  42. ^ Somaliland
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Somalia.
  43. ^ Isle of Man
    1. Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."[226]
  44. ^ Syria
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
  45. ^ Northern Cyprus
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Cyprus.
  46. ^ Artsakh
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Azerbaijan.
  47. ^ South Ossetia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  48. ^ Abkhazia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  49. ^ Saint Vincent
    1. The sovereign state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  50. ^ MS Zaandam
    1. Including cases from MS Rotterdam.
    2. The MS Rotterdam rendezvoused with the Zaandam on 26 March off the coast of Panama City to provide support and evacuate healthy passengers. Both have since docked in Florida.[296][297]
    3. MS Zaandam and Rotterdam's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  51. ^ Coral Princess
    1. The cruise ship Coral Princess has tested positive cases since early April 2020 and has since docked in Miami.[300]
    2. Coral Princess's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  52. ^ HNLMS Dolfijn
    1. All 8 cases currently associated with Dolfijn were reported while the submarine was at sea in the waters between Scotland and the Netherlands.[307]
    2. It is unclear whether the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) is including these cases in their total count, but neither their daily update details nor their daily epidemiological situation reports appear to have mentioned the ship, with a breakdown of cases listing the twelve provinces of the country of the Netherlands (as opposed to the kingdom) accounting for all the cases in the total count.[308][309]
    3. As RIVM does not report recoveries, and militaries are generally less transparent than most government agencies due to operations security concerns, it is assumed that no official report on recoveries is forthcoming.


  1. ^ a b "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization (WHO).
  2. ^ "Coronavirus very likely of animal origin, no sign of lab manipulation: WHO". Reuters. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  3. ^ Lau SK, Luk HK, Wong AC, Li KS, Zhu L, He Z, et al. (April 2020). "Possible Bat Origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2". Emerging Infectious Diseases. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 26 (7). doi:10.3201/eid2607.200092. ISSN 1080-6059. OCLC 1058036512. PMID 32315281. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Novel Coronavirus—China". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  6. ^ Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30183-5. PMC 7159299. PMID 31986264.
  7. ^ a b c "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  8. ^ a b c "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—11 March 2020". World Health Organization. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". World Health Organization. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "How COVID-19 Spreads". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  11. ^ Bourouiba L (March 2020). "Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19". JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4756. PMID 32215590.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Q & A on COVID-19". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  13. ^ Hopkins C. "Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID-19 infection". Ear, Nose and Throat surgery body of United Kingdom. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Symptoms". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 4 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  17. ^ Velavan TP, Meyer CG (March 2020). "The COVID-19 epidemic". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 25 (3): 278–280. doi:10.1111/tmi.13383. PMC 7169770. PMID 32052514.
  18. ^ "Caring for Yourself at Home". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Unite against COVID-19". Unite against COVID-19. Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  20. ^ "Here Comes the Coronavirus Pandemic: Now, after many fire drills, the world may be facing a real fire". Editorial. The New York Times. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  21. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  22. ^ a b "A List of What's Been Canceled Because of the Coronavirus". The New York Times. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  23. ^ Yuen, Kum Fai; Wang, Xueqin; Ma, Fei; Li, Kevin X. (2020). "The psychological causes of panic buying following a health crisis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (10): 3513. doi:10.3390/ijerph17103513. PMID 32443427.
  24. ^ Scipioni, Jade (18 March 2020). "Why there will soon be tons of toilet paper, and what food may be scarce, according to supply chain experts". CNBC. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  25. ^ "The Coronavirus Outbreak Could Disrupt the U.S. Drug Supply". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  26. ^ Watts J, Kommenda N (23 March 2020). "Coronavirus pandemic leading to huge drop in air pollution". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  27. ^ "Analysis: Coronavirus temporarily reduced China's CO2 emissions by a quarter". Carbon Brief. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  28. ^ a b "COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response". UNESCO. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  29. ^ Clamp R (5 March 2020). "Coronavirus and the Black Death: spread of misinformation and xenophobia shows we haven't learned from our past". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  30. ^ Sui C. "China's Racism Is Wrecking Its Success in Africa".
  31. ^ a b Tavernise S, Oppel Jr RA (23 March 2020). "Spit On, Yelled At, Attacked: Chinese-Americans Fear for Their Safety". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  32. ^ a b Kuo L, Davidson H (29 March 2020). "'They see my blue eyes then jump back'—China sees a new wave of xenophobia". The Guardian.
  33. ^ Lau H, Khosrawipour V, Kocbach P, Mikolajczyk A, Ichii H, Schubert J, et al. (March 2020). "Internationally lost COVID-19 cases". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection [Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi]. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.013. PMC 7102572. PMID 32205091.
  34. ^ "Cases in U.S." CDC. 7 May 2020.
