COVID-19 pandemic in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in Europe
Persons died due to coronavirus COVID-19 per capita in Europe.svg
Deaths per million residents as of 4 March 2021
COVID-19 outbreak Europe per capita cases map.svg
Cumulative confirmed cases per 100,000 people as of 21 December 2020. The numbers are not comparable, as the testing strategy differs among countries and time periods.
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationEurope
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1]
Index caseBordeaux, France
Arrival date21 January 2020
(1 year, 7 months, 4 weeks and 1 day ago)
Confirmed cases55,070,693
Recovered47,830,555
Deaths
1,168,758
Territories
57

The first case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020.

By 13 March 2020, when the number of reported new cases of COVID-19 became greater than those in China, the World Health Organization (WHO) began to consider Europe the active centre of the COVID-19 pandemic.[2][3] By 22 May 2020, the WHO said that South America was now experiencing a worse outbreak.[4]

By 17 March 2020, all countries within Europe had a confirmed case of COVID-19, with Montenegro being the last European country to report at least one case.[5] At least one death has been reported in all European countries, apart from the Vatican City.

By 18 March 2020, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe.[6]

On 24 May 2020, 68 days since its first recorded case, Montenegro became the first COVID-free country in Europe,[7][8] but this only lasted for 44 days before a newly imported case was identified there.[9] The European countries with the highest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases are the United Kingdom, Russia, France, Spain, and Italy.[10]

Statistics by country and territory[edit]

Summary table of confirmed cases in Europe (as of 16 July 2021)[11][12]
Country/Territory Cases Deaths Recoveries Ref
France 5,829,724 111,413 5,162,757 [13][14]
Turkey 5,500,151 50,367 5,365,075 [15][16]
Russia 5,882,295 146,069 5,278,976 [17]
United Kingdom 5,281,098 128,593 4,380,030 [18]
Italy 4,278,319 127,840 4,109,579 [19]
Spain 4,041,474 81,043 3,654,790 [20]
Germany 3,740,325 91,319 3,637,400 [21][22]
Poland 2,881,151 75,191 2,652,655 [23][24]
Ukraine 2,242,868 52,685 2,179,665 [25]
Czech Republic 1,670,348 30,335 1,637,441 [26]
Netherlands 1,766,102 17,773 1,653,938 [27][28]
Romania 1,081,467 34,245 1,046,610 [29]
Sweden 1,093,923 14,643 no data [30][31]
Belgium 1,100,616 25,207 no data [32][33]
Portugal 920,200 17,187 854,537 [34]
Hungary 808,661 30,013 742,270 [35]
Serbia 718,093 7,078 no data [36]
Switzerland 707,357 10,374 690,083 [37][38]
Austria 648,240 10,520 632,927 [39][40]
Bulgaria 422,703 18,158 397,003 [41]
Slovakia 392,000 12,524 379,136 [42]
Greece 450,512 12,795 412,558 [43][44]
Belarus 431,112 3,297 424,546 [45]
Croatia 361,218 8,233 352,332 [46]
Denmark 303,469 2,540 291,712 [47][48]
Lithuania 279,488 4,404 268,247 [49][50]
Ireland 375,367 5,179 no data [51]
Moldova 257,678 6,217 250,628 [52]
Slovenia 258,044 4,425 252,937 [53][54]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 205,267 9,665 186,872 [55][56]
North Macedonia 156,055 5,487 150,469 [57][58]
Albania 132,629 2,456 130,061 [59]
Latvia 138,041 2,542 134,980 [60][61]
Estonia 131,681 1,271 128,040 [62][63]
Norway 133,802 796 no data [64][65]
Kosovo 107,879 2,268 105,509 [66][67]
Montenegro 100,543 1,621 98,599 [68][69]
Finland 99,212 978 46,000 [70][71]
Cyprus 87,305 383 no data [72][73]
Luxembourg 72,509 819 69,949 [74]
Malta 31,612 420 30,192 [75][76]
Andorra 14,239 127 13,829 [77]
Iceland 6,718 30 6,628 [78]
San Marino 5,094 90 5,002 [79]
Gibraltar 4,486 94 4,266 [80]
Jersey 5,519 69 3,582 [81]
Liechtenstein 3,061 59 2,985 [82][83]
Monaco 2,648 33 2,555 [84]
Isle of Man 1,791 29 1,578 [85]
Guernsey 864 14 833 [86]
Faroe Islands 905 1 779 [87]
Åland Islands 380 0 no data [88]
Holy See 27 0 15 [89]
Total 55,070,693 1,168,758 47,830,555
Weekly diagnosed cases per million inhabitants of COVID-19 in major countries in Western Europe. Displayed on semi-log scale as 3-week average.
This shows the progression of the second phase of the outbreak from July/August.
Weekly Deaths per million inhabitants from COVID-19 in major countries in Western Europe. This shows the distinctly different pattern of deaths in Germany and Sweden.

In late August, 88% of COVID-19 deaths in Europe were among people over age 65, according to a 30 August report from the WHO.[90]

