COVID-19 pandemic in Madagascar

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COVID-19 pandemic in Madagascar
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationMadagascar
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseAntananarivo
Arrival date13 March 2020
(1 year, 1 month, 3 weeks and 1 day)
Confirmed cases36,045 (as of 26 April 2021)[1]
Active cases6,572 (as of 26 April 2021)
Recovered28,868 (as of 26 April 2021)
Deaths
605 (as of 26 April 2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic in Madagascar is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 20 March 2020, the first case in Madagascar was confirmed in Antananarivo.

Background[edit]

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[2][3] The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[4][5] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[6][4] Model-based simulations for Madagascar indicate that the 95% confidence interval for the time-varying reproduction number R t has been stable around 1.0 since November 2020.[7]

Timeline[edit]

March 2020[edit]

On 20 March, the first three cases were confirmed in Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar. All three cases were women.[8]

During March 57 persons tested positive. All 57 cases were active at the end of the month.[9]

April 2020[edit]

By 22 April, Madagascar had reported 121 cases but no deaths.[10]

During April 71 persons tested positive. The number of confirmed cases since the start of the outbreak reached 128. The number of active cases at the end of the month was 36, a decrease by 37% from March.[11]

May 2020[edit]

On 5 May, Madagascar reported a total of 149 cases but no deaths.[12] The first death was recorded on 16 May. The victim was an unnamed 57-year-old medical worker who suffered from diabetes and high blood pressure.[13]

During the month 643 persons tested positive. The number of confirmed cases since the start of the outbreak reached 771. The number of active cases at the end of the month was 597, an increase by 561 persons from April. Six persons died from COVID-19 in May.[14]

June 2020[edit]

As of 2 June, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control had recorded 6 COVID-19 related deaths in Madagascar.[15]

The pandemic has been blamed for an early and fiercer than normal fire season as citizens deprived of tourism revenue turn to the forests.[16]

During the month 1443 persons tested positive, bringing the total number of confirmed cases since the start of the outbreak to 2214. There were 1200 active cases at the end of June, more than twice the number at the end of May. The death toll increased by 14 to 20.[17]

July 2020[edit]

By 12 July, a total of 4,867 positive cases had been recorded, more than double the total at the end of June. On 7 July, a lockdown was reimposed in the central region to deal with the surge in cases.[18]

In July there were 8,654 new cases, raising the total number of confirmed cases to 10,868. The death toll rose to 106. The number of recovered patients reached 7,807 while 2,955 cases remained active at the end of the month.[19]

August 2020[edit]

There were 3,995 new cases in August, raising the total number of confirmed cases to 14,863. The death toll rose to 192. There were 839 active cases at the end of the month.[20]

September 2020[edit]

There were 1,514 new cases in September, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 16,377. The death toll rose to 229. The number of recovered patients increased to 15,139, leaving 1,009 active cases at the end of the month.[21]

October 2020[edit]

There were 734 new cases in October, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 17,111. The death toll rose to 244. There were 458 active cases at the end of the month.[22]

November 2020[edit]

There were 230 new cases in November, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 17,341. The death toll rose to 251. There were 433 active cases at the end of the month.[23]

December 2020[edit]

There were 373 new cases in December, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 17,714. The death toll rose to 261. There were 225 active cases at the end of the month.[24]

January 2021[edit]

There were 1,351 new cases in January, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 19,065. The death toll rose to 281. There were 569 active cases at the end of the month.[25]

February 2021[edit]

There were 766 new cases in February, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 19,831. The death toll rose to 297. There were 238 active cases at the end of the month.[26]

March 2021[edit]

There were 4,865 new cases in March, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 24,696. The death toll rose to 433. There were 2,131 active cases at the end of the month.[27]

April 2021[edit]

There were 12,318 new cases in April, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 37,014. The death toll rose to 643. There were 4,801 active cases at the end of the month.[28]

Prevention measures[edit]

Lockdowns were implemented in at least two cities.[29] The government announced on 17 March that all international and regional flights would be suspended for 30 days starting 20 March.[30]

Due to the crisis, a lack of international tourists caused problems for the tourism industry.[31] Ambatovy mine suspended operations.[29] The Central Bank of Madagascar injected hundreds of billions of ariary into the banking system to ease the economic damage caused by COVID-19.[32]