  35. ^ CDC (23 April 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  36. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  37. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  38. ^ a b Borunda D. "Coronavirus: Fort Bliss stops releasing numbers of COVID-19 cases after Pentagon order". El Paso Times. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Naval Station Guantanamo Bay Announces Positive COVID-19 Case". Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Public Affairs. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  40. ^ a b c "COVID-19/Coronavirus Real Time Updates With Credible Sources in US and Canada | 1Point3Acres". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  41. ^ "Painel Coronavírus" (in Portuguese). Ministry of Health (Brazil). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  42. ^ "Casos de coronavírus e número de mortes no Brasil em 4 de junho". G1 (in Portuguese). 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  43. ^ Оперативные данные. По состоянию на 04 июня 10:35. Стопкоронавирус.рф (in Russian). 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  44. ^ "Historic data". Public Health England. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  45. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  46. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  47. ^ "El mapa del coronavirus en España: 27.128 muertos y más de 240.000 contagiados". RTVE (in Spanish). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  48. ^ "COVID-19 ITALIA" [COVID-19 ITALY]. (in Italian). Protezione Civile. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  49. ^ "Ministero della Salute – Nuovo coronavirus". (in Italian). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  50. ^ "Home – Ministry of Health and Family Welfare – GOI". Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  51. ^ a b c "Wie sich das Coronavirus in Ihrer Region ausbreitet" [How the coronavirus affects your region] (in German). Zeit Online. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  52. ^ a b "Corona-Karte Deutschland: COVID-19 live in allen Landkreisen und Bundesländern". Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  53. ^ Ministry of Health (Peru). "Sala Situactional COVID-19 Perú" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  54. ^ "Minsa: Casos confirmados por Coronavirus Covid-19 ascienden a 178 914 en el Perú ( Comunicado N° 120)" (in Spanish). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  55. ^ "T.C Sağlık Bakanlığı Günlük Koronavirüs Tablosu, Turkey Ministry of Health Daily Coronavirus Table". (in Turkish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  56. ^ "Official: 59 more Iranians die from COVID-19 over past 24 hours". IRNA English. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  57. ^ a b c "info coronavirus covid-19". (in French). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  58. ^ "Casos confirmados COVID-19". Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  59. ^ "Covid-19 Mexico" (in Spanish). Instituciones del Gobierno de México. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  60. ^ "Datos Abiertos - Dirección General de Epidemiología" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Salud, Gobierno de México.
  61. ^ "Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada". CTV News. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  62. ^ "COVID 19 Dashboard: Saudi Arabia" (in Arabic). Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  63. ^ "COVID-19 Health Advisory Platform by Ministry of National Health Services Regulations and Coordination". Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  64. ^ 截至6月3日24时新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情最新情况 (in Chinese). National Health Commission. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  65. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Ministry of Public Health Qatar. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  66. ^ "Nieuw gemor over Belgische rapportering coronadoden". De Tijd. 20 April 2020.
  67. ^ "Coronavirus COVID-19". (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  68. ^ "করোনা ভাইরাস ইনফো ২০১৯". (in Bengali). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  69. ^ "Coronavirus in the Netherlands: the questions you want answered". Dutch News. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  70. ^ "Actuele informatie over het nieuwe coronavirus (COVID-19)" (in Dutch). RIVM. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  71. ^ "В Беларуси выявлено 45 981 случай коронавируса. Умерли 253 человека". (in Russian). 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  72. ^ "Actualización de casos de coronavirus en Ecuador". Ministerio de Salud Pública. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  73. ^ a b c d "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins CSSE.
  74. ^ "Antal fall av covid-19 i Sverige - data uppdateras 11:30 och siffrorna är tillgängliga 14:00". Public Health Agency of Sweden – Official statistics at arcgis (in Swedish). Retrieved 3 June 2020. Lay summaryAntal fall av covid-19 – Statistik – antal fall covid-19. Data updated daily at 11:30 [CEST]
  75. ^ "COVID-19 Statistics in South Africa". (in e4). Retrieved 3 June 2020.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  76. ^ "Minister Zwelini Mkhize on confirmed Coronavirus Covid-19 cases update on 3 Jun". Department of Health. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  77. ^ "UPDATES ON COVID-19 (CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019) LOCAL SITUATION". Ministry of Health (Singapore). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  78. ^ "407 MORE CASES DISCHARGED, 569 NEW CASES OF COVID-19 INFECTION CONFIRMED". Ministry of Health (Singapore). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  79. ^ "UAE CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATES". UAE's national emergency crisis and disaster management authority. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  80. ^ "Coronavirus en Colombia" (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Salud. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  81. ^ "Ponto de Situação Atual em Portugal" (in Portuguese). Portugal: Ministry of Health. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  82. ^ "Current situation in Switzerland". Federal Office of Public Health. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  83. ^ "Cas d'infection au Sars-CoV-2 en Suisse". Tribune de Genève (in French). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  84. ^ "COVID 19 Updates .::. Home". Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  85. ^ "COVID-19". Ministry of Health (Indonesia). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  86. ^ الصحة: ارتفاع حالات الشفاء من مصابي فيروس كورونا إلى 7350 وخروجهم من مستشفيات العزل والحجر الصحي الصحة: ارتفاع عدد الحالات التي تحولت نتيجة تحاليلها من إيجابية إلى سلبية لفيروس كورونا إلى 8371 حالة. Facebook (in Arabic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  87. ^ Оперативна інформація про поширення коронавірусної інфекції COVID-19. Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  88. ^ "Latest updates on COVID-19 (Coronavirus)". Department of Health (Ireland). 3 June 2020.