COVID-19 cases in Europe  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMay
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-27 4(n.a.)
2020-01-28 8(+100%)
2020-01-29 10(+25%)
2020-01-30 11(+10%)
2020-01-31 20(+82%)
2020-02-01 23(+15%)
2020-02-02 25(+8.7%)
2020-02-03 27(+8%)
2020-02-04 28(+3.7%)
2020-02-05 28(=)
2020-02-06 29(+3.6%)
2020-02-07 32(+10%)
2020-02-08 37(+16%)
2020-02-09 38(+2.7%)
2020-02-10 43(+13%)
2020-02-11 45(+4.7%)
2020-02-12 46(+2.2%)
2020-02-13 46(=)
2020-02-14 46(=)
2020-02-15 47(+2.2%) 1(n.a.)
2020-02-16 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-17 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-18 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-19 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-20 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-21 64(+36%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-22 106(+66%) 3(+50%)
2020-02-23 199(+88%) 4(+33%)
2020-02-24 277(+39%) 8(+100%)
2020-02-25 382(+38%) 11(+38%)
2020-02-26 541(+42%) 14(+27%)
2020-02-27 805(+49%) 19(+36%)
2020-02-28 1,101(+37%) 23(+21%)
2020-02-29 1,466(+33%) 31(+35%)
2020-03-01 2,203(+50%) 36(+16%)
2020-03-02
2,730(+24%) 55(+53%)
2020-03-03
3,359(+23%) 85(+55%)
2020-03-04
4,340(+29%) 114(+34%)
2020-03-05
5,739(+32%) 160(+40%)
2020-03-06
7,514(+31%) 216(+35%)
2020-03-07
9,651(+28%) 259(+20%)
2020-03-08
12,197(+26%) 411(+59%)
2020-03-09
14,979(+23%) 522(+27%)
2020-03-10
18,494(+23%) 716(+37%)
2020-03-11
23,506(+27%) 959(+34%)
2020-03-12
24,851(+5.7%) 966(+0.73%)
2020-03-13
36,348(+46%) 1,516(+57%)
2020-03-14
46,501(+28%) 1,812(+20%)
2020-03-15
54,865(+18%) 2,295(+27%)
2020-03-16
65,656(+20%) 2,802(+22%)
2020-03-17
76,927(+17%) 3,392(+21%)
2020-03-18
90,513(+18%) 4,011(+18%)
2020-03-19
108,980(+20%) 4,876(+22%)
2020-03-20
129,618(+19%) 6,065(+24%)
2020-03-21
151,525(+17%) 7,497(+24%)
2020-03-22
170,433(+12%) 8,836(+18%)
2020-03-23
194,465(+14%) 10,263(+16%)
2020-03-24
220,645(+13%) 12,139(+18%)
2020-03-25
250,939(+14%) 14,236(+17%)
2020-03-26
286,339(+14%) 16,464(+16%)
2020-03-27
321,506(+12%) 18,833(+14%)
2020-03-28
358,633(+12%) 21,580(+15%)
2020-03-29
386,469(+7.8%) 24,051(+11%)
2020-03-30
422,714(+9.4%) 26,784(+11%)
2020-03-31
462,047(+9.3%) 30,204(+13%)
2020-04-01
501,236(+8.5%) 33,658(+11%)
2020-04-02
541,244(+8.0%) 38,459(+14%[i])
2020-04-03
579,564(+7.1%) 42,491(+10%)
2020-04-04
615,810(+6.3%) 46,545(+9.5%)
2020-04-05
649,701(+5.5%) 49,664(+6.7%)
2020-04-06
679,154(+4.5%) 52,973(+6.7%)
2020-04-07
712,107(+4.9%) 57,966(+9.4%)
2020-04-08
749,358(+5.2%) 61,811(+6.6%)
2020-04-09
786,264(+4.9%) 66,367(+7.4%)
2020-04-10
829,826(+5.5%) 70,915(+6.9%)
2020-04-11
867,006(+4.5%) 74,470(+5%)
2020-04-12
899,943(+3.8%) 77,851(+4.5%)
2020-04-13
927,621(+3.1%) 81,013(+4.1%)
2020-04-14
960,852(+3.6%) 84,724(+4.6%)
2020-04-15
994,391(+3.5%) 89,394(+5.5%)
2020-04-16
1,030,500(+3.6%) 93,570(+4.7%)
2020-04-17
1,065,012(+3.3%) 97,459(+4.2%)
2020-04-18
1,099,626(+3.3%) 101,078(+3.7%)
2020-04-19
1,132,826(+3%) 103,931(+2.8%)
2020-04-20
1,163,340(+2.7%) 106,466(+2.4%)
2020-04-21
1,194,863(+2.7%) 110,098(+3.4%)
2020-04-22
1,225,549(+2.6%) 113,486(+3.1%)
2020-04-23
1,254,649(+2.4%) 116,504(+2.7%)
2020-04-24
1,275,321(+1.6%) 119,842(+2.9%)
2020-04-25
1,303,974(+2.2%) 122,740(+2.4%)
2020-04-26
1,329,187(+1.9%) 124,600(+1.5%)
2020-04-27
1,351,924(+1.7%) 126,755(+1.7%)
2020-04-28
1,375,029(+1.7%) 129,239(+2%)
2020-04-29
1,401,006(+1.9%) 135,871(+5.1%)
2020-04-30
1,427,457(+1.9%) 138,269(+1.8%)
2020-05-01
1,455,189(+1.9%) 140,326(+1.5%)
2020-05-02
1,479,631(+1.7%) 142,135(+1.3%)
2020-05-03
1,506,199(+1.8%) 143,784(+1.2%)
2020-05-04
1,530,263(+1.6%) 145,522(+1.2%)
2020-05-05
1,555,165(+1.6%) 147,597(+1.4%)
2020-05-06
1,586,711(+2%) 150,193(+1.8%)
2020-05-07
1,615,829(+1.8%) 152,080(+1.3%)
2020-05-08
1,642,659(+1.7%) 154,137(+1.4%)
2020-05-09
1,665,991(+1.4%) 155,299(+0.75%)
2020-05-10
1,689,705(+1.4%) 156,493(+0.77%)
2020-05-11
1,714,993(+1.5%) 157,738(+0.8%)
2020-05-12
1,738,539(+1.4%) 159,620(+1.2%)
2020-05-13
1,759,901(+1.2%) 161,115(+0.94%)
2020-05-14
1,782,396(+1.3%) 162,793(+1%)
2020-05-15
1,805,712(+1.3%) 164,308(+0.93%)
2020-05-16
1,826,985(+1.2%) 165,658(+0.82%)
2020-05-17
1,846,704(+1.1%) 166,784(+0.68%)
2020-05-18
1,864,700(+0.97%) 167,650(+0.52%)
2020-05-19
1,883,325(+1%) 168,856(+0.72%)
2020-05-20
1,899,491(+0.86%) 169,871(+0.6%)
2020-05-21
1,917,867(+0.97%) 170,925(+0.62%)
2020-05-22
1,938,904(+1.1%) 172,474(+0.91%)
2020-05-23
1,957,316(+0.95%) 173,452(+0.57%)
2020-05-24
1,974,880(+0.9%) 174,073(+0.36%)
2020-05-25
1,990,094(+0.77%) 172,739(−0.77%)
2020-05-26
2,009,554(+0.98%) 173,850(+0.64%)
2020-05-27
2,025,815(+0.81%) 174,934(+0.62%)
2020-05-28
2,047,457(+1.1%) 175,906(+0.56%)
2020-05-29
2,065,761(+0.89%) 176,908(+0.57%)
2020-05-30
2,084,121(+0.89%) 177,703(+0.45%)
2020-05-31
2,100,581(+0.79%) 178,179(+0.27%)
2020-06-01
2,111,480(+0.52%) 178,389(+0.12%)
2020-06-02
2,130,499(+0.9%) 180,008(+0.91%)
2020-06-03
2,148,448(+0.84%) 180,935(+0.51%)
2020-06-04
2,166,200(+0.83%) 181,594(+0.36%)
2020-06-05
2,184,075(+0.83%) 182,479(+0.49%)
2020-06-06
2,201,763(+0.81%) 183,130(+0.36%)
2020-06-07
2,218,429(+0.76%) 183,522(+0.21%)
2020-06-08
2,234,346(+0.72%) 183,958(+0.24%)
2020-06-09
2,250,942(+0.74%) 184,792(+0.45%)
2020-06-10
2,266,676(+0.7%) 185,572(+0.42%)
2020-06-11
2,284,256(+0.78%) 186,118(+0.29%)
2020-06-12
2,302,933(+0.82%) 186,738(+0.33%)
2020-06-13
2,320,965(+0.78%) 187,275(+0.29%)
2020-06-14
2,338,318(+0.75%) 187,582(+0.16%)
2020-06-15
2,353,967(+0.67%) 187,939(+0.19%)
2020-06-16
2,370,724(+0.71%) 188,693(+0.4%)
2020-06-17
2,388,681(+0.76%) 189,423(+0.39%)
2020-06-18
2,406,292(+0.74%) 190,026(+0.32%)
2020-06-19
2,422,316(+0.67%) 191,743(+0.9%)
2020-06-20
2,438,171(+0.65%) 192,228(+0.25%)
2020-06-21
2,452,759(+0.6%) 192,490(+0.14%)
2020-06-22
2,470,479(+0.72%) 192,810(+0.17%)
2020-06-23
2,487,150(+0.67%) 193,526(+0.37%)
2020-06-24
2,503,307(+0.65%) 194,009(+0.25%)
2020-06-25
2,519,914(+0.66%) 194,452(+0.23%)
2020-06-26
2,536,204(+0.65%) 195,047(+0.31%)
2020-06-27
2,552,033(+0.62%) 195,477(+0.22%)
2020-06-28
2,565,494(+0.53%) 195,740(+0.13%)
2020-06-29
2,582,958(+0.68%) 196,069(+0.17%)
2020-06-30
2,597,425(+0.56%) 196,609(+0.28%)
2020-07-01
2,612,967(+0.6%) 197,201(+0.3%)
2020-07-02
2,628,067(+0.58%) 197,586(+0.2%)
2020-07-03
2,613,500(−0.55%) 198,198(+0.31%)
2020-07-04
2,626,669(+0.5%) 198,580(+0.19%)
2020-07-05
2,639,197(+0.48%) 198,854(+0.14%)
2020-07-06
2,655,867(+0.63%) 199,170(+0.16%)
2020-07-07
2,669,036(+0.5%) 199,760(+0.3%)
2020-07-08
2,684,001(+0.56%) 200,288(+0.26%)
2020-07-09
2,698,841(+0.55%) 200,746(+0.23%)
2020-07-10
2,714,637(+0.59%) 201,169(+0.21%)
2020-07-11
2,728,679(+0.52%) 201,660(+0.24%)
2020-07-12
2,741,585(+0.47%) 201,914(+0.13%)
2020-07-13
2,758,022(+0.6%) 202,180(+0.13%)
2020-07-14
2,771,605(+0.49%) 202,661(+0.24%)
2020-07-15
2,787,359(+0.57%) 203,159(+0.25%)
2020-07-16
2,803,113(+0.57%) 203,589(+0.21%)
2020-07-17
2,819,733(+0.59%) 204,050(+0.23%)
2020-07-18
2,834,508(+0.52%) 204,363(+0.15%)
2020-07-19
2,847,548(+0.46%) 204,589(+0.11%)
2020-07-20
2,864,817(+0.61%) 204,823(+0.11%)
2020-07-21
2,880,748(+0.56%) 205,258(+0.21%)
2020-07-22
2,898,528(+0.62%) 205,698(+0.21%)
2020-07-23
2,917,126(+0.64%) 206,090(+0.19%)
2020-07-24
2,935,264(+0.62%) 206,547(+0.22%)
2020-07-25
2,949,475(+0.48%) 206,885(+0.16%)
2020-07-26
2,963,550(+0.48%) 202,445(−2.1%)
2020-07-27
2,977,870(+0.48%) 202,674(+0.11%)
2020-07-28
3,002,466(+0.83%) 203,011(+0.17%)
2020-07-29
3,020,256(+0.59%) 203,425(+0.2%)
2020-07-30
3,040,846(+0.68%) 203,757(+0.16%)
2020-07-31
3,063,319(+0.74%) 204,154(+0.19%)
2020-08-01
3,078,282(+0.49%) 204,400(+0.12%)
2020-08-02
3,092,739(+0.47%) 204,648(+0.12%)
2020-08-03
3,115,449(+0.73%) 204,878(+0.11%)
2020-08-04
3,138,862(+0.75%) 205,323(+0.22%)
2020-08-05
3,156,747(+0.57%) 205,688(+0.18%)
2020-08-06
3,182,883(+0.83%) 206,030(+0.17%)
2020-08-07
3,209,248(+0.83%) 206,370(+0.17%)
2020-08-08
3,225,109(+0.49%) 206,666(+0.14%)
2020-08-09
3,239,497(+0.45%) 206,874(+0.1%)
2020-08-10
3,268,865(+0.91%) 207,221(+0.17%)
2020-08-11
3,287,140(+0.56%) 207,558(+0.16%)
2020-08-12
3,313,751(+0.81%) 207,917(+0.17%)
2020-08-13
3,338,986(+0.76%) 208,330(+0.2%)
2020-08-14
3,367,976(+0.87%) 208,689(+0.17%)
2020-08-15
3,391,697(+0.7%) 209,157(+0.22%)
2020-08-16
3,407,029(+0.45%) 209,371(+0.1%)
2020-08-17
3,441,579(+1%) 209,634(+0.13%)
2020-08-18
3,464,111(+0.65%) 209,978(+0.16%)
2020-08-19
3,489,057(+0.72%) 210,439(+0.22%)
2020-08-20
3,515,608(+0.76%) 210,782(+0.16%)
2020-08-21
3,559,563(+1.3%) 211,218(+0.21%)
2020-08-22
3,573,804(+0.4%) 211,425(+0.1%)
2020-08-23
3,599,059(+0.71%) 211,785(+0.17%)
2020-08-24
3,642,767(+1.2%) 212,052(+0.13%)
2020-08-25
3,670,364(+0.76%) 212,475(+0.2%)
2020-08-26
3,702,616(+0.88%) 212,766(+0.14%)
2020-08-27
3,735,680(+0.89%) 213,166(+0.19%)
2020-08-28
3,773,176(+1%) 213,533(+0.17%)
2020-08-29
3,791,345(+0.48%) 213,847(+0.15%)
2020-08-30
3,820,332(+0.76%) 214,085(+0.11%)
2020-08-31
3,864,980(+1.2%) 214,458(+0.17%)
2020-09-01
3,894,412(+0.76%) 214,948(+0.23%)
2020-09-02
3,931,322(+0.95%) 215,393(+0.21%)
2020-09-03
3,969,364(+0.97%) 215,826(+0.2%)
2020-09-04
4,012,412(+1.1%) 216,350(+0.24%)
2020-09-05
4,043,698(+0.78%) 216,733(+0.18%)
2020-09-06
4,071,958(+0.7%) 216,988(+0.12%)
2020-09-07
4,124,287(+1.3%) 217,377(+0.18%)
2020-09-08
4,162,432(+0.92%) 217,884(+0.23%)
2020-09-09
4,204,995(+1%) 218,349(+0.21%)
2020-09-10
4,251,547(+1.1%) 218,820(+0.22%)
2020-09-11
4,302,034(+1.2%) 219,279(+0.21%)
2020-09-12
4,340,491(+0.89%) 219,651(+0.17%)
2020-09-13
4,372,617(+0.74%) 219,960(+0.14%)
2020-09-14
4,429,574(+1.3%) 220,392(+0.2%)
2020-09-15
4,475,087(+1%) 221,088(+0.32%)
2020-09-16
4,526,342(+1.1%) 221,843(+0.34%)
2020-09-17
4,581,814(+1.2%) 222,516(+0.3%)
2020-09-18
4,645,063(+1.4%) 223,236(+0.32%)
2020-09-19
4,691,757(+1%) 223,699(+0.21%)
2020-09-20
4,731,528(+0.85%) 224,042(+0.15%)
2020-09-21
4,799,510(+1.4%) 224,596(+0.25%)
2020-09-22
4,852,930(+1.1%) 225,467(+0.39%)
2020-09-23
4,915,927(+1.3%) 226,166(+0.31%)
2020-09-24
4,982,562(+1.4%) 226,853(+0.3%)
2020-09-25
5,053,940(+1.4%) 227,607(+0.33%)
2020-09-26
5,108,764(+1.1%) 228,243(+0.28%)
2020-09-27
5,154,882(+0.9%) 228,632(+0.17%)
2020-09-28
5,221,543(+1.3%) 229,241(+0.27%)
2020-09-29
5,274,006(+1%) 229,970(+0.32%)
2020-09-30
5,352,797(+1.5%) 231,016(+0.45%)
2020-10-01
5,424,240(+1.3%) 231,852(+0.36%)
2020-10-02
5,501,014(+1.4%) 232,733(+0.38%)
2020-10-03
5,575,396(+1.4%) 233,382(+0.28%)
2020-10-04
5,629,274(+0.97%) 233,860(+0.2%)