On 20 April 2020,[33] Madagascar President Andry Rajoelina officially launched a coronavirus "cure" dubbed "Covid-Organic". Developed by the Madagascar Institute of Applied Research (MIAR), the herbal tea was made using artemisia and other locally sourced herbs. Soldiers were dispatched to hand out batches of "Covid-Organic", with Colonel Willy Ratovondrainy announcing on state television that the tea would "strengthen immunity".[34] However, the National Academy of Medicine of Madagascar (ANAMEM) voiced its skepticism, while the World Health Organization (WHO) cautioned that there was no proof for any coronavirus cure at the time of Covid-Organic's launch. The African Union has entered into discussions with the Malagasy government to test the drug's safety and efficiency.[10][35]

In the central region including Antananarivo, a lockdown was imposed from 6 to 20 July in response to a spike in new cases in the capital.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Worldometer Madagascar". Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  2. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  3. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  5. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  6. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  7. ^ Future scenarios of the healthcare burden of COVID-19 in low- or middle-income countries, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis at Imperial College London.
  8. ^ "Officiel trois premiers cas de Coronavirus à Madagascar". Orange Madagascar (in French). 20 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Afrique. Coronavirus : ces pays qui ont les meilleurs taux de guérison" (in French). 2 April 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Caution urged over Madagascar's 'herbal cure'". BBC News. 22 April 2020. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report 101" (PDF). World Health Organization. 30 April 2020. p. 8. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  12. ^ Qazi, Shereena; Uras, Umut (5 May 2020). "UK coronavirus death toll rises above 30,000: Live updates". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  13. ^ "Madagascar records its first COVID-19 death -official". Reuters. 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation report 133" (PDF). World Health Organization. 1 June 2020. p. 7. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  15. ^ "Download today's data on the geographic distribution of COVID-19 cases worldwide". ECDC. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  16. ^ "In Madagascar's dry forests, COVID-19 sparks an intense, early fire season". Mongabay Environmental News. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  17. ^ "Epidémie - 76 nouveaux cas confirmés positifs au coronavirus sur 148 tests annoncés ce mardi". 2424 (in French). 30 June 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Madagascar reimposes lockdown in capital as coronavirus cases surge". www.msn.com. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  19. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation report 194" (PDF). World Health Organization. 1 August 2020. p. 4. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  20. ^ "Outbreak brief 33: COVID-19 pandemic – 1 September 2020". CDC Africa. 1 September 2020. p. 3. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  21. ^ "COVID-19 situation update for the WHO African region" (PDF). World Health Organization. 30 September 2020. p. 4. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  22. ^ "COVID-19 weekly epidemiological update". 3 November 2020. p. 13. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  23. ^ "Outbreak brief 46: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic". Africa CDC. 1 December 2020. p. 3. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Outbreak brief 50: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic". Africa CDC. 29 December 2020. p. 3. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Outbreak brief 55: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic". Africa CDC. 2 February 2021. p. 3. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  26. ^ "Outbreak brief 59: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic". Africa CDC. 2 March 2021. p. 3. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  27. ^ "Covid-19 : Bilan épidémiologique" (in French). Tribune. 2 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Madagascar cracks down on virus reporting: rights group". The Guardian Nigeria. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  29. ^ a b "Sumitomo halts mines in Bolivia, Madagascar". MINING.COM. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Madagascar suspend toutes les liaisons aériennes régionales et internationales". mofcom.gov.cn (in French). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Tourists' departure leaves Madagascar forlorn as coronavirus fears bite". Reuters. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Madagascar's central bank injects cash to support economy due to virus". Reuters. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Madagascar : Andry Rajoelina lance son remède contre le coronavirus" (in French). jeuneafrique. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Madagascar hands out 'miracle' coronavirus cure as it lifts lockdown". The Straits Times. 23 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  35. ^ "Coronavirus: What is Madagascar's 'herbal remedy' Covid-Organics?". Al Jazeera. 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  36. ^ "Madagascar reimposes lockdown in capital as coronavirus cases surge". CNN. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.

Evans MV, et al. Reconciling model predictions with low reported cases of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa: insights from Madagascar. Global Health Action. 2020 Dec 31;13(1):1816044.