  89. ^ RTÉ News [@rtenews] (3 June 2020). "The Chief Medical Officer, Dr Tony Holohan, has said that up to midnight on Sunday 31 May 22,698 people who were diagnosed with Covid-19 have recovered" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  90. ^ Ministerstwo Zdrowia [@MZ_GOV_PL] (4 June 2020). "Mamy 150 nowych i potwierdzonych przypadków zakażenia #koronawirus" (Tweet) (in Polish) – via Twitter.
  91. ^ "COVID-19 Tracker". Department of Health (Philippines). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  92. ^ "COVID 19 PH Official Website". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  93. ^ "Informare COVID -19, Grupul de Comunicare Strategică, 3 iunie 2020, ora 13.00" (in Romanian). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  94. ^ Niebieskikwiat N (12 April 2020). "Coronavirus en Argentina: los casos de las Islas Malvinas se incluirán en el total nacional". Clarín (in Spanish).
  95. ^ "Mapa del coronavirus en Argentina en tiempo real". Página 12 (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  96. ^ "Afghanistan Tracker". TOLOnews. 4 June 2020.
  97. ^ "Homepage". Dominican Today. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  98. ^ נגיף הקורונה - משרד הבריאות [Coronavirus - Ministry of Health] (in Hebrew). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  99. ^ a b 国内感染者1万6395人 死者773人(クルーズ船除く)新型コロナ. (in Japanese). 20 May 2020.
  100. ^ 新型コロナウイルス感染症の現在の状況と厚生労働省の対応について(令和2年6月3日版). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan) (in Japanese). 3 June 2020.
  101. ^ "Bundesministerium für Inneres: Aktuelle Zahlen zum Corona-Virus" (in German). Innenministerium. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  102. ^ "Casos de Coronavirus COVID-19 en Panamá". Ministerio de Salud de la República de Panamá (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  103. ^ "Covid-19 cases in Oman". Ministry of Health. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  104. ^ "Covid-19 Updates". Ministry of Health (Bahrain). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  105. ^ Ситуация с коронавирусом официально. (in Russian). Kazinform. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  106. ^ "Tal og overvågning af COVID-19". Coronavirus/COVID-19 (in Danish). Sundhedsstyrelsen (Danish Health Authority). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  107. ^ "Datos Oficiales". Bolivia Segura (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  108. ^ MOHW. "Coronavirus Disease-19, Republic of Korea".
  109. ^ "COVID-19". Ministry of Health (Serbia). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  110. ^ Հաստատված դեպքերն ըստ օրերի – NCDC Armenia (in Armenian). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  111. ^ "NCDC Covid-19 Page". Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  112. ^ "COVID-19 : Carte épidémiologique" (in French). Ministry of Health, Population, and Hospital Reform (Algeria). Retrieved 3 June 2020.(registration required)
  113. ^ "Algeria COVID-19 Tracker". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  114. ^ "COVID-19 | Onemocnění aktuálně od MZČR" (in Czech). Ministry of Health (Czech Republic). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  115. ^ "COVID-19 în Republica Moldova: situaţia la zi". (in Romanian). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  116. ^ "COVID-19 Updates". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  117. ^ Venli V (23 March 2020). "20.200 personer registrert med korona-diagnose". NRK.
  118. ^ Kristensen M (24 March 2020). "FHI: 23.000 kan være koronasmittet". NRK.
  119. ^ Nilsen AS, Skjetne OL, Sfrintzeris Y, Røset HH, Hunshamar C, Fraser S, Løkkevik O. "Live: Corona-viruset sprer seg i Norge og verden". VG Nett. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  120. ^ "Covid-19 (Latest Updates)". Ministry of Health of Malaysia.
  121. ^ "The daily epidemiological situation of registered infections of the emerging coronavirus in Iraq". Facebook. Ministry of Health of Iraq. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  122. ^ "Regular Updates by MINURSO on Covid-19". United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  123. ^ "Le Portail Officiel du Coronavirus au Maroco". Ministère de la santé (in French). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  124. ^ Ting I, Scott N, Workman M (3 June 2020). "Tracking the coronavirus spread: How your state compares on testing". ABC News. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  125. ^ a b "Tilannekatsaus koronaviruksesta" [Situation report on the coronavirus]. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  126. ^ Särkkä H (1 April 2020). "HUS:n ylilääkäri: Suomessa satoja koronasta parantuneita – vanhimmat yli 80-vuotiaita". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  127. ^ "STATISTIQUES COVID-19". (in French). 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  128. ^ "Point Statistiques Covid 19". Journal du Cameroun (in French). 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  129. ^ "Azərbaycanda cari vəziyyət" (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  130. ^ "Coronavirus" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Salud Pública (Guatemala). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  131. ^ "Mapa y cifras en vivo del Coronavirus en Honduras". Diario La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  132. ^ وزارة الصحَّة الإتحاديَّة. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  133. ^ COVID-19. Дар Тоҷикистон шабонарӯзи гузашта 91 ҳолати нави сироятёбӣ ва як фавт ба қайд гирифта шуд. Khovar (in Tajik). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  134. ^ "RESULTADO DE PRUEBAS PARA COVID-19 EN PUERTO RICO" (in Spanish). Departamento de Salud de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  135. ^ "Coronavirus: COVID-19". Government of Luxembourg. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  136. ^ "Ministere de la Santé de Djibouti". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  137. ^ "Situation du coronavirus en Guinée". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  138. ^ "Coronavirus : Riposte à l'épidémie : Tableau Récapitulatif des dons"" (in French). Ministry of Health and Social Action (Senegal). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  139. ^ "Tájékoztató oldal a koronavírusról Aktualis". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  140. ^ Коронавирусная инфекция (COVID-19) (in Russian). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  141. ^ "Covid19 Info Congo" (in French). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  142. ^ "Ministère de la Santé et de l'Hygiène Publique". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  143. ^ โรคติดเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนา 2019 (COVID-19). Department of Disease Control (Thailand) (in Thai). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  144. ^ covid19 Ελλάδα. Υπουργείο Υγείας (in Greek). 3 June 2020.