2020-10-05
5,731,882(+1.8%) 234,548(+0.29%)
2020-10-06
5,820,298(+1.5%) 235,645(+0.47%)
2020-10-07
5,918,833(+1.7%) 236,608(+0.41%)
2020-10-08
6,033,431(+1.9%) 237,710(+0.47%)
2020-10-09
6,150,852(+1.9%) 238,811(+0.46%)
2020-10-10
6,262,129(+1.8%) 239,640(+0.35%)
2020-10-11
6,355,373(+1.5%) 240,338(+0.29%)
2020-10-12
6,468,362(+1.8%) 241,250(+0.38%)
2020-10-13
6,576,135(+1.7%) 242,473(+0.51%)
2020-10-14
6,718,625(+2.2%) 243,866(+0.57%)
2020-10-15
6,875,327(+2.3%) 245,204(+0.55%)
2020-10-16
7,033,265(+2.3%) 246,730(+0.62%)
2020-10-17
7,180,020(+2.1%) 247,906(+0.48%)
2020-10-18
7,319,469(+1.9%) 248,852(+0.38%)
2020-10-19
7,482,878(+2.2%) 250,147(+0.52%)
2020-10-20
7,641,573(+2.1%) 252,010(+0.74%)
2020-10-21
7,838,088(+2.6%) 253,703(+0.67%)
2020-10-22
8,057,689(+2.8%) 255,585(+0.74%)
2020-10-23
8,293,581(+2.9%) 257,636(+0.8%)
2020-10-24
8,504,378(+2.5%) 259,338(+0.66%)
2020-10-25
8,708,875(+2.4%) 260,716(+0.53%)
2020-10-26
8,947,904(+2.7%) 262,560(+0.71%)
2020-10-27
9,177,843(+2.6%) 265,429(+1.1%)
2020-10-28
9,431,247(+2.8%) 267,989(+0.96%)
2020-10-29
9,715,150(+3%) 270,653(+0.99%)
2020-10-30
10,020,353(+3.1%) 273,737(+1.1%)
2020-10-31
10,260,174(+2.4%) 276,272(+0.93%)
2020-11-01
10,487,891(+2.2%) 278,248(+0.72%)
2020-11-02
10,774,558(+2.7%) 280,933(+0.96%)
2020-11-03
11,006,482(+2.2%) 284,912(+1.4%)
2020-11-04
11,319,526(+2.8%) 290,212(+1.9%)
2020-11-05
11,643,378(+2.9%) 293,694(+1.2%)
2020-11-06
11,970,927(+2.8%) 298,529(+1.6%)
2020-11-07
12,282,242(+2.6%) 301,763(+1.1%)
2020-11-08
12,506,719(+1.8%) 304,283(+0.84%)
2020-11-09
12,763,840(+2.1%) 307,795(+1.2%)
2020-11-10
13,000,536(+1.9%) 312,827(+1.6%)
2020-11-11
13,295,788(+2.3%) 318,192(+1.7%)
2020-11-12
13,595,981(+2.3%) 322,685(+1.4%)
2020-11-13
13,885,382(+2.1%) 327,510(+1.5%)
2020-11-14
14,134,976(+1.8%) 331,411(+1.2%)
2020-11-15
14,351,371(+1.5%) 334,445(+0.92%)
2020-11-16
14,578,418(+1.6%) 338,316(+1.2%)
2020-11-17
14,854,448(+1.9%) 344,295(+1.8%)
2020-11-18
15,117,085(+1.8%) 349,735(+1.6%)
2020-11-19
15,392,136(+1.8%) 354,734(+1.4%)
2020-11-20
15,665,634(+1.8%) 360,646(+1.7%)
2020-11-21
15,897,316(+1.5%) 364,720(+1.1%)
2020-11-22
16,087,357(+1.2%) 368,109(+0.93%)
2020-11-23
16,281,488(+1.2%) 372,331(+1.1%)
2020-11-24
16,512,773(+1.4%) 378,916(+1.8%)
2020-11-25
16,748,309(+1.4%) 384,597(+1.5%)
2020-11-26
17,022,020(+1.6%) 390,075(+1.4%)
2020-11-27
17,302,743(+1.6%) 396,346(+1.6%)
2020-11-28
17,525,892(+1.3%) 400,689(+1.1%)
2020-11-29
17,718,224(+1.1%) 404,084(+0.85%)
2020-11-30
17,910,211(+1.1%) 408,310(+1%)
2020-12-01
18,130,566(+1.2%) 414,738(+1.6%)
2020-12-02
18,368,980(+1.3%) 420,373(+1.4%)
2020-12-03
18,623,451(+1.4%) 426,038(+1.3%)
2020-12-04
18,884,077(+1.4%) 431,973(+1.4%)
2020-12-05
19,109,466(+1.2%) 436,394(+1%)
2020-12-06
19,305,295(+1%) 439,790(+0.78%)
2020-12-07
19,497,629(+1%) 443,757(+0.9%)
2020-12-08
19,717,451(+1.1%) 449,640(+1.3%)
2020-12-09
19,960,515(+1.2%) 454,995(+1.2%)
2020-12-10
20,225,306(+1.3%) 460,740(+1.3%)
2020-12-11
20,461,038(+1.2%) 466,485(+1.2%)
2020-12-12
21,513,915(+5.1%) 471,372(+1%)
2020-12-13
21,713,785(+0.93%) 474,650(+0.7%)
2020-12-14
21,912,747(+0.92%) 478,794(+0.87%)
2020-12-15
22,146,774(+1.1%) 485,433(+1.4%)
2020-12-16
22,414,759(+1.2%) 491,496(+1.2%)
2020-12-17
22,697,378(+1.3%) 497,236(+1.2%)
2020-12-18
22,967,134(+1.2%) 503,169(+1.2%)
2020-12-19
23,193,684(+0.99%) 507,836(+0.93%)
2020-12-20
23,396,143(+0.87%) 511,058(+0.63%)
2020-12-21
23,601,606(+0.88%) 515,351(+0.84%)
2020-12-22
23,844,166(+1%) 521,864(+1.3%)
2020-12-23
24,108,356(+1.1%) 527,713(+1.1%)
2020-12-24
24,377,883(+1.1%) 532,612(+0.93%)
2020-12-25
24,590,354(+0.87%) 536,393(+0.71%)
2020-12-26
24,746,180(+0.63%) 539,347(+0.55%)
2020-12-27
24,895,749(+0.6%) 542,456(+0.58%)
2020-12-28
25,082,486(+0.75%) 546,848(+0.81%)
2020-12-29
25,340,231(+1%) 553,532(+1.2%)
2020-12-30
25,633,266(+1.2%) 560,181(+1.2%)
2020-12-31
25,923,291(+1.1%) 565,559(+0.96%)
2021-01-01
26,158,553(+0.91%) 569,646(+0.72%)
2021-01-02
26,330,483(+0.66%) 572,644(+0.53%)
2021-01-03
26,508,490(+0.68%) 575,739(+0.54%)
2021-01-04
26,724,767(+0.82%) 580,398(+0.81%)
2021-01-05
27,013,356(+1.1%) 587,288(+1.2%)
2021-01-06
27,295,096(+1%) 593,051(+0.98%)
2021-01-07
27,612,462(+1.2%) 598,845(+0.98%)
2021-01-08
27,905,608(+1.1%) 605,169(+1.1%)
2021-01-09
28,139,555(+0.84%) 609,717(+0.75%)
2021-01-10
28,345,649(+0.73%) 613,024(+0.54%)
2021-01-11
28,568,473(+0.79%) 617,384(+0.71%)
2021-01-12
28,803,590(+0.82%) 624,503(+1.2%)
2021-01-13
29,074,418(+0.94%) 631,091(+1.1%)
2021-01-14
29,340,749(+0.92%) 637,381(+1%)
2021-01-15
29,605,704(+0.9%) 643,694(+0.99%)
2021-01-16
29,799,044(+0.65%) 648,564(+0.76%)
2021-01-17
29,961,772(+0.55%) 651,757(+0.49%)
2021-01-18
30,177,294(+0.72%) 656,223(+0.69%)
2021-01-19
30,385,603(+0.69%) 663,662(+1.1%)
2021-01-20
30,630,707(+0.81%) 670,819(+1.1%)
2021-01-21
30,873,015(+0.79%) 676,946(+0.91%)
2021-01-22
31,108,992(+0.76%) 683,402(+0.95%)
2021-01-23
31,284,380(+0.56%) 688,283(+0.71%)
2021-01-24
31,428,831(+0.46%) 691,340(+0.44%)
2021-01-25
31,629,989(+0.64%) 695,991(+0.67%)
2021-01-26
31,815,510(+0.59%) 703,188(+1%)
2021-01-27
32,038,270(+0.7%) 709,946(+0.96%)
2021-01-28
32,256,545(+0.68%) 715,939(+0.84%)
2021-01-29
32,466,233(+0.65%) 722,231(+0.88%)
2021-01-30
32,622,002(+0.48%) 726,723(+0.62%)
2021-01-31
32,751,428(+0.4%) 729,667(+0.41%)
2021-02-01
32,930,926(+0.55%) 734,066(+0.6%)
2021-02-02
33,097,473(+0.51%) 740,906(+0.93%)
2021-02-03
33,290,676(+0.58%) 747,029(+0.83%)
2021-02-04
33,481,599(+0.57%) 752,465(+0.73%)
2021-02-05
33,662,663(+0.54%) 758,155(+0.76%)
2021-02-06
33,801,847(+0.41%) 761,889(+0.49%)
2021-02-07
33,918,379(+0.34%) 764,403(+0.33%)
2021-02-08
34,052,264(+0.39%) 768,362(+0.52%)
2021-02-09
34,188,894(+0.4%) 774,464(+0.79%)
2021-02-10
34,352,873(+0.48%) 779,815(+0.69%)
2021-02-11
34,514,521(+0.47%) 784,615(+0.62%)
2021-02-12
34,669,907(+0.45%) 789,386(+0.61%)
2021-02-13
34,798,798(+0.37%) 792,635(+0.41%)
2021-02-14
34,897,757(+0.28%) 794,662(+0.26%)
2021-02-15
35,011,518(+0.33%) 798,226(+0.45%)
2021-02-16
35,139,591(+0.37%) 802,994(+0.6%)
2021-02-17
35,295,558(+0.44%) 807,450(+0.55%)
2021-02-18
35,457,605(+0.46%) 811,432(+0.49%)
2021-02-19
35,618,631(+0.45%) 815,653(+0.52%)
2021-02-20
35,756,997(+0.39%) 818,361(+0.33%)
2021-02-21
35,876,365(+0.33%) 820,290(+0.24%)
2021-02-22
35,987,143(+0.31%) 823,156(+0.35%)
2021-02-23
36,129,767(+0.4%) 827,403(+0.52%)
2021-02-24
36,310,345(+0.5%) 831,206(+0.46%)
2021-02-25
36,488,822(+0.49%) 834,666(+0.42%)
2021-02-26
36,664,715(+0.48%) 838,353(+0.44%)
2021-02-27
36,819,426(+0.42%) 841,046(+0.32%)
2021-02-28
36,948,091(+0.35%) 842,912(+0.22%)
2021-03-01
37,057,455(+0.3%) 845,597(+0.32%)
2021-03-02
37,216,484(+0.43%) 849,529(+0.46%)
2021-03-03
37,324,295(+0.29%) 853,609(+0.48%)
2021-03-04
37,510,530(+0.5%) 856,944(+0.39%)
2021-03-05
37,696,198(+0.49%) 860,826(+0.45%)
2021-03-06
37,864,631(+0.45%) 863,380(+0.3%)
2021-03-07
38,005,557(+0.37%) 865,215(+0.21%)
2021-03-08
38,118,074(+0.3%) 867,910(+0.31%)
2021-03-09
38,282,418(+0.43%) 871,476(+0.41%)
2021-03-10
38,488,574(+0.54%) 875,266(+0.43%)
2021-03-11
38,694,213(+0.53%) 878,760(+0.4%)
2021-03-12
38,895,300(+0.52%) 882,178(+0.39%)
2021-03-13
39,095,193(+0.51%) 884,987(+0.32%)
2021-03-14
39,257,544(+0.42%) 886,969(+0.22%)
2021-03-15
39,392,537(+0.34%) 889,718(+0.31%)
2021-03-16
39,585,561(+0.49%) 893,641(+0.44%)
2021-03-17
39,820,367(+0.59%) 897,353(+0.42%)
2021-03-18
40,060,992(+0.6%) 900,786(+0.38%)
2021-03-19
40,294,646(+0.58%) 904,171(+0.38%)
2021-03-20
40,518,630(+0.56%) 907,147(+0.33%)
2021-03-21
40,702,193(+0.45%) 909,210(+0.23%)
2021-03-22
40,868,604(+0.41%) 912,583(+0.37%)
2021-03-23
41,063,875(+0.48%) 916,709(+0.45%)
2021-03-24
41,359,827(+0.72%) 920,584(+0.42%)
2021-03-25
41,639,646(+0.68%) 924,834(+0.46%)
2021-03-26
41,906,030(+0.64%) 929,508(+0.51%)
2021-03-27
42,156,543(+0.6%) 932,608(+0.33%)
2021-03-28
42,360,677(+0.48%) 934,806(+0.24%)
2021-03-29
42,530,593(+0.4%) 937,773(+0.32%)
2021-03-30
42,759,993(+0.54%) 941,926(+0.44%)
2021-03-31
43,053,979(+0.69%) 946,133(+0.45%)
2021-04-01
43,344,957(+0.68%) 950,205(+0.43%)
2021-04-02
43,606,288(+0.6%) 953,998(+0.4%)
2021-04-03
43,828,437(+0.51%) 957,428(+0.36%)
2021-04-04
44,057,733(+0.52%) 959,902(+0.26%)
2021-04-05
44,204,351(+0.33%) 962,528(+0.27%)
2021-04-06
44,391,359(+0.42%) 966,316(+0.39%)
2021-04-07
44,604,822(+0.48%) 971,143(+0.5%)
2021-04-08
44,933,850(+0.74%) 975,886(+0.49%)
2021-04-09
45,200,120(+0.59%) 980,538(+0.48%)
2021-04-10
45,294,248(+0.21%) 981,598(+0.11%)
2021-04-11
45,644,145(+0.77%) 986,728(+0.52%)
2021-04-12
45,824,301(+0.39%) 990,053(+0.34%)
2021-04-13
46,065,229(+0.53%) 994,422(+0.44%)
2021-04-14
46,337,508(+0.59%) 999,051(+0.47%)
2021-04-15
46,601,195(+0.57%) 1,003,217(+0.42%)
2021-04-16
46,859,386(+0.55%) 1,007,258(+0.4%)
2021-04-17
47,080,052(+0.47%) 1,010,609(+0.33%)
2021-04-18
47,261,389(+0.39%) 1,013,092(+0.25%)
2021-04-19
47,422,592(+0.34%) 1,016,374(+0.32%)
2021-04-20
47,651,891(+0.48%) 1,020,596(+0.42%)
2021-04-21
47,903,809(+0.53%) 1,024,925(+0.42%)
2021-04-22
48,147,903(+0.51%) 1,029,004(+0.4%)
2021-04-23
48,369,430(+0.46%) 1,032,873(+0.38%)
2021-04-24
48,548,257(+0.37%) 1,036,153(+0.32%)
2021-04-25
48,694,436(+0.3%) 1,038,435(+0.22%)
2021-04-26
48,829,317(+0.28%) 1,041,428(+0.29%)
2021-04-27
49,014,866(+0.38%) 1,045,402(+0.38%)
2021-04-28
49,214,364(+0.41%) 1,049,237(+0.37%)
2021-04-29
49,405,855(+0.39%) 1,052,844(+0.34%)
2021-04-30
49,575,514(+0.34%) 1,056,229(+0.32%)
2021-05-01
49,717,539(+0.29%) 1,059,038(+0.27%)
2021-05-02
49,814,825(+0.2%) 1,060,896(+0.18%)
2021-05-03
49,920,687(+0.21%) 1,063,410(+0.24%)
2021-05-04
50,060,266(+0.28%) 1,066,170(+0.26%)
2021-05-05
50,207,614(+0.29%) 1,069,290(+0.29%)
2021-05-06
50,358,742(+0.3%) 1,072,667(+0.32%)
2021-05-07
50,497,364(+0.28%) 1,075,624(+0.28%)
2021-05-08
50,612,505(+0.23%) 1,078,241(+0.24%)
2021-05-09
50,699,577(+0.17%) 1,079,980(+0.16%)
2021-05-10
50,782,105(+0.16%) 1,082,187(+0.2%)
2021-05-11
50,894,036(+0.22%) 1,084,994(+0.26%)
2021-05-12
51,015,609(+0.24%) 1,087,792(+0.26%)
2021-05-13
51,119,614(+0.2%) 1,090,242(+0.23%)
2021-05-14
51,221,351(+0.2%) 1,092,628(+0.22%)
2021-05-15
51,303,508(+0.16%) 1,094,637(+0.18%)
2021-05-16
51,374,361(+0.14%) 1,096,031(+0.13%)
2021-05-17
51,080,843(−0.57%) 1,097,771(+0.16%)
Sources:
  • Real-time map by Berliner Morgenpost.
  • Last updated: 8.5.2021, 17:29 UTC. Note that due to different release times throughout the day, the shown steps do not always correspond to 24 hours.