  146. ^ "SITUACIÓN NACIONAL". Ministry of Health (El Salvador) (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  147. ^ "Visualisez en temps réel l'évolution du Coronavirus en Haïti". Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  148. ^ "Real-time Coronavirus condition in North Macedonia". (in Macedonian). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  149. ^ "COVID-19 in Bosnia and Herzegovina". Ministry of Civil Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  150. ^ 2585 са случаите на COVID-19, потвърдени у нас [Confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bulgaria] (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Health (Bulgaria). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  151. ^ "Nepal COVID19 Monitor". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  152. ^ "Corona Info- Ministry of Health and Population". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  153. ^ "Službena stranica Vlade". Croatian Institute of Public Health. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  154. ^ @MOH_Kenya (3 June 2020). "COVID-19 UPDATE" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  155. ^ "COVID-19 DASHBOARD, Somalia". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  156. ^ "Infecciones por coronavirus – COVID-19". (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  157. ^ "Venezuela suma dos fallecidos, 47 casos comunitarios de coronavirus y 86 "importados" este #3Jun". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  158. ^ Информации (in Russian). Ministry of Health (Kyrgyz Republic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  159. ^ "Information about Coronavirus disease COVID-19". Estonian Health Board. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  160. ^ "Health Protection Agency Maldives - COVID-19 Statistics Dashboard". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  161. ^ "COVID-19 á Íslandi – Tölfræði". (in Icelandic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  162. ^ "Epidemiology Unit". Ministry of Health (Sri Lanka). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  163. ^ "Relevant information about Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Government of the Republic of Lithuania. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  164. ^ "COVID-19 UPDATE ETHIOPIA". Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  165. ^ "Coronavirus in Slovakia". National Health Information Center. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  166. ^ "Statistični pregled koronavirusa v Sloveniji". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  167. ^ "Coronavirus disease COVID-19". Ministry of Health. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  169. ^ "INÍCIO". INFOCOVID-19 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  170. ^ @SouthSudanGov (16 May 2020). "South Sudan now has a cumulative total of 194 cases with 2 recoveries". Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  171. ^ @WaniMichael57 (2 June 2020). "South Sudan confirms new 188 Covid-19 Cases. Sadly, South Sudan records 2 new deaths". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  172. ^ "Covid 19 de Guinea Ecuatorial". AhoraEG (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  173. ^ الجمهورية اللبنانية – وزارة اﻹعلام – الموقع الرسمي لمتابعة أخبار فيروس الكورونا في لبنان (in Arabic). Lebanese Ministry of Information. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  174. ^ "Coronavirus Albania | Statistika" (in Albanian). Agjencia Kombëtare e Shoqerisë së Informacionit. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  175. ^ Centrafrique, MSP (3 June 2020). "Communiqué de presse". @MSPCentrafrique (in French). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  176. ^ "Situacion Nacional Covid-19" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Salud (Costa Rica). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  177. ^ "COVID-19 – current cases". Ministry of Health (New Zealand). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  178. ^ "Statistikat e fundit" (in Albanian). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  179. ^ "Nicaragua supera los mil casos de Covid-19, según el Minsa". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  180. ^ "U.S. Navy COVID-19 Updates". Navy Live. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in HK". Hong Kong: Department of Health. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  182. ^ "Ministry of Health Zambia". Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  183. ^ "Ministère de la santé وزارة الصحة". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  184. ^ "Sākumlapa | Covid-19". (in Latvian). 4 June 2020.
  185. ^ a b "Florence Parly s'exprime devant les députés de la commission de la Défense nationale et des forces armées". 17 April 2020.
  186. ^ @Armees_Gouv (15 April 2020). "Le 13 avril au soir, tous les éléments du groupe aéronaval ont rejoint leurs bases. ▶️ Une suspicion d'épidémie de #Covid19 à bord a motivé la décision immédiate de @florence_parly d'anticiper son retour alors qu'il avait déjà atteint ses objectifs opérationnels. ➕ d'infos ⤵️" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  187. ^ "Coronavirus : près de 700 marins positifs au Covid-19, la majorité sur le porte-avions Charles de Gaulle". 15 April 2020.
  188. ^ "Twenty sailors hospitalised after Covid-19 hits French aircraft carrier". RFI. 16 April 2020.
  189. ^ "CONTADOR OFICIAL COVID-19 EN PARAGUAY" (in Spanish). Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (Paraguay). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  190. ^ "Évolution du Coronavirus au Niger en temps réel – Coronavirus, Covid19". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  191. ^ "Coronavirus: Six new cases". Cyprus Mail. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  192. ^ "The Ministry of Information and Communication - Sierra Leone". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  193. ^ "COVID-19 UPDATES". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  194. ^ "Situation Covid-19 du 03.06.2020". Ministry of Public Health (Madagascar). 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  195. ^ "Ministère de la Santé - Burkina Faso". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  196. ^ "TABLEAU DE BORD COVID-19" (in French). Ministry of Health (Burkina Faso). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  197. ^ "Actualitat coronavirus". (in Catalan). Govern d'Andorra. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  198. ^ "Visualizador de casos coronavirus COVID-19 en Uruguay". Sistema Nacional de Emergencias (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  199. ^ "Ministère de la Santé Publique du Tchad". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  200. ^ "". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  201. ^ فيروس كورونا المستجد (كوفيد-١٩). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  202. ^ "Status 3 June 2020". Ministry of Health via Facebook (in Arabic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  203. ^ "How lax rules, missed warnings led to Japan's second coronavirus cruise-ship hot spot". Reuters. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  204. ^ "Gruppo coordinamento emergenze sanitarie: aggiornamento 3 giugno 2020". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  205. ^ "Watch: Vulnerable allowed to go out as virus R rate drops below 0.5". Times of Malta. 3 June 2020.
  206. ^ Новости | МИНИСТЕРСТВО ЗДРАВООХРАНЕНИЯ ДОНЕЦКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ. (in Russian). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  207. ^ "Situation épidémiologique au 31 mai 2020". (in French). Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  209. ^ "COVID-19". Ministry of Health & Wellness, Jamaica. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  210. ^ "Covid-19: Tanzania updates will resume after improvements at national laboratory". THECITIZEN (in French). Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  211. ^ "Zanzibar confirms 29 new cases, plus 11 recoveries". (in French). Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  212. ^ "MoH Uganda: COVID-19 Information Portal". Ministry of Health. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  213. ^ "Ministry of Health Uganda". 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  214. ^ "Situação Actual em São Tomé e Príncipe". Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  215. ^ "COVID 19 — Corona Vírus". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  216. ^ فايروس كورونا (COVID-19) في فلسطين [Corona Virus (COVID-19) in Palestine]. (in Arabic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  217. ^ "Coronavirus au Togo" (in French). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  218. ^ 今日無新增病例,累計361人解除隔離.
  219. ^ 今日無新增病例,累計428人解除隔離 (in Chinese). Taiwan Centres for Disease Control. 3 June 2020.
  220. ^ Информация о новой коронавирусной инфекции COVID19 » Министерство здравоохранения Луганской Народной Республики (in Russian). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  221. ^ @YSNECCOVID19 (3 June 2020). آخر إحصائيات انتشار فيروس #كورونا في #اليمن #معا_لمواجهة_كورونا (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  222. ^ "Coronavirus Disease COVID-19". Rwanda Biomedical Centre. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  223. ^ "Ministry of Health | Rwanda". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  224. ^ "Covid 19 National Information Dashboard". Ministry of Health and Population, Malawi. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  225. ^ Cabdi S (2 June 2020). "Somaliland: 26 Kiis oo cusub oo laga helay Covid19". Wargeyska Dawan. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  226. ^ a b "Latest updates". Isle of Man Government. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  227. ^ "Covid19 | Coronavirus Mauritius". covid19. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  228. ^ "TRANG TIN VỀ DỊCH BỆNH VIÊM ĐƯỜNG HÔ HẤP CẤP COVID-19" (in Vietnamese). BỘ Y TẾ (Ministry of Health). Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  229. ^ "Virus korona COVID 19" (in Montenegrin). Government of Montenegro. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  230. ^ "National Public Health Institute of Liberia-NPHIL". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  231. ^ "Início". COVID 19 - Fica Atento. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  232. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) cases". States of Jersey. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  233. ^ Eswatini Government (3 June 2020). "Ministerial Statement: Minister of Health Lizzie Nkosi's #COVID19 update on 03 June 2020". @EswatiniGovern1. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  234. ^ Public Health Services. "COVID-19 Coronavirus – Testing results". St Peter Port. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  235. ^ "Coronavirus (Covid-19)". Gouvernement de la République du Bénin (in French). Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  236. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Surveillance Dashboard (Myanmar)". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  237. ^ "Zimbabwe COVID-19 Cases". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  238. ^ @MoHCCZim (3 June 2020). "COVID-19 Update: As at 03 June 2020, Zimbabwe had 222 confirmed cases, including 29 recoveries and four (4) deaths" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  239. ^ متابعة فايروس كورونا في ليبيا. (in Arabic). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  240. ^ "Corona í Føroyum". Corona í Føroyum. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  241. ^ Д.Нямхүү: Зургаан хүний давтан шинжилгээнээс коронавирус илэрч, батлагдсан тохиолдлын тоо 185 боллоо. (in Mongolian). 1 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  242. ^ "JIC RELEASE NO. 157 - End of Day Results: Two Test Positive for COVID-19 by DPHSS;Governor Signs Executive Order 2020-19;Expanded COVID-19 Testing Offered in the Villages; Updated Hours of Operation for DPHSS Medical Triage Hotline". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  243. ^ "Covid-19 Government Public Notifications". HM Government of Gibraltar. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  244. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Cayman Islands Government. 3 June 2021.