Notes:

  1. ^ Includes 884 death cases from Établissement d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes (French Old People's Homes - EHPADs), previously not taken into account in France's Statistics
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants for a selection of European countries, over time. The legend is sorted in descending order of these values. Logarithmic vertical axis. Data source: ECDC.[91]

Pandemic by country and territory[edit]

Albania[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Albania is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case in the Republic of Albania was reported in Tirana on 8 March 2020, when a patient and his adult son who had come from Florence, Italy tested positive.[92] Both men later recovered.

On 21 December, health minister Ogerta Manastirliu announced the country has decided to suspend flights to and from the UK until January 6 because of a new COVID-19 mutation that transmits more quickly than other variants. All passengers arriving from the UK by land had to self-isolate for 14 days upon entry. The flight suspension took effect on Tuesday, 22 December.[93]

Andorra[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Andorra is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Andorra on 2 March 2020, when a 20-year-old man returned to the country from Milan, Italy.[94] With a total population of 77,543, (as of 31 December 2019) on 7 December 2020, the infection rate was 1 case per 11 inhabitants, and the death rate was 1 case per 994 inhabitants.[95]

Austria[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Austria is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Austria, a pair of cases were confirmed on 25 February 2020. The cases involved a 24-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman who were travelling from Lombardy, Italy, and were treated at a hospital in Innsbruck.[96][97][98][99] According to new figures released by Austrian authorities on 23 June, the first case in the country was recorded in Ischgl, Tyrol on 8 February.[100]

Belarus[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Belarus is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Belarus, when the first case of COVID-19 in the country was registered in Minsk on 28 February 2020.[101]

Belgium[edit]

Map of Belgium and its provinces with the spread of COVID-19 as of 9 July 2020[102]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Belgium on 4 February 2020, when one of a group of nine Belgians repatriated from Wuhan to Brussels was reported to have tested positive for the coronavirus.[103][104] Transmission within Belgium was confirmed in early March; authorities linked this to holidaymakers returning from Northern Italy at the end of the half-term holidays.[105][106] The epidemic increased rapidly in March–April 2020. By the end of March all 10 provinces of the country had registered cases.[citation needed]

By March 2021, Belgium had the third highest number of COVID-19 deaths per head of population in the world, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University. However, Belgium may have been over-reporting the number of cases, with health officials reporting that suspected cases were being reported along with confirmed cases.[107] Unlike some countries, which publish figures based primarily on confirmed hospital deaths, the death figures reported by the Belgian authorities include deaths in the community, such as care homes, confirmed to have been caused by the virus, as well as a much larger number of such deaths suspected to have been caused by the virus, even if the person was not tested.[108] Such differences in methods of counting complicate any attempt to compare death rates in different countries.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

COVID-19 Cases in Bosnia and Herzegovina per capita.svg

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Bosnia and Herzegovina on 5 March 2020, when a patient in Banja Luka, who had travelled to Italy, tested positive. Later on the same day, a second case, who was the son of the first case, was reported.[109] On 21 March, the first death in the country from COVID-19 was announced in a hospital in Bihać. The patient was an elderly woman who had been hospitalized two days before.[110]

On 17 March, the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a state of emergency in the entire country.[111]

As of 22 April 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina had the fourth highest deaths per million population in the world at 2,404 per 1 million. Additionally, access to testing in the country has been less widely available as Bosnia and Herzegovina has the 4th lowest testing rate in Europe as of 30 December.[112]

As of 26 March 2021, there were 160,163 confirmed coronavirus cases in the country, of which 50,816 were in Republika Srpska,[113][114] 106,152 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[115][116] and 3,401 in Brčko District.[117]

Bulgaria[edit]

Rolling 14-days new cases prevalence of COVID-19 in Bulgaria by region.svg

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bulgaria is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Bulgaria when the country's first cases, a 27-year-old man from Pleven and a 75-year-old woman from Gabrovo, were confirmed on 8 March 2020. Neither of the two had traveled to areas with known coronavirus cases which is maybe because the PCR test that was used is deffective. The man tested positive for the virus after being hospitalized for a respiratory infection, and authorities announced plans to test several people who were in contact with the two individuals.[118] Two other samples in Pleven and Gabrovo were positive on 8 March.[119] Patient zero remains unknown.[120]

After the number of patients in the country had reached 23, the Bulgarian Parliament voted unanimously to declare a state of emergency from 13 March until 13 April.[121] A 14-day preventive house quarantine was introduced for citizens who have been in contact with a COVID-19 patient or have returned from an overseas region with a high number of cases. For patients tested positive for the virus a 21-day house quarantine was introduced. This time span is counted from the day a subsequent test comes out negative after they have been treated in a hospital or at home. After the World Health Organization (WHO) has established that COVID-19 is more resilient than the initial data was showing, the National Crisis-management Staff increased the recovery house quarantine by a week to 28 days.[122] With the continuing increase of COVID-19 cases on a daily basis, the Bulgarian government requested on 1 April that Parliament extend the state of emergency by one month until 13 May.[123]

As of 1 February 2021, there are 218,748 officially confirmed cases spread throughout all Bulgarian provinces, with 9,045 recorded deaths and 187,052 recoveries. A total of 1,391,560 PCR tests (or 201,163 per million citizens) had been performed by 1 February, with 15.71% being positive.[124]

Croatia[edit]

On 25 February, Croatia confirmed its first case, a 26-year-old man who had been in Milan, Italy.[125] On 26 February, two new cases were confirmed, one being the twin brother of the first.[126] In March 2020, a cluster of cases were reported in numerous Croatian cities. On 12 March, the first recovery was reported, and on 18 March the first death from the virus was confirmed. On 19 March, the number of recorded cases surpassed 100. On 21 March, it surpassed 200. On 25 March, it surpassed 400. On 31 March, it surpassed 800. The pandemic in Croatia occurred during the Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[127]

On 22 March, an intense earthquake hit Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, causing problems in enforcement of social distancing measures set out by the Government. The earthquake could also be felt across much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Slovenia, and Austria.[128][129]

According to Oxford University, as of 24 March, Croatia was the country with the world's strictest restrictions and measures for infection reduction in relation to the number of infected.[130] The government set up a website for all information about the virus and a new phone line 113 that has volunteers answering questions.[131]

Cyprus[edit]

On 9 March, Cyprus confirmed its first two cases, one in Nicosia and one in Limassol.[132][133][134]

Cases reached 500 in April, 1,000 in July, 4,000 in October and 10,000 in November.[citation needed]

Czech Republic[edit]

It is forbidden to enter the front section of buses of the Brno Public Transport during the pandemic (14 March 2020)

The first case was reported in the country on 1 March.[26] As of 22 March there had been 1120 confirmed cases, with one lethal outcome.[26]

On 12 March, the Czech Republic declared a 30-day state of emergency and barred entry to non-residents from China, South Korea, Iran, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, Norway, Denmark and France.[135]

The Czech Republic banned people from going out in public without wearing a face mask or covering their nose and mouth.[136]

Denmark[edit]

On 27 February, Denmark confirmed its first case.[137]

As of 16 March, there have been 898 confirmed cases in Denmark, including 11 in the Faroe Islands (see below).[138]

Numerous preventive measures gradually were implemented. Starting on 13 March, schools, universities and similar places were closed, while most people in non-essential functions have been sent home to work.[139] On 14 March, the borders were closed for all entries, except Danish citizens, people with a residence permit, people with an important reason for visiting, and transport of goods.[140][135]

Estonia[edit]

On 27 February, Estonia confirmed its first case, an Iranian citizen, travelling from Iran via Turkey.[141]

As of 11 March, there were 17 confirmed cases in Estonia. 12 of them had returned with the infection from Northern Italy, one from France, one from Iran and one from undisclosed risk area.[142][143] First two cases of virus transmitting locally were in Saaremaa after international volleyball competition involving a team from Milan.[144]

From 12 March, the virus was spreading locally. The number of infected grew fast reaching 109 on 14 March.[145]

Finland[edit]

The first case was reported in the country on 28 January.[146][147] As of 21 July there were over 7,000 confirmed cases.[148] As of 9 December (2020) the confirmed cases in Finland are 28,732 over the entire period.[149] A total of 433 deaths associated with the disease have been reported until now.[150]

France[edit]

Empty supermarket shelves in Annonay, France, on 14 March 2020.

On 24 January, the first case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. Two more cases were confirmed in Paris by the end of the day, all of them originated from China. A cluster of infections was discovered in Haute-Savoie which originated from a British national who had visited Singapore.[151][152][153]

From 31 January to 9 February, nearly 550 people were repatriated from Wuhan on a series of evacuation flights arriving at Creil Air Base in Oise and Istres-Le Tubé Air Base in Istres.[154]

On 14 February, an 80-year-old Chinese tourist died in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, marking the first death from COVID-19 in Europe and France.[155]

According to regional council president Jean Rottner, the starting point for the first intense wave in Alsace was the Fasting Meeting of the Protestant Free Church of La Porte Ouverte in Mulhouse, with more than 2500 visitors, in mid-February.[156] On 12 March, French president Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, the Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transportation. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all nonessential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas, and discothèques, effective at midnight.[157]

As of 14 March, there had been 4,499 confirmed cases (a near-four-fold increase over the number 5 days previously), and 91 deaths in France.[158]

As of 20 March, the number of confirmed cases had risen to 12,612, while the number of deaths reached 450.[citation needed] As of 30 March, more than six hundred doctors and other medical workers are suing the former Minister of Health and the Prime Minister for "culpable negligence" in failing to prepare for the epidemic.[159]

Until 1 April, the daily update of the number of deaths in France included only deaths in hospitals, with deaths in retirement homes or at home not included in the update.[160] Deaths in retirement homes were included in the reported figures from 2 April, causing totals to increase substantially.[161]

On 4 May, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed a patient "who had COVID-19 as early as Dec. 27, nearly a month before the French government confirmed its first cases."[162] According to the researchers who reported the discovery, this indicates that the virus was present in the population well before the first confirmed cases, a finding also echoed by US researchers.[163] In July 2020, Prime Minister of France Jean Castex, announced that health care pay workers will see $9 billion in pay raises, as a result of their efforts during the corornavirus pandemic.[164]

Germany[edit]

In Germany, the first case of COVID-19 was recorded in the state of Bavaria on 27 January 2020. Daily case numbers began to decrease after 8 April, but rose sharply again in October. As of 30 January 2021, 2,207,393 cases have been reported with 56,286 deaths and approximately 1,930,592 recoveries.[10][165][166][167][168] The case fatality rate is 2.5%.[169] The low preliminary fatality rate in Germany, compared to Italy and Spain, has resulted in a discussion and explanations that cite among others the country's higher number of tests performed, absence of COVID-19 analyses in autopsies and higher proportion of positive cases among younger people. Hessian state finance minister Thomas Schäfer committed suicide on 28 March 2020. State Premier Volker Bouffier said that Schäfer had had considerable worries in particular over the economic burden that the COVID-19 pandemic would place on the population.[170]

Gibraltar[edit]

First case was identified on 4 March 2020, only 187 cases to the end of July then increases with 100 added in August and the same in September. A contact App "BEAT Covid Gibraltar" was released on 18 June.[171]

Greece[edit]

On 26 February, the first case in Greece was confirmed, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy.[172] The next day, the first patient's 9-year-old child and another 40-year-old woman, who had travelled to Italy, also tested positive.[173][174][175] Subsequent cases is Greece were mainly related to people who had travelled to Italy and a group of pilgrims who had travelled to Israel and Egypt, as well as their contacts.[176][177] Health and state authorities issued precautionary guidelines and recommendations, while measures up to that point were taken locally and included the closure of schools and the suspension of cultural events in the affected areas (particularly Ilia, Achaea and Zakynthos).[177] The first confirmed death from COVID-19 in Greece was a 66-year-old man, who died on 12 March.[178]

By 27 July there were 4,227 confirmed cases in Greece, some of which detected among tourists arriving to the country from mid-June onwards, 202 deaths and 3,562 recoveries.[179][180] The Greek National Public Health Organization (NPHO), in collaboration with local authorities and doctors, is tracking and testing everyone who came in close contact with the patients.[181][182] By 10 March, with 89 confirmed cases and no deaths in the country, the government decided to suspend the operation of educational institutions of all levels nationwide and then, on 13 March, to close down all cafes, bars, museums, shopping centres, sports facilities and restaurants in the country.[183][184] On 16 March, all retail shops were also closed and all services in all areas of religious worship of any religion or dogma were suspended.[185][186] On 18 and 19 March, the government announced a series of measures of more than 10 billion euros to support the economy, businesses and employees.[187]

On 22 March the Greek authorities announced significant restrictions on all nonessential transport and movement across the country, starting from 6 a.m. on 23 March.[188] Starting from 4 May, Greece has begun easing its lockdown restrictions after a 42-day lockdown, with the gradual lifting of movement restrictions and restart of business activity.[189]

Guernsey[edit]

On 9 March, the first case in the Crown dependency was confirmed.[190] On 27 May it was announced that there were no known active cases in the Bailiwick.[191] There were no active cases for 129 days before an arrival from the UK tested positive on 6 September.[192]

Hungary[edit]

On 4 March Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that two Iranian students had been infected with the virus.[193] The students are asymptomatic and have been transported to Saint Ladislaus Hospital in Budapest.[193]

Iceland[edit]

The first case was confirmed in Iceland on 28 February, an Icelandic male in his forties who had been on a ski trip to Andalo in Northern Italy and returned home on 22 February.[194]

Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management declared a state of emergency on 6 March after two cases of community transmission in Iceland were confirmed, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 43.[195] On 13 March, it was announced at an official press conference that a four-week ban on public gatherings of more than 100 persons would be put into effect as of Monday 16 March. Universities and secondary schools will be closed for four weeks. International airports and harbours will remain exempt from these measures.[196]

Ireland[edit]

COVID-19 14-day rate per 100k population in Ireland by county

The National Public Health Emergency Team of Ireland announced the first case in the Republic of Ireland on 29 February, involving a male student from the east of the country, who had arrived there from Northern Italy.[197][198][199] On 3 March, a second case was confirmed of a female in the east of the country who had been to Northern Italy.[200] Response to the outbreak has included cancellation of St Patrick's Day parades and all festivals.[201] On 11 March, an elderly patient in Naas General Hospital in County Kildare became Ireland's first fatality from the virus.[202] On 12 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced the closure of all schools, colleges and childcare facilities.[203] On 20 March, an emergency legislation was signed into law by President Michael D. Higgins giving the state permission to detain people, restrict travel and keep people in their homes to help combat the spread of the pandemic.[204]

Cases reached 1,000 in March, 20,000 in April, 30,000 in September, 60,000 in October, 80,000 in December, 100,000 in January 2021 and 200,000 in February 2021[citation needed]

Lockdown[edit]

On 12 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced the closure of all schools, colleges and childcare facilities in Ireland until the end of August.[205][206] On 27 March, Varadkar announced a national stay-at-home order. All non-essential shops and services, including all pubs, bars, hotels and nightclubs closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned.[207][208]

On 1 May, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced a roadmap to easing restrictions in Ireland which began on 18 May,[209] and was replaced by the government's Living with COVID-19 plan on 15 September. The plan includes five levels of restrictions to indicate what public health measures are in place in different areas of the country at any given time.[210]

All non-essential businesses and services closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned again on 21 October following the Government's announcement to move the entire country to Level 5 lockdown restrictions for six weeks until 1 December.[211][212][213] On 27 November, the Government of Ireland agreed to ease restrictions from 1 December.[214][215][216]

On 15 December, Minister for Health Stephen Donnelly announced the Government's National COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy, which outlines the country's high-level plan for safe, effective and efficient vaccination of the Republic of Ireland, while safeguarding continued provision of health and social care services.[217][218][219]

A third wave of COVID-19 arrived in Ireland on 21 December.[220][221][222] The Government of Ireland acted swiftly and on 22 December, Level 5 lockdown restrictions (subject to a number of adjustments) were announced, which came into effect from 24 December (Christmas Eve) until 12 January 2021 at the earliest.[223][224][225]

All non-essential businesses and services closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned again on 31 December (New Year's Eve) following the Government's announcement to move the entire country to full Level 5 lockdown restrictions from 30 December until 31 January 2021 at the earliest, in an attempt to get a third surge in cases of COVID-19 under control.[226][227][228] On 26 January, the Government extended the Level 5 lockdown restrictions until 5 March.[229][230][231] On 23 February, the Government extended the Level 5 lockdown restrictions for another six weeks until 5 April (Easter Monday) at the earliest, while its new revised Living with COVID-19 plan was published.[232][233][234] On 30 March, the Government announced a phased easing of restrictions from Monday 12 April.[235][236][237] On 29 April, the Government announced a reopening plan for the country throughout May and June from 10 May.[238] On 28 May, the Government announced a further reopening plan for the country throughout June, July and August from 2 June,[239] with a further reopening planned announced on 31 August that would see all remaining COVID-19 restrictions in Ireland eased by 22 October.[240]

As of 13 July 2021, the Department of Health have confirmed 279,053 confirmed cases and 5,006 deaths.[241]

Italy[edit]

Paramedics carrying a patient under biocontainment, in Cervia, Emilia-Romagna

On 31 January, the first two cases were confirmed in Rome. Two Chinese tourists, who arrived in Milan on 23 January via Milan Malpensa Airport and travelled to Rome on a tourist bus, tested positive for and were hospitalised in Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases.[242]

On 6 February, one of the Italians repatriated from Wuhan, China, tested positive, bringing the total number of cases in Italy to three.[243] On 22 February, the repatriated Italian recovered and was discharged from the hospital.[244] On 22 and 26 February, the two Chinese tourists hospitalized in Rome tested negative.[245]

On 21 February, a cluster of cases was detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy,[246] with additional 60 cases on 22 February,[247] and Italy's first deaths reported on the same day.[248] As of late February, Italy was hit harder than anywhere else in the EU by the COVID-19 pandemic.[249]

By 17 March 2020, there were 2,503 deaths and 31,506 confirmed cases.[250] By 15 May 2020, there had been 223,885 cases and 31,610 deaths, according to Protezione Civile bulletins.[citation needed]

On 3 June, Italy reopened its borders to EU residents and ended travel restrictions.[citation needed]

On 13 July, the Head of the ICU at a Bergamo hospital said that former patients treated for COVID-19 had developed serious long-term health issues.[251]

Cases reached 100,000 in March, 200,000 in April, 300,000 in September, 600,000 in October and 1,600,000 in November.[citation needed]

Lockdown[edit]

On 8 March, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte signed a decree enacting a quarantine for the entire region of Lombardy – home to more than 10 million people and the financial capital, Milan – and multiple other provinces, totalling around 16 million residents. The lockdown decree included the power to impose fines on anyone caught entering or leaving Lombardy, the worst-affected region, until 3 April.[252]

On 9 March, the lockdown orders were extended to the whole of Italy, effectively quarantining more than 60 million people.[253]

On 20 November 2020, according to high-frequency data, the lockdowns in France and Italy weighed down on public mobility more than in any other European country. France's official statistic agency INSEE found that the data collected by Google on the amount of time people spend at home is particularly closely correlated with the percentage of slow down experienced by an economy during the lockdown.[254]

Jersey[edit]

The first case was recognised on 10 March which resulted within days in flights and ferries being cancelled except for essential travel and freight, thus isolating the island by the end of March.[255][256] By 30 June there were no active cases although there have since been small numbers of cases brought into the island when lockdown was relaxed and travel permitted. On 14 October a contact App was launched.[257] Community contracted cases caused numbers to rise from 600 to 1,000 in November resulting in another lockdown.[citation needed]

Kosovo[edit]

The first two cases in Kosovo[a] were reported on 13 March. In the ten-day period 13–23 March, the number of positive cases with coronavirus rose to 35. In midnight of 23 March 26 new cases were confirmed, bringing the total number of cases to 61.[258] On 25 March, the government collapsed with a vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Albin Kurti.[259]

Latvia[edit]

Confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Latvia by municipalities.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Latvia on 2 March 2020, having been brought along with people returning from abroad.

The government declared a state of emergency on 13 March 2020 with a number of epidemiological safety measures and restrictions, primarily limiting gatherings, travel, most public venues, and educational institutions. As the new confirmed cases stayed in the low two-digit range per day, the emergency was periodically extended until mid-2020, when the confirmed infection case dropped to almost 0 and the state of emergency ended on 9 June 2020. Most restrictions were lifted.

The rates spiked again by the end of September, from a few dozen per day to low hundreds by November, and many of the restrictions were restored and tightened, including a range of new ones. Eventually, a new state of emergency was reinstated on 9 November 2020 with increased rules and restrictions, while the daily cases reached close to one thousand by the end of November. The number of cases kept rising at the turn of the year and the state of emergency was extended to 6 April 2021. The vaccination began at the start of the year.

Liechtenstein[edit]

The first case was reported in the country on 3 March.[260]

Lithuania[edit]

The first case was reported in the country on 28 February. By 17 March there were 21 cases, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The first infected Lithuanian recovered on 14 March.[261] Cases reached 2,000 in July, 10,000 in October and 50,000 in November.

Luxembourg[edit]

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February. Positive cases exceeded 6,600 on 30 June and 8,500 on 30 September.