  245. ^ "Ministry of Public Health – Home". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  246. ^ @ngs_ken_iryou (25 April 2020). 令和2年4月25日(土)18時現在、長崎県内の新型コロナウイルス感染症状況 (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  247. ^ "Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)". 1 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  248. ^ "Ministry of Health – pressreleaseCOVID-19". Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  249. ^ "COVID-19 Hub". The Scoop. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  250. ^ "Stop Colvid-19 Comores". Stop (in French). Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  251. ^ "Nearly 130, Including Australians, On Antarctic Cruise Ship Have Coronavirus". 10daily. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  252. ^ "El Sinae confirmó décimo fallecido y 528 casos positivos".
  253. ^ "COVID-19 Tracking System". Ministry of Health of Cambodia.
  254. ^ "Health Ministry: One Coronavirus patients passed away, 4 others recovered". Syrian Arab News Agency. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  255. ^ "COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus)". Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  256. ^ "KKTC Sağlık Bakanlığı". (in Turkish). Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  257. ^ "Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Ministry of Health (Bahamas). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  258. ^ "Casonan di Corona Virus na Aruba pa 29 di Mei 2020". Aruba Covid-19 (in Papiamento and English). Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  259. ^ "CORONAVIRUS – Un nouveau cas positif ce samedi". 30 May 2020.
  260. ^ "COVID-19 Update: No Positives Today". Barbados GIS. 1 June 2020.
  261. ^ "Covid-19: Angola sem casos novos nas últimas 24 horas". (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  262. ^ "Ministerium für Gesellschaft" (in German). Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  263. ^ "Medienmitteilung" (PDF) (in German). 6 May 2020.
  264. ^ "UPDATE on the Coronavirus Disease COVID-19 26 May 2020". Government of Sint Maarten via Facebook. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  265. ^ "COVID-19". COVID SURINAME (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  266. ^ "COVID-19". USVI Department of Health. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  267. ^ Burundi Government [@BurundiGov] (30 May 2020). "#Burundi @mspls_bi annonce dans un communiqué de presse de ce 30 mai 2020 que 13 des 21 anciens patients positifs au #COVIDー19 sont guéris et autorisés à regagner leurs familles ; 21 nouveaux cas positifs au #COVIDー19 sont aussi déclarés" (Tweet) (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2020 – via Twitter.
  268. ^ "La Direction de la santé met à disposition les derniers communiqués et notes d'informations relatifs au Coronavirus Covid-19". Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  269. ^ a b c "Coronavirus live updates | Ban on entering and exiting Tbilisi lifted". OC Media. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  270. ^ "National situational update on COVID-19 as of 1st June 2020". Ministry of Health. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  271. ^ "Special webpage against Epidemics". Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  272. ^ "NEW CONFIRMED CASES". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  273. ^ "Botswana COVID-19 Updates". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  274. ^ "Announcement from the Ministry of Health". Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  275. ^ "Government of Antigua and Barbuda". Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  276. ^ "One More Person Tests Positive For Covid-19" (in Tetum). Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  277. ^ "Seven (7) New COVID Cases". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  278. ^ "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Health Ministry". Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  279. ^ "COVID19 – MINISTRY OF HEALTH". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  280. ^ @nbcnews (1 June 2020). "COVID-19 UPDATE | Minister of Health Dr Kalumbi Shangula said Namibia now has 25 cases with 16 recoveries and nine active cases. He announced the recoveries of cases one and two, the Romanian couple, 79 days since their". Twitter. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  281. ^ "COVID-19: Number of hosi kazu rekuperadu sira increases maka'as sira iha nasaun" (in Tetum). Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  282. ^ "GIS - Government Information Service of Grenada". Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  283. ^ "Covid-19 update 15 may 2020". NOW Grenada. 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  284. ^ "Commonwealth Healthcare Corporation". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  285. ^ "COVID-19 update: "More imported cases registered"". Curaçao Chronicle. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  286. ^ "Un gendarme en quatorzaine est le vingtième cas de Covid-19" (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  287. ^ "ຄະນະສະເພາະກິດເພື່ອປ້ອງກັນ, ຄວບຄຸມ ແລະ ແກ້ໄຂການລະບາດ: ຂອງພະຍາດອັກເສບປອດ ຈາກເຊື້ອຈຸລະໂລກສາຍພັນໃຫມ່ (COVID-19)" (in Lao). Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  288. ^ "Government of Belize Press Office". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  289. ^ N, Edwin; FBCNews. "COVID-19 restrictions to remain in place for now". Fiji Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  290. ^ SAINT LUCIA'S COVID-19 DASHBOARD, Ministry of Health and Wellness, 7 May 2020, retrieved 7 May 2020
  291. ^ "BREAKING NEWS: Saint Lucia records two new cases of COVID-19" (Press release). Saint Lucia News Online. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  292. ^ "Updates - Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  293. ^ "GOVERNMENT OF ST. KITTS AND NEVIS – COVID – 19 UPDATES". Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  294. ^ "COVID-19 Public update 30 April 2020". Falkland Islands Government. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  295. ^ "Coronavirus-ip nutaap siaruarnera malinnaaffigiuk" (in Danish and Kalaallisut).