Malta[edit]

On 7 March, Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on 3 March from Rome after a holiday in Trentino. Until around September, there were barely any cases; with that maximum cases per day at around 30. But then a big wave hit Malta and cases were being of over 100 everyday, and the most cases found in a single day was 510. Then in May 2021, the cases started calming down with Malta as of 20 June 2021 having just under 50 active cases, with over 30 thousand total.[262]

Moldova[edit]

Map of cases of COVID-19 in Moldova
(31 October 2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic in Moldova is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached the Republic of Moldova on 7 March 2020, when a Moldovan woman who returned from Italy tested positive for the novel coronavirus. As the number of infected people started to rise during the next days, the Parliament declared a state of emergency on 17 March 2020 for the entire territory of the Republic of Moldova for a period of 60 days (17 March to 15 May 2020).

On 15 May 2020, the last day of the state of emergency declared by the Parliament on 17 March 2020, the Extraordinary National Commission of Public Health declared the state of emergency in public health for the entire territory of Moldova for the period of 16 May to 30 June 2020. On 9 June 2020, the total number of confirmed cases surpassed 10,000. On 1 September 2020, the number of deaths surpassed 1,000.

The vaccination process started on 2 March 2021 with AstraZeneca vaccine units donated by Romania to Moldova.

Monaco[edit]

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.[263][264]

Montenegro[edit]

Active COVID-19 cases in Montenegro.png

The COVID-19 pandemic in Montenegro is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Montenegro when its first case was confirmed on 17 March 2020,[265][266] making it the last European country to register a case of SARS-CoV-2.[267]

On 24 May 2020, 68 days after the first case was recorded in Montenegro, it became the first corona-free country in Europe.[268][269] Within the first outbreak, indexed cases counted 9% of the total reported, 80% of cases were infected due to contact with primary cases, while the origin of infection of the other 11% of cases was not certain.[270] The Government of Montenegro estimated that the country needs EUR 59.2 million private and international relief to address the health, social and economical impact of COVID-19.[271]

Montenegro had no active cases from 24 May until 14 June 2020, when the first imported case was reported.

Netherlands[edit]

On 27 February, the Netherlands confirmed its first case, a man who had been in the Lombardy region of Italy.[272]

On 6 March, RIVM announced the first death.[273]

On 9 March, RIVM announced 56 more confirmed cases in addition to the total of the 77 infected patients declared in the previous day, bringing the total to 321 infected and 3 dead.[274]

On 15 March, the Dutch government announced in a press conference that all schools, day care facilities, colleges, universities, and universities of applied sciences would close until 6 April, though children of parents in vital industries could still go to school or the day care if they could not be taken care of otherwise.[275]

As of 16 March, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 had risen to 1,413 and the total number of confirmed deaths had risen to 24. This was an increase of 278 infections and 4 deaths in comparison to 15 March.[276]

On the same date, the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Mark Rutte, had announced that the country would not go into complete lockdown. Instead the situation would be controlled as much as possible by delaying the spread of the virus, relying on measures taken earlier by the government, such as social distancing and prohibiting gatherings of 100 people and over.[277] It is expected the coronavirus will keep spreading and a large part of the population will become infected. Instead of opting to lock down the Netherlands for the time required, which would have many (negative) consequences while the benefits remain uncertain and would have to stay in place, it will be attempted to build herd immunity in a controlled manner. Depending on how the virus behaves, the government will decide if additional measures are required.[277][278]

Further measures were introduced on 23 March. All events will be banned until 1 September. Gatherings of more than three people, except for families, are prohibited. City mayors received greater authorization to enforce the rules. Fines will be issued to those not complying with the new rules.[279]

Cases reached 10,000 in March 2020, 50,000 in June 2020, 100,000 in September 2020, 500,000 in November 2020 and 1,000,000 in February 2021.[citation needed]

North Macedonia[edit]

On 26 February, North Macedonia confirmed its first case, a woman that had returned from Italy.[280] On 10 March every school, kindergarten and university was closed. As of 5 April 2021, the country has reported 134,867 cases, 3,940 deaths and a total of 109,297 recovered.[281]

To stop the spreading of the virus, the country had a strict 61-hour curfew every weekend. For holidays, like Easter, the country had an 85-hour curfew.[282][283] Furthermore, the state of emergency which had expired was extended for 14 more days until 30 May, and then again for 14 more days until 13 June.[284]

Norway[edit]

Separation of an area near the driver, bus in Trondheim, 15 March

On 26 February, Norway confirmed its first case, in a person who had returned from China the previous week.[285][286]

On 7 March, there were 147 confirmed cases in Norway. Most of the cases could either be linked to outbreaks abroad or close encounters with these. Altogether 89 have been infected on travel in Italy.[287]

On 12 March 2020, all kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities were closed until at least 26 March 2020.[288]

Poland[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In February and March 2020, health authorities in Poland carried out laboratory testing of suspected cases of infection by SARS-CoV-2, one of the seven known human coronaviruses, as well as home quarantining and monitoring.[289][290]

The first case of a laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Poland was that of a man hospitalised in Zielona Góra, with confirmation announced officially on 4 March 2020.[291][292] The local transmission phase of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland was declared to the World Health Organization on 10 March.[293][294] The first death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Poland was that of a 56-year-old woman on 12 March.[295] Polish authorities did not participate in the 28 February 2020 European Union tender procedure for purchasing COVID-19 pandemic related medical equipment, in which 20 other member states participated. Poland applied on 6 March for the 17 March tender for the purchase of gloves, goggles, face shields, surgical masks, and protective clothing. The European Commission stated that all requests in the tender were satisfied by offers.[296]

Lockdown-type control measures began to be implemented on 10–12 March, closing schools and university classes, offices, and cancelling mass events,[297][298][299] and were strengthened on 25 March, limiting non-family gatherings to two people and religious gatherings to six and forbidding non-essential travel.[300] On 20 March, the Ministry of Health tried to prevent medical personnel from commenting on the pandemic. The Polish Ombudsman Adam Bodnar defended medical personnel's right to speak publicly about the epidemic on constitutional grounds of freedom of speech and the right of the public to information. Doctors opposed the self-censorship orders.[301] Fatality counts initially only included deaths from lab-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (U07.1[302]).[303] Starting on 1 April 2020, fatalities that were clinically or epidemiologically diagnosed as COVID-19 (U07.2)[302]) were also considered as COVID-19 deaths by NIPH–NIH.[304] As of 28 March 2020, people in Poland who died in quarantine from suspected COVID-19 were not tested post mortem for SARS-CoV-2.[305] As of 29 March 2020, there were 269,307 people under quarantine for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and 42,783 SARS-CoV-2 tests had been made since the beginning of testing.[306] The lockdown restrictions were tightened starting on 31 March – 1 April by a government regulation, requiring individuals walking in streets to be separated by two metres, closing parks, boulevards, beaches, hairdressers and beauty salons, and forbidding unaccompanied minors from exiting their homes.[307] A followup regulation on 10 April loosened the restrictions on public gatherings starting from 20 April, allowing religious gatherings and funerals to be held for up to a maximum of 50 people.[308]

Portugal[edit]

On 2 March, the first two cases were confirmed in Portugal, both in the city of Porto. One was a doctor who had returned from holiday in northern Italy, and the other a worker from Spain.[309][310]

On 18 March, the President of the Republic, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, declared the entirety of the Portuguese territory in a state of emergency for the following fifteen days, with the possibility of renewal, the first since the Carnation Revolution in 1974.[311]

On 24 March, the Portuguese government admitted that they could not contain the COVID-19 pandemic anymore, as it is wide spreading and will enter the 'Mitigation Phase' on 26 March.[312]

Cases reached 10,000 in April, 100,000 in October and 300,000 in December.[citation needed]

Romania[edit]

COVID-19 Romania - Cases per capita (last 14 days).svg

The COVID-19 pandemic in Romania is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Romania on 26 February 2020, when the first case in Gorj County was confirmed.[313]

As of 19 September 2021, the National Institute of Public Health has reported around 1,100,000 cases, 1,060,000 recoveries, and 35,500 COVID-19-related deaths.[314] Also, more than 9.3 million RT-PCR tests and about 2.8 million rapid antigen tests have been processed.[314]

An anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign, part of a global effort to slow down the spread of the virus, started on 27 December 2020. As of 31 August 2021, more than 5.2 million people (or more than 26% of the country's population) received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (most existing vaccines also require a booster dose).[315]

Russia[edit]

Russian President Vladimir Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March

Russia implemented early preventive measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the country by imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers and using modern facial recognition technologies to impose quarantine measures.[316]

On 2 March, Western Russia confirmed its first case in Moscow Oblast.[317][318] Previously on 31 January Russia confirmed first two cases in its Asian part, one in Tyumen Oblast and another in Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals, who have since recovered.[319][316]

On 7 March, four new cases were confirmed, three was in Lipetsk and one in Saint Petersburg. All people visited Italy in the previous two weeks.[320]

On 8 March, three news cases were confirmed, in Moscow, Belgorod and Kaliningrad Oblasts. All people returned from Italy.[321]

On 10 March, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin signed a decree for banning mass events in Moscow with more than 5000 participants from 10 March to 10 April.[322]

By 15 April, cases were confirmed in all of Western Russia's federal subjects with the confirmation of the first case in Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

San Marino[edit]

On 27 February, San Marino confirmed its first case, an 88-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions, who came from Italy. He was hospitalised at a hospital in Rimini, Italy.[323] As of 25 March 2020: With 700 confirmed cases out of a population of 33,344 (as of 2018), it is the country with the highest percentage of confirmed cases per capita at 2.1% – 1 confirmed case per 48 inhabitants.[324] Also, with 42 confirmed deaths, the country has the highest rate of confirmed deaths per capita at 0.126% of the total population – 1 death per 794 inhabitants.[324]

Serbia[edit]

Disinfection of housing in Serbia during the COVID-19 pandemic

On 29 February, a massive infection occurred in the town of Valjevo after a private party involving a guest from Austria who had previously stayed in Italy.[325] On 6 March, the first case was confirmed in Serbia by Minister of Health Zlatibor Lončar,[326] of a man who had traveled to Budapest.[327] President Aleksandar Vucic and the Government of the Republic of Serbia introduced a state of emergency on 15 March. Two days later, curfew and quarantine were introduced as safeguards against massive infection.[citation needed]

Slovakia[edit]

A queue of cars and trucks waiting to cross the Slovak border on 13 March
People in Bratislava wearing masks on 16 March

On 6 March, Slovakia confirmed its first case, a 52-year-old man from a small village near Bratislava. He had not travelled anywhere in recent weeks but his son, who didn't show any symptoms, had visited Venice.[328] On 7 March, the virus was also confirmed in his wife and son.[329]

In October 2020, Slovakia started implementation of a short-period mass-testing programme to test two-thirds of its citizens for COVID-19.[330][331]

Slovenia[edit]

On 4 March Slovenia confirmed its first case. A patient of about 60 years of age had returned from Morocco few days earlier (via Italy) and was admitted to a hospital in Ljubljana.[332][333]

On 6 March, a total of eight cases were reported, three of them medical professionals, who contracted the virus on holiday in Italy. By 9 March 16 people were confirmed to be infected.[citation needed]

Spain[edit]

Television cameras covering the first coronavirus cases in a hospital in Valencia

On 31 January, Spain confirmed its first case, in the Canary Island of La Gomera. A tourist from Germany tested positive and was admitted to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria.[334][335][336] On 19 February, 2,500 football fans from Valencia attended a Champions League game in Bergamo, the hot spot of the outbreak in Italy.[337]

On 24 February, a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy who was vacationing in Tenerife, tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria in Spain.[338][339] Afterwards, multiple cases were detected in Tenerife involving people who had come in contact with the doctor. Other cases involving individuals who visited Italy were also discovered on Spanish mainland.[340]

On Saturday 14 March, the Spanish government imposed a nationwide quarantine, banned all trips that are not necessary and announced that companies may be intervened to guarantee supplies.[341][342] However, with universities and schools closed earlier that week, bars and parks were full, and due to slow enactment "part of the population of Madrid and other cities had dispersed across the country".[337] As of 17 March 2020, there had been 11,826 confirmed cases with 1,028 recoveries and 533 deaths in Spain.[343]

On 28 March, the Spanish government tightened up its national lockdown, ordering all non-essential workers to stay at home for the next two weeks.[344] Nearly 900,000 workers lost their jobs in Spain since it went into lockdown in mid-March 2020.[345]

Sweden[edit]

On 31 January, Sweden confirmed its first case. A woman in her 20s, who had visited Wuhan, tested positive and was admitted at Ryhov County Hospital in Jönköping.[346][347]

On 26 February, following the outbreak in Italy and in Iran, infection clusters originating from these two countries appeared in Sweden.[348] A number of individuals in Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Stockholm and Uppsala tested positive and were admitted to the infectious disease units in the respective counties.[349]

The country's first fatality came on 11 March, that of a man in Stockholm over 60 who had other illnesses prior to infection.

As of 12 March, national testing strategy shifted to only the elderly, the severely ill, and healthcare personnel. The official recommendation for symptoms that were not serious, as of 13 March, was to stay at home and not visit healthcare. This has led to statistics becoming less useful.[350]

As of 14 March 924 people were reported as having become infected. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden made the recommendation to refrain from unnecessary travel to all countries.[citation needed]

On 22 January 2021 the Ministry of Justice of Sweden implemented travel bans from Denmark and the United Kingdom due to the mutation of SARS-CoV-2.[351]

Switzerland[edit]

Supermarket with some empty shelves and restricted access to non-vital items

On 25 February, following the outbreak in Italy, Switzerland confirmed its first case, a 70-year-old man in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, who had previously visited Milan.[352][353] Afterwards, multiple cases related to the Italy clusters were discovered in multiple cantons including Basel-City, Zürich and Graubünden.[354][355][356] Multiple isolated cases not related to the Italian clusters were also confirmed.[357]

On 28 February, the Federal Council announced an immediate ban on all events with more than 1,000 participants.[358]

As of 10 March, there were 500 confirmed cases in Switzerland.[359] On 16 March 2020, the Federal Council announced[360] further measures, and a revised ordinance.[361] Measures include the closure of bars, shops and other gathering places until 19 April, but leaves open certain essentials, such as grocery stores, pharmacies, (a reduced) public transport and the postal service.[362] Those measures were prolonged until 26 April 2020.[363]

On 23 December, following an unexpectedly quick authorization by Swissmedic of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, the vaccination campaign was launched in several cantons. A 90-year-old woman from the Lucerne region became the first vaccinated patient in continental Europe outside Russia.[364][365] All cantons are expected to start vaccinating by 11 January 2021.

Turkey[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

The first case in Turkey was recorded on 11 March, when a local returned home[note 1] from a trip to Europe.[367] The first death due to COVID-19 in the country occurred on 15 March.[367] Turkey stood out from the rest of Europe by not ordering a legal lockdown[note 2][368] until April 2021, when the country enacted its first nationwide restrictions.[369] The government kept many businesses open, and allowed companies to set their own guidelines regarding workers.[368]

The resulting wave of infections never came close to overwhelming the Turkish health system,[368] which has the highest number of intensive care units[370] in the world at 46.5 beds per 100,000 people (compared to 9.6 in Greece, 11.6 in France, and 12.6 in Italy). As of 3 May 2021, Turkey's observed case-fatality rate stands at 0.84%, the 148th highest rate globally.[371][372] This low case-fatality rate has generated various explanations including the relative rarity of nursing homes,[373] favorable demographics,[374] long legacy of contact tracing,[375] high number of intensive care units,[376] universal health care,[375] and a lockdown regime that led to a higher proportion of positive cases among working-age adults.[368]

On 30 September 2020, Turkish Minister of Health Fahrettin Koca acknowledged that since 29 July, the reported number of cases was limited to symptomatic cases that required monitoring, which was met with rebuke by the Turkish Medical Association.[377] This practice ended on 25 November, when the ministry started to report asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic cases alongside symptomatic ones.[377]

Ukraine[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Ukraine when the country's first case was confirmed to be hospitalized in Chernivtsi Oblast on 3 March 2020,[378] a man who had travelled from Italy to Romania by plane and then arrived in Ukraine by car.[379]

An emergency was declared on 20 March 2020 in Kyiv Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast, Zhytomyr Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, and the city of Kyiv.[380]

Ukraine's (ongoing) vaccination program started on 24 February 2021 and from that day to 12 September 2021 10,710,944 vaccinations were given in Ukraine (meaning 18% of the adult population of Ukraine had been vaccinated against COVID-19).[381] About 44% of those vaccinated had been fully vaccinated.[382][383] In an August 2021 poll 56% of Ukrainians did not plan to be vaccinated.[383]

Statistics for the Russian-held Autonomous Republic of Crimea and city of Sevastopol, and for the unrecognized Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic in eastern Ukraine, are not reported by Ukraine's state agencies, and not included in the country's totals.[384]

United Kingdom[edit]

Mark Drakeford, First Minister at the Welsh Government in one of his daily briefings.
Man in London wearing a face mask on 19 March

On 31 January, England confirmed the first two cases, both members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York who were taken to specialist facilities in Newcastle upon Tyne.[385] Afterwards, several confirmed cases were detected across the UK.[386][387][388] The UK government implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of infections which included contact tracing, isolation and testing, some of which were related to the Italy clusters.[389][390][391] The NHS set up drive-through screening centres at several hospitals to test members of the public showing symptoms.[392][393] This effort was later replaced with screening focused on diagnosing patients in secondary care.[citation needed]

On 2 March, Ministers approved the Department of Health and Social Care COVID-19 action plan,[394] which sets out actions to date, future measures, cooperation between devolved political and health authorities, and the level of preparedness of the country's four National Health Services. It outlined the government's objectives to deploy phased actions to Contain, Delay, and Mitigate any outbreak, using Research to inform policy development.[395]

On 23 March, it was announced that the UK would be entering a nationwide lockdown. The public were advised to stay at home except for essential shopping and one hour of exercise a day. These measures came into effect on 26 March and lasted until 1 June when measures were eased allowing early years pupils and exams students to return to school in a limited capacity. These measures are further eased on 15 June when retail and attractions were able to open for the first time since March.[396]

On 25 March, the UK Parliament legislated to provide the government and authorities with emergency powers to handle the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the power to restrict public gatherings, order businesses to close, and the ability to detain those suspected of having the virus.[397] The Coronavirus Act 2020 received Royal Assent on 25 March and came into force on the same day.[398]

On 5 April, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Boris Johnson was admitted to hospital after testing positive to COVID-19 10 days earlier.[399] He was admitted into intensive care the following night, when his symptoms further worsened.[400] He left hospital on 12 April.[401]

The NHS was given access to emergency supplies of PPE and patients that did not need to remain in hospital were moved to residential care homes if needed. However, there was no need for a negative COVID-19 test before patients were transferred to these settings, this was only required from 15 April. On 15 May, the government approved the first social care specific legislation that helped to ensure that staff had access to adequate PPE and protect both those working and living in care homes.[402]

As of 6 May, the total of confirmed cases was 201,101; the total of recorded deaths in all settings was 30,076, the highest in Europe and second highest in all the countries after the United States. It is estimated that care home residents accounted for 30–40% of these deaths, with social care workers being twice as likely to die from COVID-19 as the general population.[402] However, the death toll did not continue to increase throughout the summer, and Brazil and Mexico now have more deaths as of 1 August 2020.[403]

During August and September, the number of infections per day began to increase significantly although the death rate remained fairly low. Boris Johnson announced changes to restrictions on 22 September which included forcing pubs, bars and restaurants to close by 10 pm in England and the so-called rule of six saying no more than six people should meet. In October, Scotland's first minister declared new restrictions it meant that some areas of the country those like Edinburgh had to close bars, pubs and go back to doing self-service. Northern Ireland's executive that also have control over health policy tightened restrictions to make them close to a lockdown as did Wales announced by Welsh first minister. It also emerged that Boris Johnson had been advised by SAGE committee of scientists to have a short lockdown back on 21 September. Boris subsequently introduced a three-tier system of restrictions Liverpool was put under the top tier meaning tougher restrictions but falling short of a full lockdown. The UK has since recorded over 40,000 deaths.

On 5 November, the UK had to enter a second national lockdown due to the rising number of cases and hospitalisations.[404] Following the end of this lockdown on 2 December case numbers began to rise again and over 70,000 deaths have been recorded in relation to COVID-19 as of 11 December 2020.[405] On 4 January 2021, Prime Minister Boris Johnson addressed the nation announcing a third lockdown.[406] The UK went into Lockdown that day due to rapidly increasing numbers of cases and deaths caused by a new more infectious variant of COVID-19 spreading around the UK.[407]

The UK has begun to vaccinate its population against COVID-19. The first vaccine, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for COVID-19, was approved for use in the UK on 2 December 2020,[408] the first of the 800,000 immediately available doses was administered on 8 December.[409] The second vaccine approved for use in the UK was the Oxford University/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which was approved for use on 30 December 2020,[410] with the first dose of this vaccine given on 4 January 2021.[411] A third vaccine, the Moderna vaccine, was approved for use in the UK on 8 January 2021,[412] and the first dose was administered in Wales on 6 April.[413]

Vatican City[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Vatican City is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The Holy See reported the first case of infection in Vatican City on 7 March 2020.[414] Unlike other jurisdictions that report cases within a given territory or cases of residents or citizens of a territory, the Holy See reports on cases "in Vatican City State and among the employees of the Holy See" regardless of location of testing, treatment, or residence.[415] There were 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 among the Vatican's residents and employees; there were no associated deaths.[416] The 12 cases included 10 employees, 1 new hire, and 1 resident of Vatican City.[note 3] All those infected tested negative by 6 June 2020.[417] An outbreak among members of the Holy See's Swiss Guard was reported in mid-October, totaling 11 as of October 15.[418]

In late February 2020, Pope Francis became ill with symptoms of a cold, but tested negative for COVID-19.[419] It was announced on January 14, 2021 that both he and the former Pope Benedict had received the first dose of a vaccine.[420]

Pandemic development graphs[edit]

Confirmed cases and deaths by date[edit]

Confirmed cases by date

Deaths by date

Total confirmed cases since first day of the outbreak[edit]

Growth rates comparison since outbreak[edit]

Syncing the start date to the 10th case, comparing the daily growth in cases

Syncing the start date to the 10th case, comparing the daily deaths

Daily new cases; syncing the start date to the 100th case:

Daily new cases; syncing the start date to the 500th case:

Response and criticism[edit]

Timeline of interventions[edit]

Immigrants and refugees[edit]

The European Union closed borders to non-nationals on 17 March. The next day, Greece imposed restrictions on refugees’ movement within camps.[421] Thousands of asylum seekers are living in crowded camps, and there are fears that pandemic could not be controlled under such conditions. The Greek prime minister K. Mitsotakis said that Europe should do more to help because Greece "cannot resolve this crisis instantly and alone".[422] Unnamed Greek officials have stated concerns that Turkey may send infected refugees and migrants towards the islands.[423][424][425] Early in April Malta and Italy closed their ports to vessels carrying asylum seekers from North Africa.[426]

Criticism[edit]

Travel bans and border closures[edit]

Full closure of a bridge over the Rhine, on the border between Austria and Switzerland

Although by 7 March some European politicians such as France's Marine Le Pen had called for Europe's internal borders to be temporarily closed,[427] the European Union by 13 March continued to reject the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel area and introducing border controls with Italy.[428][429][430][431][432] The deputy leader of the Swiss Ticino League, Lorenzo Quadri, by 29 February had criticised the decision: "It is alarming that the dogma of wide-open borders is considered a priority."[433] United States President Donald Trump said by 12 March the European Union had "failed to take the same precautions and restrict travel from China and other hot spots" as the US had implemented.[434] Trump also said that "As a result a large number of new clusters in the United States were seeded by travellers from Europe."[435] Research on coronavirus genomes indicates the majority of COVID-19 cases in New York came from European travelers, rather than directly from China or any other Asian country.[436]

By 9 March, Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babiš stated that "European countries cannot ban the entry of Italian citizens within the Schengen area. The only possible way is to have the Italian prime minister call on his fellow citizens to refrain from traveling to other countries of the European Union."[437]

After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced complete closure of their national borders, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said by 12 March that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization. Moreover, they have a strong social and economic impact, they disrupt people’s lives and business across the borders."[438] European Union leaders condemned the US decision to restrict travel from Europe to the United States. European Council President Charles Michel and Ursula von der Leyen said in a joint statement: "The European Union disapproves of the fact that the US decision to impose a travel ban was taken unilaterally and without consultation."[439] Ursula von der Leyen admitted by 17 March that "all of us who are not experts initially underestimated the coronavirus."[440]

As of 22 February 2021, the UK has banned direct flights from 33 countries, including Portugal, South Africa, Peru and the United Arab Emirates. All travelers entering the UK via indirect flights have been ordered to quarantine in a designated hotel for 10 days.[441] Since passengers coming from high-risk countries with South African virus’ mutant (like the UAE and South Africa) are mixing with other travellers before reaching their accommodation, this travel ban is being criticised extensively.[442]

EU solidarity[edit]

The Italian government has criticised EU's lack of solidarity with Italy.[443][444][445] Politico reported on 7 March that "EU countries have so far refused Italy's plea for help fighting coronavirus, as national capitals worry that they may need to stockpile face masks and other medical gear to help their own citizens, officials and diplomats said."[446] Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said that "Only China responded bilaterally. Certainly, this is not a good sign of European solidarity."[447] Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić said that "European solidarity does not exist. That was a fairy tale."[447]

Eventually, in July 2020 the European Council agreed to a massive recovery fund of 750 billion € branded Next Generation EU (NGEU) to support member states hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. The NGEU fund goes over the years 2021 – 2023 and will be tied to the 2021–2027 budget of the EU (MFF). The comprehensive packages of NGEU and MFF will reach the size of 1824.3 Billion €.[448]

In response to COVID-19, the European Investment Bank Group is establishing a €25 billion Pan-European Guarantee fund. It is projected that the guarantee fund would raise up to €200 billion.[449][450]

Reaction time of Spain[edit]

International Women's Day march in Mérida, Spain, 8 March[451]

According to The Guardian, Spain's initially slow response to COVID-19 caused the epidemic to become severe even though it did not share a land border with Italy or other severely affected countries.[452] An analysis in Vox hypothesised that the minority government did not want to risk its hold on power by banning large gatherings early; Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez initially defended his decision to allow large gatherings to continue.[453]

Military exercises during pandemic[edit]

The planned NATO "Defender 2020" military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states,[454] the largest NATO war manoeuvres since the end of the Cold War, was to be held on a reduced scale because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[455] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson criticised the Defender 2020 exercise: "In the current public-health crisis, it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the US and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating."[456]

Restrictions on civil liberties[edit]

There was concern that measures taken by some national governments on occasion of the COVID-19 pandemic would have the aim or effect of restricting democracy and civil liberties and rights.[457] In Hungary, prime minister Viktor Orban acquired near absolute powers through such legislation on 3 April.[458]

Use of scientific advice[edit]

The European Union's Chief Scientific Advisors issued a statement on 24 June 2020, providing guidance for how scientific advice should be given and interpreted during the pandemic. One key point made by the Advisors was that scientists must be clearer about the degree of uncertainty that characterises the evolving evidence on which their advice is based, for instance around the use of face-masks. They also emphasised that scientific advice must be separated from decision-making, and this separation must be made clear by politicians.[459]