  296. ^ Hines M, Deerwester J. "Holland America ships caught in COVID-19 pandemic dock in Florida; here's how disembarkation will work". USA TODAY. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  297. ^ "Statement Regarding Zaandam | Holland America Blog". Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  298. ^ "Deal is done: Cruise ship with sick passengers and sister ship will be allowed to dock in Florida". NBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  299. ^ "Indonesian crew member of virus-hit Zaandam cruise ship dies in Florida". South China Morning Post. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  300. ^ Freeman M. "After two deaths on board, Coral Princess cruise ship gets Miami welcome". Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  301. ^ Dolven T (9 April 2020). "Barred from Miami hotels, 13 Coral Princess passengers will stay on ship for 14 more days".
  302. ^ "TCI COVID-19 Dashboard". Ministry of Health, Agriculture, Sports and Human Services. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  303. ^ "Holy See Press Office announces 12th covid-19 case in Vatican". Vatican News. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  304. ^ "NO ACTIVE COVID-19 CASES ON MONTSERRAT". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  305. ^ Laurence D (22 May 2020). "Seychelles is free of COVID-19 after 11th patient tests negative". Seychelles News Agency. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  306. ^ "BVI Reports No Active Cases Of COVID-19". 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  307. ^ a b "Zr.Ms. Dolfijn breekt reis af vanwege corona - Nieuwsbericht -". (in Dutch). 30 March 2020.
  308. ^ "RIVM De zorg voor morgen begint vandaag". (in Dutch).
  309. ^ "Actuele informatie over het nieuwe coronavirus (COVID-19)".
  310. ^ "Data on COVID-19 trasmission in the country not clear". EM TV. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  311. ^ "Two more cases tests positive while two recovers". Twitter. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  312. ^ "Results Negative for COVID-19 in Sudden Death Investigation; All Three Confirmed Cases Now". COVID-19: The Anguillian Response. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  313. ^ "Friday, May 22nd: Address Island Governor Jonathan Johnson – ' 3 positive, 0 active'". Audio message via Saba-News. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  314. ^ "Current figures coronavirus Bonaire". BES-reporter. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  315. ^ "Coronavirus Update (COVID-19) Sint Eustatius May 5th 2020". The Government of Sint Eustatius via Facebook. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  316. ^ "Saint-Pierre et Miquelon : un "porteur sain", premier cas avéré de Covid-19". (in French). Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  317. ^ a b c "Novel Coronavirus". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  318. ^ "27 cases of viral pneumonia reported in central China's Wuhan City". Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  319. ^ a b "Mystery pneumonia virus probed in China". BBC News. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  320. ^ WHO Report (30 January 2020). "Novel Coronavirus(2019-nCoV): Situation Report-10" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  321. ^ "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  322. ^ Sun, Jiumeng; He, Wan-Ting; Wang, Lifang; Lai, Alexander; Ji, Xiang; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Li, Gairu; Suchard, Marc A.; Tian, Jin; Zhou, Jiyong; Veit, Michael; Su, Shuo (2020). "COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 26 (5): 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008. PMC 7118693. PMID 32359479.
  323. ^ a b Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team (February 2020). "[The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China]". Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi = Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi (in Chinese). 41 (2): 145–151. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003. PMID 32064853.
  324. ^ a b Perlman S (February 2020). "Another Decade, Another Coronavirus". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (8): 760–762. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2001126. PMC 7121143. PMID 31978944.
  325. ^ Cyranoski D (March 2020). "Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus". Nature. 579 (7797): 18–19. Bibcode:2020Natur.579...18C. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w. PMID 32127703.
  326. ^ Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z (April 2020). "Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS‑CoV‑2 Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak". Current Biology. 30 (7): 1346–1351.e2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022. PMC 7156161. PMID 32197085.
  327. ^ a b "Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2): increased transmission beyond China—fourth update" (PDF). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 14 February 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  328. ^ "The COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic has a natural origin, scientists say—Scripps Research's analysis of public genome sequence data from SARS‑CoV‑2 and related viruses found no evidence that the virus was made in a laboratory or otherwise engineered". EurekAlert!. Scripps Research Institute. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  329. ^ Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF (April 2020). "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2". Nature Medicine. 26 (4): 450–452. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9. PMC 7095063. PMID 32284615.
  330. ^ Wassenaar, Trudy; Zhou, Y. (May 2020), "2019_nCoV/SARS‐CoV‐2: rapid classification of betacoronaviruses and identification of Traditional Chinese Medicine as potential origin of zoonotic coronaviruses", Letters in Applied Microbiology, 70 (5): 342–348, doi:10.1111/lam.13285, PMC 7165814, PMID 32060933
  331. ^ a b Cohen J (January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb0611.
  332. ^ Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF (February 2020). "A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern". Lancet. 395 (10223): 470–473. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9. PMC 7135038. PMID 31986257.
  333. ^ a b Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (24 January 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. PMC 7159299. PMID 31986264.
  334. ^ Joseph A (24 January 2020). "New coronavirus can cause infections with no symptoms and sicken otherwise healthy people, studies show". Stat. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  335. ^ Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. (February 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". Lancet. 395 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. PMC 7159286. PMID 31986261.