In April 2021, the leaders of the Society for Aerosol Research warned the debate on COVID-19 measures does not reflect current scientific knowledge. They said protection against infection must take place above all where people spend time indoors, because "the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 viruses takes place almost without exception indoors."[460]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Data Protection Law number 6698[366] precludes the Turkish Ministry of Health from disclosing sensitive patient health information, interpreted broadly to include location during the pandemic.
  2. ^ Turkey's Article 11/C of the Law on Public Health authorizes only provinces to order quarantines, for a maximum period of 15 days. The national government is barred by the constitution from ordering lockdowns.[367]
  3. ^ Unlike other governments, the Holy See Press Office reports on diagnoses and status of its employees, not only cases within its jurisdiction. Its announcements are generally imprecise as to the nationality and residence of the cases it reports. One was identified as a resident of Vatican City. Another was diagnosed and is being treated in an Italian location that is neither Vatican City nor Rome.
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  2. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (13 March 2020). "Europe is epicenter of coronavirus pandemic: WHO". Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Coronavirus: Europe now epicentre of the pandemic, says WHO". BBC. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  4. ^ Feuer, Will (22 May 2020). "South America is a 'new epicenter' of the coronavirus pandemic, WHO says".
  5. ^ @MeGovernment (17 March 2020). "Two COVID-19 cases confirmed in Montenegro" (Tweet). Retrieved 17 March 2020 – via Twitter.
  6. ^ Henley, Jon (18 March 2020). "More than 250m in lockdown in EU as Belgium and Germany adopt measures". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  7. ^ Institute for Public Health of Montenegro [@ijzcg] (24 May 2020). "IT'S OFFICIAL: CURRENTLY THERE ARE NO ACTIVE CASES OF #COVID19 IN MONTENEGRO" (Tweet). Retrieved 24 May 2020 – via Twitter.
  8. ^ Government of Montenegro [@MeGovernment] (24 May 2020). "Montenegro is Corona-Free" (Tweet). Retrieved 24 May 2020 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ "New imported case discovered". Institute of Public Health of Montenegro IJZCG. Retrieved 21 June 2020 – via Twitter.[non-primary source needed]
  10. ^ a b "COVID-19 Map". Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center.
  11. ^ News, BNO (18 February 2020). "Tracking SARS-CoV-2: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  12. ^ "WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". covid19.who.int. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  13. ^ "Infection au nouveau Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, France et Monde". www.santepubliquefrance.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  14. ^ "info coronavirus covid-19". Gouvernment.fr (in French). 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  15. ^ "Türkiye'de Durum". covid19.tubitak.gov.tr/. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  16. ^ "T.C Sağlık Bakanlığı Günlük Koronavirüs Tablosu, Turkey Ministry of Health Daily Coronavirus Table". covid19.saglik.gov.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  17. ^ "Оперативные данные. По состоянию на 23 апреля 10:35". Стопкоронавирус.рф (in Russian). Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  19. ^ Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (14 August 2020). "COVID-19 Italia – Monitoraggio della situazione" (in Italian). Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  20. ^ "La pandemia del coronavirus, en datos, mapas y gráficos". RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  21. ^ "Robert Koch-Institut: COVID-19-Dashboard". ArcGIS (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Alle bestätigten Coronavirus-Infektionen nach Landkreisen und Bundesländern". Tagesspiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  23. ^ "(Tweet)". Twitter. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020. [33 119/1 412 (total lab-confirmed/total deaths)]
  24. ^ "Raport zakażeń koronawirusem (SARS-CoV-2) - Koronawirus: informacje i zalecenia - Portal Gov.pl". Koronawirus: informacje i zalecenia (in Polish). Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  25. ^ "Coronavirus in Ukraine". covid19.gov.ua. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  26. ^ a b c "Přehled situace v ČR: COVID-19". mzcr.cz (in Czech). 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Actuele informatie over het nieuwe coronavirus (COVID-19) | RIVM". www.rivm.nl. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Statistieken over het Coronavirus en COVID-19 (dagelijks bijgewerkt!)". AlleCijfers.nl (in Dutch). 4 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  29. ^ "BULETIN DE PRESĂ 17 mai 2021, ora 13.00". stirioficiale.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  30. ^ "Totalt antal laboratoriebekräftade" (in Swedish). Experience.arcgis.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  31. ^ "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". arcgis.com. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Coronavirus COVID-19". www.info-coronavirus.be (in French). 28 July 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  33. ^ "Epistat – COVID-19 Belgian Dashboard". epistat.wiv-isp.be. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Ponto de Situação Atual em Portugal". Direcção Geral de Saúde. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  35. ^ "Tájékoztató oldal a koronavírusról" (in Hungarian). Cabinet Office of the Prime Minister. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  36. ^ "Official government website for information on Covid-19 in Serbia". covid19.rs/homepage-english/. Archived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  37. ^ "Current situation in Switzerland". Federal Office of Public Health. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  38. ^ "Cas d'infection au Sars-CoV-2 en Suisse". tdg.ch (in French). Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Neuartiges Coronavirus (2019-nCov)". www.sozialministerium.at. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  40. ^ "Aktuelle Zahlen zum Corona-Virus". bmi.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  41. ^ "COVID–19 Information Portal". coronavirus.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  42. ^ "Koronavírus | Info". www.korona.gov.sk.
  43. ^ "Ενημέρωση διαπιστευμένων δημοσιογράφων από τον Υφυπουργό Πολιτικής Προστασίας και Διαχείρισης Κρίσεων Νίκο Χαρδαλιά για το νέο κορονοϊό - 28/7/2020". Civil Protection Greece (in Greek). 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Ημερήσια Επισκόπηση | CoVid19.gov.gr". covid19.gov.gr (in Greek). 4 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  45. ^ "СТОПКОВИД.БЕЛ". stopcovid.belta.by. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  46. ^ "Official government website for accurate and verified information on Coronavirus". Government of the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Tal og overvågning af COVID-19". Coronavirus/COVID-19 (in Danish). Sundhedsstyrelsen (Danish Health Authority). 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  48. ^ "Experience". experience.arcgis.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  49. ^ Svarbiausia informacija apie koronavirusą (COVID-19) lrv.ltaccessed 14 April 2020
  50. ^ "Praėjusios paros COVID-19 statistika - Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". osp.stat.gov.lt. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  51. ^ "Latest updates on COVID-19 (Coronavirus)". Department of Health (Ireland). 19 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  52. ^ "COVID-19 în Republica Moldova: situaţia la zi". gismoldova.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  53. ^ Koronavirus COVID-19 Archived 13 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine www.gov.si, accessed 12 March 2020
  54. ^ "COVID-19 Sledilnik". covid-19.sledilnik.org. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  55. ^ "COVID-19 in Bosnia and Herzegovina". Ministry of Civil Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  56. ^ "Službene informacije o koronavirusu u BiH". mcp.gov.ba. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  57. ^ "Детални статистики". Коронавирус | Влада.мк (in Macedonian). Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  58. ^ "Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  59. ^ "Coronavirus Albania | Statistika" (in Albanian). Agjencia Kombëtare e Shoqerisë së Informacionit. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  60. ^ SPKC.gov.lvVerified account. "SPKC.gov.lv (@SPKCentrs)". Twitter. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  61. ^ "Covid-19 statistika | Slimību profilakses un kontroles centrs". www.spkc.gov.lv (in Latvian). Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  62. ^ "Koroonaviirusesse on Eestis nakatunud 135 inimest" [135 people have already been diagnosed with coronavirus in Estonia] (in Estonian). ERR. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Coronavirus dataset | Government installation profile". www.terviseamet.ee. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  64. ^ Nilsen, Av Sondre; Skjetne, Oda Leraan; Sfrintzeris, Yasmin; Røset, Hanna Haug; breaking-avdeling, Carina Hunshamar og VGs. "Live-oppdatering: coronavirusets spredning i Norge og verden". VG Nett. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Corona-viruset: Slik spres viruset i Norge og verden. Kart og statistikk". Vg.no. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  66. ^ "WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  67. ^ "Të gjitha lajmet nga Covid-19". KOHA.net (in Albanian). Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  68. ^ "Virus korona COVID 19" (in Montenegrin). Government of Montenegro. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  69. ^ "Institut za javno zdravlje Crne Gore - IJZCG". Institut za javno zdravlje Crne Gore. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  70. ^ "Tilannekatsaus koronaviruksesta – Infektiotaudit ja rokotukset THL". Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  71. ^ "Experience". experience.arcgis.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  72. ^ "Coronavirus: No new cases, first time since March 9 (Update 2)". Cyprus Mail. 23 May 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  73. ^ "Πύλη Πληροφόρησης Πανεπιστημίου Κύπρου για το COVID-19". covid19.ucy.ac.cy. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  74. ^ "Coronavirus: COVID-19". Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  75. ^ "COVID-19 Malta - Data Dashboard". deputyprimeminister.gov.mt. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  76. ^ "29 new COVID-19 cases found as four patients recover". Times of Malta. 11 August 2020.
  77. ^ "Actualitat coronavirus". www.govern.ad (in Catalan). Govern d'Andorra. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  78. ^ Ss (2 April 2020). "covid.is/data". Mbl. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  79. ^ "Gruppo coordinamento emergenze – aggiornamento 27 marzo". Istituto per la Sicurezza Sociale (in Italian). 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  80. ^ "Covid-19 Government Public Notifications". HM Government of Gibraltar. 13 March 2021. Archived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  81. ^ Jersey, States of. "Coronavirus (COVID-19) cases". www.gov.je. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  82. ^ "Aktuelle Nachrichten aus Liechtenstein – volksblatt.li". Liechtensteiner Volksblatt (in German). Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  83. ^ "COVID-19: Situationsbericht vom 4. Mai 2021". www.regierung.li. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  84. ^ "Covid-19 : 3 nouveaux cas positifs et 10 guérisons ce mardi 4 mai / Actualités / Coronavirus (Covid-19) / Action Gouvernementale / Portail du Gouvernement - Monaco". www.gouv.mc. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  85. ^ "Latest updates". Isle of Man Government. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  86. ^ "COVID-19 (Coronavirus) | States of Guernsey - COVID-19". covid19.gov.gg. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  87. ^ "Corona í Føroyum". Corona í Føroyum. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  88. ^ "Statistik covid-19 Åland". Ålandstidningen (in Swedish). Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  89. ^ "Covid-19: 2 new cases in the Vatican, another 170 people tested – Vatican News". Vaticannews.va. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  90. ^ Reynolds, Emma (4 September 2020). "It's the worst disaster of the pandemic. But WHO chief says our lack of concern shows 'moral bankruptcy'". CNN. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  91. ^ "Situation update for the EU/EEA and the UK". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  92. ^ "Ministria e Shëndetësisë: Konfirmohen dy rastet e para me koronavirusin e ri" (in Albanian). Ministry of Health and Social Protection. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  93. ^ "Albania suspends UK flights over new Covid-19 variant - report". SeeNews. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  94. ^ "A 20-year old man is Andorra's first coronavirus case". Reuters. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  95. ^ "Actualitat coronavirus". Govern d'Andorra. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  96. ^ "Austria reports first two cases of coronavirus". The Guardian. Associated Press. 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  97. ^ "Coronavirus: Zwei Fälle in Tirol bestätigt". news.ORF.at (in German). 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  98. ^ Busby (now), Mattha; Belam, Martin; Marsh, Sarah; Rourke, Alison; Farrer (earlier), Martin; Busby, Mattha; Adams, Richard; Parveen, Nazia; Wearden, Graeme (25 February 2020). "Coronavirus news: Austria and Croatia report first cases as Tenerife quarantines hotel – live updates". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  99. ^ Helen Regan; Adam Renton; Meg Wagner; Mike Hayes; Veronica Rocha (25 February 2020). "Austria's 2 coronavirus cases are Italian citizens". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  100. ^ "Eintragungsfehler: "Patient 0" in Ischgl nun doch schon im Februar". Tiroler Tageszeitung (in German). 23 June 2020. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  101. ^ "Belarus announces first case of coronavirus: TASS". Reuters. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  102. ^ "COVID-19 - Epidemiologische situatie" (PDF). Sciensano. 9 July 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  103. ^ "One repatriated Belgian has tested positive for the novel coronavirus". Federal Public Service (FPS) Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  104. ^ "COVID-19 Belgian leaves hospital". VRT NWS. 16 February 2020. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  105. ^ "6 new cases of Covid-19 by the end of the spring holidays". info-coronavirus.be. Federal Public Service for Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  106. ^ Bradshaw, Lisa (2 March 2020). "Seven confirmed coronavirus cases in Belgium following holiday week". Flanders Today. Archived from the original on 3 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  107. ^ "Coronavirus: Why so many people are dying in Belgium". BBC. 2 May 2020. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  108. ^ McCaffrey, Darren (22 April 2020). "Analysis: Can we trust Belgium's COVID-19 death statistics?". Euronews. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  109. ^ "Bosnia confirms its first case of coronavirus". N1 BA.
  110. ^ "Prva žrtva koronavirusa u BiH: U Bihaću preminula starija žena". Klix.ba (in Bosnian). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Saopćenje i audiozapis konferencije za medije nakon 5. vanredne sjednica Vijeća ministara BiH". vijeceministara.gov.ba. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  112. ^ "Worldometers Coronavirus Statistics". [[Worldometers]. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  113. ^ "JZU Institut za javno zdravstvo RS". phi.rs.ba. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  114. ^ "Коронавирус у Српској | Званична страница Владе Републике Српске". Коронавирус у Српској.
  115. ^ "Dnevni izvještaj za potvrđene slučajeve COVID-19 U FBiH". ZZJZ FBiH. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  116. ^ "Covid-19.ba". covid-19.ba.
  117. ^ "Vlada Brčko distrikta BiH". vlada.bdcentral.net. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  118. ^ "Bulgaria, Moldova Report First Coronavirus Cases". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 March 2020.
  119. ^ "Проф. Тодор Кантарджиев: От Плевен имаме две положителни проби за коронавирус, от Габрово също" (in Bulgarian). 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  120. ^ "Официално: Има четири потвърдени случая на коронавирус в България". 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  121. ^ "НС прие с пълно единодушие обявяването на извънредно положение в цялата страна – По света и у нас". news.bnt.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  122. ^ "28-дневна карантина за заразени с коронавирус – България". dariknews.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  123. ^ "Коронавирус: В България удължават извънредното положение" (in Bulgarian). Deutsche Welle. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  124. ^ "Новини". coronavirus.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  125. ^ "Croatia latest European country to confirm coronavirus case". The Guardian. 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  126. ^ "Croatia confirms third case of coronavirus infection". N1 HR (in Croatian). 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  127. ^ "COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  128. ^ "SNAŽNI POTRESI UZDRMALI ZAGREB Prvo podrhtavanje zabilježeno u 6.24, drugo pola sata kasnije, građani na ulicama, štete ogromne, poginula curica (15)". Jutarnji List. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  129. ^ "Large earthquake hits Zagreb". Time Out. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  130. ^ Veljković, Sandra (26 March 2020). "Oxford: Hrvatska ima najstrože mjere u Europi. Beroš: Pažljivo balansiramo". Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  131. ^ N.C. (18 March 2020). "Koronavirusom zaražena 81 osoba! Za građane otvorena linija 113, u kršenju izolacije uhvaćene 132 osobe". rtl.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  132. ^ "#BREAKING Cyprus reports 2 coronavirus cases, all EU states now hitpic.twitter.com/FBQYaTdUbK". @AFP. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.[non-primary source needed]
  133. ^ "BREAKING NEWS: Two cases of coronavirus confirmed". 9 March 2020 – via cyprus-mail.com.
  134. ^ "Two patients have tested positive for the coronavirus in Cyprus". Daily Cyprus News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  135. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Which countries have travel bans?". CNN. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  136. ^ "Czechs get to work making masks after government decree". The Guardian. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  137. ^ Braagaard, Natali (27 February 2020). "Dansker smittet med coronavirus". TV 2 (in Danish). Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  138. ^ "Følg smittespredningen globalt, regionalt og lokalt". Styrelsen for Patientsikkerhed (Ministry of Health) (in Danish). 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  139. ^ Svendsen, Anders Byskov (11 March 2020). "Corona-tiltag: Elever og studerende på alle uddannelsesinstitutioner sendes hjem nu". DR (in Danish). Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  140. ^ Møller, Albert Schmidt (13 March 2020). "Statsministeren lukker grænsen for at bremse coronavirussen". TV 2 (in Danish). Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  141. ^ "First Coronavirus case found in Estonia". ERR. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  142. ^ "Eestis on koroonaviirus tuvastatud kümnel inimesel" [Ten people have been diagnosed with coronavirus in Estonia] (in Estonian). ERR. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  143. ^ "Teisipäevase seisuga on Eestis koroonaviirus tuvastatud 13 inimesel" [As of Tuesday, 13 people have been diagnosed with coronavirus in Estonia] (in Estonian). ERR. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  144. ^ "Three new cases of coronavirus disease confirmed in Estonia". ERR. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  145. ^ "109 cases of coronavirus disease confirmed in Estonia". ERR. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  146. ^ "Finland's first coronavirus case confirmed in Lapland". Yle Uutiset.
  147. ^ "Finland's first coronavirus patient began to show symptoms three days ago". Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  148. ^ "THL data reveals spike in coronavirus cases in Finland over the weekend". helsinkitimes.fi. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  149. ^ "Situation update on coronavirus – Infectious diseases and vaccinations – THL". Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  150. ^ "Experience". experience.arcgis.com. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  151. ^ Provenzano, Elsa (26 January 2020). "Coronavirus : Que sait-on du cas détecté à Bordeaux ?". 20 Minutes (in French). Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  152. ^ Figaro, Le (8 February 2020). "Coronavirus : 5 nouveaux cas confirmés en France". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  153. ^ "Coronavirus. Une 11e guérison en France, " plus aucun malade hospitalisé "". Ouest-France (in French). 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  154. ^ "L'Armée de l'air au service des Français". defense.gouv.fr. 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  155. ^ "First coronavirus death confirmed in Europe". BBC News. 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  156. ^ Wiegel, Michaela; Paris (30 March 2020). "Corona-Krise im Elsass: "Wir sind unendlich dankbar für die Hilfe aus Deutschland"". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  157. ^ "Coronavirus: Spain and France announce sweeping restrictions". BBC News. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  158. ^ Infection au nouveau Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, France et Monde Archived 21 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine www.santepubliquefrance.fr. Retrieved 12 March 2020
  159. ^ Collins, Lauren (30 March 2020). ""Here, the Terrorists Are Inside": The French Psychiatrist Who Counsels Crisis Doctors". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  160. ^ "En Ehpad, le nombre de morts du Covid-19 plus lourd que le bilan officiel". 20 minutes (in French). 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  161. ^ "French hospitals record deadliest day with 588 coronavirus deaths". France 24. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  162. ^ Irish, John (4 May 2020). "After retesting samples, French hospital discovers COVID-19 case from December". Reuters.
  163. ^ Fox, Maggie (4 May 2020). "French doctors say they found a Covid-19 patient from December". CNN. Researchers in the US have also started finding evidence that the virus was infecting and killing people earlier than the country's first reported cases.
  164. ^ "France to give $9 billion in pay raises to health care workers". CNN. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  165. ^ "Alle bestätigten Coronavirus-Infektionen nach Landkreisen und Bundesländern". Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  166. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Daily Situation Report of the Robert Koch Institute" (PDF). Robert Koch Institute. 2 April 2020.
  167. ^ "Coronavirus-Monitor". Berliner Morgenpost. 24 March 2020.
  168. ^ Blickle, Paul; Engmann, René; Erdmann, Elena; Fischer, Linda; Gortana, Flavio; Klack, Moritz; Kreienbrink, Matthias; Stahnke, Julian; Stockrahm, Sven; Tröger, Julius; Venohr, Sascha (28 March 2020). "Coronavirus in Deutschland: Wie sich das Coronavirus in Ihrer Region ausbreitet" – via Die Zeit.
  169. ^ Roser, Max; Ritchie, Hannah; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe (26 May 2020). "Germany: Coronavirus Pandemic Country Profile". Our World in Data. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  170. ^ "German state finance minister Thomas Schäfer found dead". 29 March 2020.
  171. ^ "Beat Covid Gibraltar App – 409/2020". HM Government of Gibraltar. 18 June 2020.
  172. ^ "Greece confirms first coronavirus case". Reuters. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  173. ^ "Κορωνοϊός: Δεύτερο θετικό κρούσμα στην Ελλάδα -Το παιδί της 38χρονης | ΕΛΛΑΔΑ". iefimerida.gr (in Greek). 27 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  174. ^ "Κορωνοϊός: Στην Αθήνα το τρίτο κρούσμα -Ακυρώνονται όλα τα καρναβάλια στη χώρα | ΕΛΛΑΔΑ". iefimerida.gr (in Greek). 27 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  175. ^ "Κορονοϊός: τρία κρούσματα στην Ελλάδα – Ακυρώνονται οι εκδηλώσεις για το Καρναβάλι σε όλη τη χώρα". antenna.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  176. ^ Newsroom (5 March 2020). "Κορωνοϊός στην Ελλάδα: Στα 31 τα κρούσματα – 21 νέα". CNN.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  177. ^ a b "Κορονοϊός: 14 ακόμα κρούσματα στην Ελλάδα!". newsit.gr. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  178. ^ "Greece reports first coronavirus death, 66-year-old man". The Straits Times. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  179. ^ "Έκθεση επιδημιολογικής επιτήρησης λοίμωξης από το νέο κορωνοϊό (COVID-19) (27/7/2020)" (PDF). National Public Health Organization (Greece) (in Greek). 27 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  180. ^ "Ενημέρωση διαπιστευμένων δημοσιογράφων από τον Υφυπουργό Πολιτικής Προστασίας και Διαχείρισης Κρίσεων Νίκο Χαρδαλιά για το νέο κορονοϊό – 28/7/2020". Civil Protection Greece (in Greek). 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  181. ^ "Κοροναϊός: Ένατο επιβεβαιωμένο κρούσμα στην Πάτρα". onmed.gr (in Greek). 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  182. ^ "Κορονοϊός: Δέκα τα κρούσματα στην Ελλάδα". antenna.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  183. ^ "ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑΣ & ΘΡΗΣΚΕΥΜΑΤΩΝ – 10-03-20 Προσωρινή απαγόρευση της εκπαιδευτικής λειτουργίας όλων των εκπαιδευτικών δομών". minedu.gov.gr. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  184. ^ Capital.gr. "Στα 190 συνολικά τα κρούσματα στην Ελλάδα – Κλείνουν εμπορικά κέντρα, καφέ, μπαρ". Capital.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  185. ^ "Κορονοϊός: Κλείνουν τα εμπορικά καταστήματα – Σε καραντίνα όσοι έρχονται από εξωτερικό". news247.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  186. ^ "Αναστέλλονται όλες οι θρησκευτικές λειτουργίες με απόφαση της κυβέρνησης". Kathimerini. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  187. ^ "Κορονοϊός: Τα μέτρα για εργαζόμενους κι επιχειρήσεις". Έθνος (in Greek). 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  188. ^ "Full lockdown in effect from Monday to curb coronavirus". Kathimerini. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  189. ^ "Greeks emerge from lockdown". Kathimerini. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  190. ^ Maguire, Jack. "First case of coronavirus confirmed in Channel Islands". jerseyeveningpost.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  191. ^ "Coronavirus: Guernsey has no 'known' cases". BBC News. BBC. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  192. ^ "Coronavirus case confirmed in Guernsey after 129 days Covid-free". Guernsey press. 7 September 2020.
  193. ^ a b "Két koronavírusos beteg van Magyarországon". Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  194. ^ "Fyrsta tilfelli COVID-19 greint á Íslandi" [First COVID-19 case diagnosed in Iceland] (in Icelandic). 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  195. ^ "Neyðarstig almannavarna vegna COVID-19". Almannavarnir (Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management). 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  196. ^ "Blaðamannafundur heilbrigðisráðherra" (in Icelandic). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  197. ^ "First case of coronavirus in Republic of Ireland". BBC News. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  198. ^ "First case of Covid-19 diagnosed in east of Ireland". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 1 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  199. ^ "Statement from the National Public Health Emergency Team". 29 February 2020.
  200. ^ Cullen, Paul (3 March 2020). "Second case of coronavirus is confirmed in east of Ireland". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  201. ^ "Irish St Patrick's Day parades off over coronavirus". BBC News. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  202. ^ Thomas, Cónal. "Coronavirus: Nine more cases of Covid-19 confirmed in Republic of Ireland". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  203. ^ Leahy, Pat; Cullen, Paul; Lynch, Suzanne; Kelly, Fiach (12 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Schools, colleges and childcare facilities in Ireland to shut". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  204. ^ Kenny, Aisling (20 March 2020). "President Higgins signs emergency measures into law". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  205. ^ "Coronavirus: Schools, colleges and childcare facilities in Ireland to shut". The Irish Times. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  206. ^ "Ireland: Schools set to fully reopen before end of August". BBC News. 27 July 2020. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  207. ^ Carroll, Rory (27 March 2020). "'Stay home': Varadkar announces sweeping two-week lockdown". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  208. ^ "New measures to combat COVID-19 from midnight on 27 March 2020". whatsnew.citizensinformation.ie. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  209. ^ "Roadmap for Reopening Society & Business" (PDF). static.rasset.ie. Government of Ireland. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  210. ^ "Resilience and Recovery 2020–2021: Plan for Living with COVID-19". gov.ie. 15 September 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  211. ^ Lehane, Mícheál (19 October 2020). "Cabinet agrees to impose Level 5 restrictions for six weeks from Wednesday". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 28 October 2020. Ryan, Philip (19 October 2020). "Cabinet accepts Level 5 lockdown for six weeks". Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  212. ^ McDermott, Stephen; Finn, Christina; Murray, Sean (19 October 2020). "Cabinet agrees to impose nationwide Level 5 restrictions for six weeks". TheJournal.ie, Press Association. Retrieved 28 October 2020. Hosford, Paul; Moore, Aoife (19 October 2020). "Government follows Nphet advice with level 5 move for six weeks". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  213. ^ Leahy, Pat; Horgan-Jones, Jack; Bray, Jennifer; Bowers, Shauna (19 October 2020). "Covid-19: State moves to Level 5 for six weeks with hopes of 'meaningful' Christmas celebrations". The Irish Times. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  214. ^ Lehane, Mícheál (27 November 2020). "Country moves to Level 3 'with modifications' on Tuesday". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  215. ^ McConnell, Daniel; Hosford, Paul; Loughlin, Elaine (27 November 2020). "Covid-19: Taoiseach announces whole country to move to Level 3". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  216. ^ "Ireland placed on Level 3 of the Plan for Living with COVID-19 – with special measures for a safe Christmas". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 27 November 2020. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  217. ^ "Minister for Health announces National COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy". gov.ie. Department of Health. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy" (PDF). gov.ie. Department of Health. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  218. ^ "What you need to know about the Government's vaccination plan". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  219. ^ Murray, Sean; Ní Aodha, Gráinne; Hennessy, Michelle; Halpin, Hayley; Burke, Ceimin; Daly, Adam (15 December 2020). "The Covid-19 vaccination strategy has been announced – here's everything you need to know". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  220. ^ McGlynn, Michelle (21 December 2020). "'Third wave clearly underway': No deaths and 727 new Covid-19 cases in Ireland". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  221. ^ Quann, Jack (21 December 2020). "Ireland 'clearly now in third wave' of coronavirus pandemic". Newstalk. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  222. ^ McQuinn, Cormac; O'Loughlin, Ciara (21 December 2020). "'We're clearly now in a third wave' – warning comes to protect loved ones as 727 Covid-19 cases confirmed today". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  223. ^ Leahy, Pat; Clarke, Vivienne (22 December 2020). "Covid-19: Taoiseach confirms return to tighter restrictions as case numbers rise". The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 December 2020. Patrick Kierans, John; Phelan, Ciara (22 December 2020). "Ireland lockdown: Full details as Taoiseach Micheal Martin announces new restrictions". Irish Mirror. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  224. ^ Ryan, Philip (22 December 2020). "Covid restrictions: Cabinet agree to shut restaurants and hair salons on Christmas Eve". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2020. Finn, Christina; Hennessy, Michelle (22 December 2020). "Restaurants and pubs to close on Christmas Eve and household visit ban from Jan 1st, Taoiseach confirms". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  225. ^ Moore, Aoife; Murphy, Greg (22 December 2020). "Taoiseach confirms household restrictions from December 27 and full ban on January 1". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 22 December 2020. Moloney, Eoghan; McQuinn, Cormac; Armstrong, Kathy (22 December 2020). "Ireland to return to Level 5 restrictions from Christmas Eve amid projections of up to 2,000 cases per day by New Year's Eve". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  226. ^ Bray, Jennifer; Burns, Sarah; Power, Jack; Hilliard, Mark (30 December 2020). "Level 5 restrictions to remain in place until January 31st, Taoiseach announces". The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  227. ^ Ryan, Philip; Sheahan, Fionnán; Lynott, Laura (30 December 2020). "Covid restrictions Ireland: Micheál Martin confirms 'full-scale' Level 5 lockdown". Irish Independent. Retrieved 30 December 2020. Heaney, Steven; Hosford, Paul; Casey, Jess (30 December 2020). "Taoiseach confirms country will return to level 5 Covid-19 restrictions". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  228. ^ Regan, Mary (30 December 2020). "Country to move to full Level 5 restrictions for 'at least' one month". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 30 December 2020. MacNamee, Garreth; McDermott, Stephen (30 December 2020). "'The situation is extremely serious': Return to full Level 5 restrictions until 31 January". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  229. ^ Horgan-Jones, Jack; Bray, Jennifer (26 January 2021). "Level 5 extended until March 5th while officials consider ban on all non-essential travel into State". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 January 2021. Hosford, Paul; McConnell, Daniel; Heaney, Steven (26 January 2021). "Ireland to remain in Level 5 lockdown until at least March 5 – Taoiseach". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  230. ^ Lehane, Mícheál (26 January 2021). "Govt agrees to extend Covid-19 restrictions to 5 March". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 26 January 2021. McDermott, Stephen; Finn, Christina; Dwyer, Orla (26 January 2021). "Travellers into Ireland to be subject to mandatory quarantine at home or in a hotel, government says". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  231. ^ Gataveckaite, Gabija (26 January 2021). "Level 5 announcement: Restrictions extended until March 5 and schools to reopen on phased basis". Irish Independent. Retrieved 26 January 2021. Blaney, Ferghal (26 January 2021). "Level Five lockdown extension confirmed with tougher Garda enforcement and bigger fines". Irish Mirror. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  232. ^ "Current public health restrictions to continue until 5th April". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021. Bray, Jennifer; Horgan-Jones, Jack; Leahy, Pat; McGee, Harry (23 February 2021). "Taoiseach says 'the end is truly in sight' as Level 5 extended until April 5th". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 February 2021. Ryan, Philip; Gataveckaite, Gabija (23 February 2021). "'When we open things, we want them to stay open,' Taoiseach says as he outlines slow plan for reopening of schools". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  233. ^ Lehane, Mícheál; Cunningham, Paul (23 February 2021). "'End is truly in sight' – Taoiseach urges public to stick with Level 5 measures". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 23 February 2021. Halpin, Hayley; Finn, Christina (23 February 2021). "Here's what's in the new 'Living with Covid' roadmap". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 23 February 2021. McConnell, Daniel; Casey, Jess (23 February 2021). "'The end is now truly in sight': Taoiseach confirms Level 5 lockdown until April 5". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  234. ^ Patrick Kierans, John; Blaney, Ferghal; Phelan, Ciara (23 February 2021). "Taoiseach Micheal Martin confirms at least six more weeks of lockdown as Living with Covid plan released". Irish Mirror. Retrieved 23 February 2021. O'Brien, Carl (23 February 2021). "Schools will reopen on Monday for Leaving Certs and junior infants to second class, Minister confirms". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 February 2021. "Taoiseach addresses nation as lockdown is extended until April 5th". BreakingNews.ie. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  235. ^ "Government announces phased easing of public health restrictions". merrionstreet.ie. Merrion Street. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  236. ^ Bray, Jennifer; Horgan-Jones, Jack; McGee, Harry; O'Halloran, Marie; Carswell, Simon; Clarke, Vivienne (30 March 2021). "'We are on the final stretch of this terrible journey' insists Taoiseach as he announces phased changes to Covid-19 restrictions". The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 March 2021. Moloney, Eoghan (30 March 2021). "'We are on the final stretch' – Taoiseach announces lockdown exit path with travel within county allowed from April 12". Irish Independent. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  237. ^ "Travel within county permitted from 12 April". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021. Duffy, Rónán (30 March 2021). "Taoiseach: People can travel within their county or 20km from home from 12 April". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  238. ^ "New public health measures announced: The Path Ahead". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 29 April 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021. Bray, Jennifer; Horgan-Jones, Jack; McQuinn, Cormac (29 April 2021). "Taoiseach says 'hope is returning' as he outlines plan to significantly ease Covid-19 restrictions from May 10th". The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 April 2021. Ryan, Philip (29 April 2021). "Lockdown restrictions lifting: Inter-county travel from May 10 as Cabinet agrees major reopening plan". Irish Independent. Retrieved 29 April 2021. Lehane, Mícheál; Cunningham, Paul (29 April 2021). "Inter-county travel from 10 May as reopening plan agreed". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  239. ^ Moloney, Eoghan; O'Loughlin, Ciara (28 May 2021). "Reopening Ireland: Taoiseach says 'end within grasp' as he announces easing of restrictions". Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 May 2021. "'The end of this is within our grasp' – Taoiseach". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.