  336. ^ a b Ma J (13 March 2020). "China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  337. ^ Davidson, Helen (13 March 2020). "First Covid-19 case happened in November, China government records show—report". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  338. ^ "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—11 March 2020". World Health Organization. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  339. ^ "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  340. ^ "Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  341. ^ "Total tests for COVID-19 per 1,000 people". Our World in Data. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  342. ^ Sevillano EG, Linde P, Vizoso S (23 March 2020). "640,000 rapid coronavirus tests arrive in Spain". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  343. ^ "Special Report: Italy and South Korea virus outbreaks reveal disparity in deaths and tactics". Reuters. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  344. ^ Li R, Pei S, Chen B, Song Y, Zhang T, Yang W, Shaman J (March 2020). "Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)". Science. 368 (6490): 489–493. doi:10.1126/science.abb3221. PMC 7164387. PMID 32179701.
  345. ^ "Report 13—Estimating the number of infections and the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in 11 European countries". Imperial College London. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  346. ^ Lau H, Khosrawipour V, Kocbach P, Mikolajczyk A, Ichii H, Schubert J, et al. (March 2020). "Internationally lost COVID-19 cases". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 53 (3): 454–458. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.013. PMC 7102572. PMID 32205091.
  347. ^ Streeck H (9 April 2020). "Vorläufiges Ergebnis und Schlussfolgerungen der COVID-19 Case-Cluster-Study (Gemeinde Gangelt)" (PDF). Land NRW—State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  348. ^ Sutton D, Fuchs K, D'Alton M, Goffman D (April 2020). "Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery". The New England Journal of Medicine. 0 (22): 2163–2164. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009316. PMC 7175422. PMID 32283004.
  349. ^ "Dutch study suggests 3% of population may have coronavirus antibodies". Reuters. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  350. ^ Vogel G (21 April 2020). "Antibody surveys suggesting vast undercount of coronavirus infections may be unreliable". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abc3831.
  351. ^ "China: age distribution of novel coronavirus patients 2020". Statista. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  352. ^ Scott D (23 March 2020). "The Covid-19 risks for different age groups, explained". Vox. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  353. ^ Bi, Qifang; Wu, Yongsheng; Mei, Shujiang; Ye, Chenfei; Zou, Xuan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaojian; Wei, Lan; Truelove, Shaun A.; Zhang, Tong; Gao, Wei (27 April 2020). "Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 0. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30287-5. ISSN 1473-3099. PMC 7185944. PMID 32353347.
  354. ^ Ward, Dan (May 2020). "Sampling Bias: Explaining Variations in Age Distributions of COVID-19 Cases". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.27321.19047/2. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  355. ^ "Statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 (n-CoV) on 23 January 2020". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  356. ^ Sanche S, Lin YT, Xu C, Romero-Severson E, Hengartner N, Ke R (April 2020). "High Contagiousness and Rapid Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 26 (7). doi:10.3201/eid2607.200282. PMID 32255761.
  357. ^ Roberts L (8 May 2020). "The importance of the coronavirus R rate in other countries across the globe". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  358. ^ "Novel Coronavirus 2019—Situation Updates". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  359. ^ "Daily confirmed COVID-19 cases". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  360. ^ "Worldwide Coronavirus Statistics". Coronavirus Dashboard. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  361. ^ "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control". Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  362. ^ Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN (May 2020). "The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak". Journal of Autoimmunity. 109: 102433. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433. PMC 7127067. PMID 32113704.
  363. ^ "Coronavirus: Window of opportunity to act, World Health Organization says". BBC News. 5 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  364. ^ "Coronavirus Death Toll Climbs in China, and a Lockdown Widens". The New York Times. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  365. ^ Ramzy A, May T (2 February 2020). "Philippines Reports First Coronavirus Death Outside China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  366. ^ "Coronavirus Live Updates: First Death Outside Asia Reported in France". The New York Times. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  367. ^ "Italy's coronavirus deaths could be underestimated in data: Official". Reuters. 31 March 2020.
  368. ^ "Coronavirus: Is Covid-19 really the cause of all the fatalities in Italy?". Stuff. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  369. ^ a b Wu J, McCann A, Katz J, Peltier E. "28,000 Missing Deaths: Tracking the True Toll of the Coronavirus Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  370. ^ "Tracking covid-19 excess deaths across countries". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  371. ^ "What 'Excess Deaths' Do and Don't Tell Us About COVID-19". Reason. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  372. ^ "Principles of Epidemiology | Lesson 3—Section 3". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 February 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  373. ^ Ward, Dan (2020). "Actions Speak Louder than Age: Explaining Wide Variations in COVID-19 Deaths". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.33339.03363. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  374. ^ Barrio, Pablo Linde, Javier Martín del (11 May 2020). "Portugal and Spain: same peninsula, very different coronavirus impact". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  375. ^ Johnson, Miles (5 April 2020). "Fewer deaths in Veneto offer clues for fight against virus". Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  376. ^ Ritchie H, Roser M (25 March 2020). Chivers T (ed.). "What do we know about the risk of dying from COVID-19?". Our World in Data. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  377. ^ "Why Belgium's Death Rate Is So High: It Counts Lots Of Suspected COVID-19 Cases". NPR. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  378. ^ Lazzerini M, Putoto G (March 2020). "COVID-19 in Italy: momentous decisions and many uncertainties". The Lancet. Global Health. 0 (5): e641–e642. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30110-8. PMC 7104294. PMID 32199072.
  379. ^ "What do we know about the risk of dying from COVID-19?". Our World in Data